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Yster Essay

3196 words - 13 pages

InleidingNiemand sal kan ontken dat yster die nuttigste metaal op aarde is nie. Kyk maar rondom jou na al die dinge wat deur mensevernuf gemaak is en jy sal kwalik iets vind wat nie danksy die bestaan van yster tot stand gekom het nie (as dit nie self van yster is nie). Soos iemand dit al gestel het: "Ons huise, meubels, klere, speelgoed, vervoermiddels is almal kleinkinders van die ystersmid..."Geskiedenis van die rol van yster in die ontwikkeling van die mensdom.Die vroegste bewyse van die gebruik van yster kom van die Soemeriërs en die Egiptenare, waar klein voorwerpe soos spiespunte en ornamente wat met yster afkomstig uit die oorblyfsels van meteoriete gemaak is gevind is en wat datteer uit ongeveer 4000 v.C. Omdat meteoriete uit die lug val word daar deur taalkundiges gespekuleer dat die woord yster (en ander Europese verbuigings van die woord) oorspronklik van die Etruskaanse woord aisar afkomstig is wat die gode beteken.Ystervoorwerpe afkomstig uit die tydperk 3000 v.C. en 2000 v.C. is toenemend in Mesopotamië, Anatolië en Egipte gevind (en is onderskeibaar van voorwerpe wat uit meteoriete vervaardig is vanweë die gebrek in nikkel daarin). Dit wil egter voorkom asof die gebruik van hierdie voorwerpe hoofsaaklik seremonieël was en was yster waarskynlik 'n baie duur metaal, selfs duurder as goud.Wapens wat in die Iliad beskryf word, is hoofsaaklik van brons, maar word gietblokke van yster as handelsmiddel gebruik. Sommige bronne (Sien verwysing What Caused the Iron Age? hieronder) beweer dat yster waarskynlik 'n byproduk (sponsyster) van koperraffinering was en kon nie andersins deur die mettalurgiese kennis van die dag, vervaardig word nie. Teen 1600 v.C. en 1200 v.C. is Yster toenemend in die Midde-ooste gebruik, maar het dit nie brons as die belangrikste metaal vervang nie.In die tydperk tussen die 12de tot die 10de eeu v.C. het die gebruik van yster in gereedskap en wapens vinnig dié van brons vervang in die Midde-ooste. Die belangrikste faktor vir hierdie oorskakeling wil nie voorkom asof dit die tegonologiese verbeterings in ysterbewerking was nie, maar eerder die onderbreking van tinvoorsiening. Hierdie oorgangstydperk wat in verskillende tydperke in verskillende wêrelddele plaasgevind het, het die beskawingstydperk wat algemeen as die Ystertydperk bekend staan, ingelui.In dieselfde oorgangstydperk is karbonering, wat die proses van byvoeging van koolstof tot die ysters van daardie tyd was, ontdek. Yster is uit sponsyster, 'n mengsel van yster en slak met 'n mate van koolstof en of karbied daarin, wat dan herhaaldelik gehamer en gevou is om die slak daarin te verwyder en om die koolstof daaruit te oksideer en sodoende 'n produk te vervaardig wat as smee-yster bekend staan. Smee-yster het 'n baie lae koolstofinhoud gehad en was nie so maklik om hard te maak deur dit te blus nie. Die mense van die Midde-ooste het ontdek dat 'n veel harder produk gemaak kon word deur die smee-yster oor 'n langtermyn...

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