During the past few hundred years, zinc has been known to be the vital mineral and catalytic of a lot of proteins and a signalling messenger who is released by neural activity. (choi & koh, 1998) Since zinc has been discovered by raulin in 1869 to be needed as a grower of aspergillus niger which is type of fungus and one of the most common species of the genus aspergillus, this fungus is common contaminant of food and cause black mould on certain food. Beside the cause of contaminated food, zinc has been admitted as important for human in modern times.(Prasad, 1984) (Hambidge , 2000) (Vallee & Auld, 1990)
Zinc is contained in most of food, especially fish and meat provides the ...view middle of the document...
(Jacob, Maret & Vallee, 1998) (Zlotkin & Cherian, 1988)
Since zinc has an important role in human body, there are a lot of things to be considered. If in human body occurs zinc deficiency and toxicity, it will affect the growth, brain development, pregnancy and male reproduction and also will cause anorexia. Aside from the deficiency, if too much consume of zinc it will induce the toxicity. This research study will discuss further the deficiency and the toxicity of zinc in human body. (Brycesmith, 1989)
Food Source of Zinc
The distribution of zinc is widely and is typically associated with the protein fraction and/or nucleic fraction food. Meat (beef, Pork), poultry, organ meats (beef, poultry), fish and shellfish are rich sources of dietary zinc which also can be found in eggs, dairy product with lesser amount (shown in table below). Whole grain cereal especially bran and germ, nuts, seed also legumes have high zinc content, meanwhile tubers, refined cereals, fruits and vegetable have less. Comparing zinc absorption between animal source and plant origin on body animal source will have higher bioavailability then plant origin it because of the fiber and phytates that can inhibit the zinc uptake by intestine. (Recommended Nutrient Intakes for Malaysia, 2005)
Zinc Interactions, absorptions, distribution, metabolism and excretion
The interaction between zinc and cooper are equally opposed, both are being interacting in gastreointestinal uptake so it potencially leading to imbalance. It can be also applied for zinc and iron in competing on absorbtion, an excesse zinc will decrease the uptake of magnesium and calsium, and conversely, high level consumption on calcium will decrease the zinc absorption.
The absorbtion of zinc will depends from their solubility, approximately the absorbtion from food will around 20 – 40%) , the mechanism in absorbtion by passive diffusion and unknown membraine process, which need energy and happens throughtout small intestine. Following internalisation in the intestinal cell, and will being links with metallothionein. Next, zinc will binds to a number of proteins including albumin, transferrin, α-2-macroglobulin and eruloplasmin (ferroxidase) after in plasma. Minor information about uptake in zinc, however zinc will be found in all the cells, mainly inside the nuclei of all types’ tissue. Some of the tissue will rich in zinc, this include the choroid of the eye, adrenal gland, skin, certain area of brain, pancreas and the prostate gland.
Most of the extraction on zinc will through faeces, Zinc will be extract out since it not been store, body will maintain the balance between absorption and extraction (homeostasis), it needed to maintains of a board spectrum of zinc-dependent functions. The extraction will also contain the unabsorbed zinc as biliary and pancreatic secretions. (Cot.food.gov.uk, 2004)
Retardment of growth has been found to be a salient character in young animals experimentally deficiency of...