758 words - 3 pages
First comes marriage then comes love, marriage is legal act bringing a woman and a man closer to each other, colliding their whole lives to be one. Marriage is the key into forming a larger family unit in the social system, it also is what binds both emotional and sexual attractions where both spouse are sharing their whole life together creating a family. Nowadays there is a noticeable prevalence of trends concerning marriage in certain communities, two of the most used trends are love marriages and arranged marriages. Moreover, some people are fortunate enough to find their soul mates on their own while others aren’t as lucky, instead they have to get their soul mates selected for them....
2243 words - 9 pages
Marriage has been described as one of the oldest and most enduring human institutions however the reasons for marrying have varied extensively from period to period and culture to culture. In many cases marrying was predominantly an economic decision which determined the suitor that the family could find for the daughter. In some cultures a man's wealth was based on the size of his harem or the number of spouses that he maintained while in other cultures a young woman's family was expected to give a substantial dowry to her suitor. Throughout the centuries women have found themselves in a moderately submissive role in courtship, marriage, and their everyday life. Many women were...
822 words - 3 pages
Arranged Marriage: For America?
Both arranged marriages and romantic marriages have good and bad points. Cultures such as India, Japan, and Ethiopia have had arranged marriages since the dawn of time. In America we allow our young adults to make their own decisions on whom to marry. Would Americans accept the practice of parents deciding whom they are going to marry without considering their wants or feelings? The answer is an emphatic NO! Americans are hopelessly romantic and fiercely believe in freedom of choice. Arranged marriages would never be accepted in American culture.
Most of the time, if not all, the decisions we make concerning marriage are based on the concept of “romantic...
1735 words - 7 pages
The Process of Arranged Marriage
The Arabic culture has many unique aspects just like any other culture in the world. One of these aspects is Arranged Marriages, which many people have varying viewpoints on. This paper will layout the various opinions and view points that come to mind when a person hears the phrase Arranged Marriage. Furthermore it will layout the initial process where a bride and groom initially meet, as well as the females overall say in the process of who her to be husband is. After that this paper will display the facts of the ceremony and various traditions that are involved. The overall learning objective is to gains a deeper understanding of the Arranged Marriage...
1995 words - 8 pages
Freedom of choice is a luxury which many people take for granted. One of the most significant choices that you will make is when you choose the person that you wish to spend the rest of your life with. But for some people this choice is unfortunately taken away when they are born into a culture that believes in the arrangement of a marriage. A decision and a choice so important is not yours to make but left for someone else to decide without taking happiness into consideration. Therefore, I am against the practice of arranged marriages because it violates a person’s right to make their own decisions.
The arrangement of marriage dates as far back as the custom of marriage itself and is...
968 words - 4 pages
Marriage has been an important aspect all over the world for ages. Marriage has been important to society for a variety of reasons. Most People all over the world believe that the traditional family, a father, a mother, and children, are the basic building blocks of society. The children learn to become citizens, learn about relationships, what is expected of them in society, and how to behave by the parents. The traditional idea of marriage is basically one man and one woman in a monogamous and permanent relationship. Western culture marriages are usually based on love and romance but there’s a debate whether love marriages are better than arranged marriages. In other cultures other than...
1638 words - 7 pages
Arranged Marriage vs. Free-choice Marriage"Happy marriages begin when we marry the ones we love, and they blossom when we love the ones we marry" (Tom Mullen, 2005, p.1). It is argued that free-choice marriages based on love or romance, offer more independence and freedom as compared to arranged marriages where the man and woman are chosen by the parents and so there is pressure and is not so suitable and independent. However, no marriage is necessarily an ideal sort of marriage. Therefore, it becomes difficult to predict the ideal sort of marriage. The decision is upon the individual, whether he or she...
2518 words - 10 pages
The mother comes to know that her daughter has a relationship with an American, and she stops speaking to her and changes the will related to property transaction. She considers that her daughter lives in sin. She changes her telephone number and rejects all the letters written by the protagonist. The protagonist becomes desperate and even thinks of committing suicide. The feeling of guilt disturbs her. Finally, she decides that she should live for herself on her own terms and not for Rex or anyone else. She feels that she has understood the real meaning of love. She thinks that her mother’s value oriented life, her affection, and her attitude towards those who distance themselves from their...
656 words - 3 pages
Response to Monsoon WeddingIn class was the first time I had ever seen Monsoon Wedding and it was very enjoyable as well as informative about love and marriage in India. It showed, as Mira Nair said, five different types of love. At first glance it is obvious that there are many different types and levels of relationships being shown, each with a form of commentary on the relationship about it's value in Indian culture.1.) Protective Love. This is the...
2247 words - 9 pages
Arranged and Forced Marriages In Foreign Countries�Marriage, the binding partnership of a woman and man; "The Happily Ever" fairytale we quietly desired one day, and continue to wish for in the lives of our children, and generations today. The biggest decision we make, but sometimes the most uneducated one of them all. From cultural traditions to religious beliefs, we plan and arrange the Wedding Event with the hope of a lifetime of successes. In everyday life we attend social gatherings with friends, family, and colleagues, humoring each other and making statements, "Let's arrange the...
1459 words - 6 pages
If we talk about marriage, what comes on your mind? Marriage is a union between a man and woman, particularly regulated by law in which they become a husband and wife. Selecting a husband and wife is one of the most important decisions of a person’s life because a marriage can bring either a happy or unhappy life. Choosing the best partner is one of the key to get a happy marriage. Talking about partners, which one do you prefer to marry, the person whom you love or arranged marriage, that is, your parents will choose your partner? For some people they may choose to get married with the person whom they love, which is love marriage. Actually, there are two kinds of marriage that are love...
2672 words - 11 pages
Arranged marriage is the union of a man and woman which is brought about by someone other than the bride and groom (“Arranged” 1). Recent research has shown that arranged marriages may have originated during the Vedic period of Indian history (Chettri 1). Although many arranged marriages generally rely on the consent of the bride and groom, in some cases, one or both of them is forced to marry without a choice and in others, they are too pressured to refuse (Reiss 1). Technically, arranged marriage is not forced marriage, but parents have been known to use foul methods that often resembled the latter such as bribery, threats or blackmail (Zuberi 1). Traditionally, parents began to choose...
1096 words - 4 pages
What is an arranged marriage? Well in the Webster’s dictionary it is defined as a marriage where the marital partners are chosen by others based on considerations other than the pre-existing mutual attraction of the partners.
This habit has been very common in noble families, especially in reigning ones, at the scope of combining and perhaps enforcing the respective strengths of originary families (and kingdoms) of the spouses. A relevant part of history has been influenced by these unions. Arranged marriage is also the marriage concluded with the help of a middleman, once frequent in less cultivated social classes. In some areas it is the man who chooses his wife,...
740 words - 3 pages
The outline is included and the essay is sort of short.Marriage is "the legal union of a man and woman as husband and wife"(Encarta Encyclopedia 1998) usually entered into in order to have children. "Although marriage customs vary greatly from one culture to another, the importance of the institution is universally acknowledged."An arranged marriage is coupling initiated by the parents of the bride and groom. This form of marriage "…[has] been accepted almost every where [in the world] throughout history." Arranged marriages today are found mainly in the Eastern part of the...
891 words - 4 pages
Arranged EngagementAn arranged marriage is a marriage that is established before involving oneself in a lengthy courtship, and often involves the arrangement of someone other than the persons getting married sometime ,it is to some point a political alliance,a solidification of one's family political and financial status . These marriages are relatively rare in our western hemisphere, but still numerous in the Middle East and parts of Africa and Asia. While a love marriage is more of a free choice when the unity of two people is strictly, your choice and no one can force you to marry against your...
930 words - 4 pages
Arranged marriages are marriages that are arranged by someone other than the couple themselves, usually by the parents or family. Arranged marriages are experienced all over the globe, some countries include Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Canada and India. These types of marriages have numerous positive and negative points.In a great part of Asia, marriages are still arranged by parents and family. Arrangements are frequently made simply on rational grounds. In countries such as different as Jordan and Cambodia, daughters are usually married to distant family.Arranged Marriages are very...
579 words - 2 pages
Arranged Marriages are marriages in which are organized and arranged through family and friends of either the woman or the man of the marriage. This would occur since some states in the US outlaw marriages between White and Japanese people. Arranged marriages doesn't only occur that way, becuase a lot of arranged marriages can be found throughout the world, many of them being traditional to their cultures. Some arranged marriages can be arranged at anytime, even while they are still children!Picture brides are a form of...
1440 words - 6 pages
Find her a husband!Thesis: Even though arranged marriages have their downsides, if thought about in a logical manner, the risk taken is less than that of a love marriage.I.Disadvantages of Love Marriagesa.Basis for marriageb.Idealistic illusionII.Advantages of Arranges Marriagesa.Cultural preservationb.Maintaining social stabilityc.Willingness to changed.Parental approvalIII.Application to different circumstancesIV.ConclusionFind her a...
944 words - 4 pages
Nowadays we live in a world which is full of choices and the choice of the person you would like to merry is one of the most important one. It is really hard to decide whether this person is really “yours” or it is just the illusion. Thus, can it be a better way to have somebody who decides who will you be married to? Some people think it is unfair because person doesn’t have the right of choice but the others think that arranged marriages are a good choice. Free choice marriage is a marriage in which both partners choose each other by themselves and the choice is based on factors such as physical attraction, the desire for emotional stability, love, similar outlooks, personalities,...
2002 words - 8 pages
OutlineThesis Statement: Arranged marriages have different forms mostly depending on the couples country, culture and social surrounding conditions; however, not all of these forms are acceptable, successful and respectable by many societies.I.In arranged marriages, the possibility of its success is unknown and depending on the culture of the couple and the type of this arranged marriage.A.If the couple is from the same region or society the chances of having a successful marriage is great.B.A successful arranged marriage occurs when the couple respect, care, and trust for each other.C.Thesis Statement: Arranged marriages have different forms mostly...
930 words - 4 pages
What comes to mind when you hear the words arranged marriage? I am sure a happy, respectful, loving relationship was not what popped into your mind. Arrange marriages are a complex subject, and the concept is perceived as a human rights issue where individuals loose the right to freedom of choice. In saying that, my initial opinion of an arranged marriage was not held in high regard. However, after being introduced to someone who is in the process of an arranged marriage; and conducting my own research; my view changed. Hence I have much regret about my naivety on the concept. This type of marriage, known as a culturally specific decision (Seth, 2008), has been confused with a forced...
1219 words - 5 pages
Marriage in The Importance of Being Earnest
The Importance of Being Earnest is a play by Oscar Wilde. Oscar describes his play as A Trivia comedy for serious people. The protagonists in the play maintains being fictitious in order to escape burdensome social obligations. The play is lighthearted with flippant comments and offhand jokes, however the play contains serious undertones and social commentary about marriage and the society. Oscar Wilde in his plat portrays marriage in the Victorian Era as arranged for the upper class. Lady Bracknell is not ready to give her daughters hand in marriage to Earnest because of his social class and because he told her that he was found in a Victorian...
1117 words - 4 pages
Hinduism and Marriage
In a hindu marriage the words and action means more than just words.
It is a guide for the rest of the life.
According to Hinduism, a marriage between two persons is a sacred
relationship that is not limited to this life alone. It extends across
seven or more lives, during which the couple help each other progress
spiritually. The adage that marriages are made in heaven is very much
true in case of Hinduism. Two souls come together and marry because
their karmas are intertwined and they have to resolve many things
together upon earth in order to ensure...
876 words - 4 pages
The term Sociology can be defined as a study of society, “the ology” of human inter-action within the collective (society). The Sociological Imagination C. Wright Mills (1916-1962) believes that sociology is the most reflective subject there is. Sociology can be used for practical purposes to identify and understand social problems. Sociologists try to study society from an objective, impartial and unbiased position. The study of sociology differs from a common sense view point, as it challenges what is accepted as normal. Sociologists try to be objective in their search to discover the truth.
Socialisation is the process by which we learn to become...
976 words - 4 pages
Relationships form a large part of human existence. It is human tendency to be drawn to the company of other people. More specifically, to find that special relationship with someone. Different religions are synoptic in highlighting this union in the celebration of marriage. This prompts the question to be asked, what is the meaning of marriage? The enduring human question of why do people marry? What is the significance and purpose of people committing to each other and living together?Islam and Hinduism both have their own approach to marriage eminent in their culture and tradition as Semitic and Indus...
1421 words - 6 pages
In American culture the view on arranged marriages are not looked at very favorably. This is because we have grown up with the knowledge that when it comes time to marry we will have chosen our spouse of our own free will. The match will be a love match and one that is chosen through our own needs. Young men and women in India grow up with an opposite view on marriage. They know that when it comes time to marry their parents will find them a suitable mate and it will be considered scared and a lifelong commitment (Agence France-Presse.) A total of 74 percent of respondents from across India voted in favour of traditional "arranged" marriages, according to the poll by private television...
1256 words - 5 pages
Marriage is the socially recognized union of two or more people. Selecting a marriage partner is very much a culturally defined process. The rules governing selection vary widely from society to society and are more often complex. How would you go about selecting a mate? Where would you begin? What criteria would you use? When we look around the world to see how other societies deal with these questions, it is clear that the ways of selecting a mate or a marriage partner has been changed from generation to generation.
In the generation where my grandparents came from, marriages were purely arranged by the elderly. Mothers or aunts usually selected a marriage partner for their sons. My...
736 words - 3 pages
The Roman Catholic View of Marriage
Lots of people, male and female, spend there childhoods dreaming about
the big day. White dresses, fresh flowers, big church and of course
the rings, just to name a few of the important things needing to be
arranged. People spend months preparing the big day. The list of
things to do never ends food, clothes, guest list and reception. But
how often do we stop and think about the Christian beliefs on
marriage. When did we last ask what do the rings mean? Dress mean?
Vows mean? These are just a few of the questions I will try to answer
in the following:
Catholics only have one major rule about marriage. They may...
1852 words - 7 pages
Marriage and Security
Nowadays, when people think about marriage, they usually think of two people, deeply in love, who decide to bind their lives to live together. Unfortunately, that is not always the truth. There are many reasons other than love that cause marriage. Marriage has different meanings for everyone, depending on the era, the economic situation, and the culture in which they lived. But no matter what these different reasons are, the main idea has always been the same. People get married for the sake of security. This can be seen by looking at different types of marriages and finding the similarities underlying each.
Although not many people are aware of it, one of the...
1264 words - 5 pages
marriages that occur in India and the United States have several dramatic differences. Marriages in India are based solely on parental decisions, whereas in the United States a marriage is based on individualism. Who, why and how the spouse is chosen, is very different in both countries. Most Americans date to discover who their future spouse is going to be, and they know the person very well before marriage. In India, dating is not something that occurs. Most individuals in India do not have any interaction with the bride or groom prior to their wedding day, therefore, they do not personally know who they are marrying (Nanda 624). Though these differences exist, pros and cons reflect on...
2566 words - 10 pages
Marriage can be defined as the formal union of a man and a woman, typically recognized by law, by which they become husband and wife (Webster’s Dictionary). Although this definition of marriage is common in many different parts of the world, the way people decide who to marry varies greatly. The selection process used to decipher who to spend the rest of their life with is a daunting task and most people go about it differently. In the United States, love is what most people think is the major factor in determining whether or not to marry someone. Americans have a choice when it comes to marriage today, and although their parents are usually asked permission to wed, individuals decide...
884 words - 4 pages
Love and Marriage
Their Eyes Were Watching God by Zora Neale Hurston
is a novel about a Southern black woman and her
experiences through life. Janie, the main character, is
forced at a young age by her grandmother, into an
arranged marriage with a man named Logan. Janie is told
to learn to love Logan, but the love never comes for
Logan in Janie's heart so she leaves him. She meets a
man named Joe. Soon after they are married. Joe was
sweet at first, then his true feelings about women come
out and Janie looses her love she thought she had for
him. He soon dies after their separation. Janie then
falls in love with a man named Tea Cake. He is the man
1747 words - 7 pages
When most people think about marriages they usually think about two people that have decided to take the next step in their relationship by promising each other to love and be faithful to one another until death separates them. That wasn’t how it always was and you’ll find the differences and similarities between marriages now and then quite surprising. Back then a marriage had nothing to do with the union of two people that were in love but with the outcome of this union and weather you’ll be able to benefit from this. In many cases now people have the choice to marry whomever they please and manage their marriage however they want to as well, which is a great change. If more people new how...
1229 words - 5 pages
Most people, especially teenagers, are influenced by their peers, parents and social media. Whether it is what is in style or what the kids are doing these days, it seems like everyone is following each other either through a social network such as Facebook or through face to face interactions. One of the areas in which they are influenced most is dating. Dating is a modern phenomenon which has only recently been brought up in the last century. Not only is dating the norm in the United States, but also in many other modern societies around the world. Courting has become a thing of the past and society has become more and more aware of the idea of dating.
Dating is not only recent, but...
2875 words - 12 pages
Imagine seeing a girl no older than eight years old, being forced into marriage to a man twice her age. For many girls around the world being forced into marriage to much older men is an everyday occurrence in their lives. The word “arranged” is not usually associated with the word “forced” but in cases like these the girls have no choice but to agree to marry. Arranged marriages are deeply imbedded into the cultures of some countries with girls being promised into marriage when they are as young as a month old and marrying before they reach maturity. About a third of the women married in developing countries are married before they were eighteen years of age. In Afghanistan, 43 percent...
595 words - 2 pages
In "Characteristics of Traditional Societies", the writer describes eight characteristics of values and beliefs for traditional societies. The beliefs that they have are different than modern societies. Some are the exact opposite. It shows how different these societies are and why they behave in some ways. An example of the difference between modern society and traditional society is that traditional societies do not believe in progress. "What is missing is the idea that progress is usually (or always) good or desirable and a...
1773 words - 7 pages
GENL1022: Short EssayChoose one issue covered in the course and compare how it relates to TWO religions of your choice.Hinduism is one of the oldest religions with historians gaging is to be over 5000 years old whilst Islam as one of the youngest originating about 1500 years ago (ABC 2014). Islam and Hinduism are the second and third largest religions in the world, respectively. Combined they account for the faith of over 2.6 billion people all over the world (CIA 2014). Thus the actions and customs of these people impact the lives of over 1.1 billion women all over the world (CIA 2014). The topic of this essay is the similarities and...
1431 words - 6 pages
Love and Marriage in Renaissance Literature
In medieval Europe, the troubadours (poets of the southern part of
France), like Guilhem IX, or Cercamon, first began to write poems
about humble men falling in love with women who were admirer and
adored by their lovers. Furthermore, intense love between men and
women became a central subject in European literature, like between
Tristan and Iseult, Lancelot and Guinevere, or Aeneas and Dido. But it
was not question of marriage. Actually, marriage and love did not
match very well together but then Renaissance literature developed the
concepts of love and marriage and recorded the evolution of the
1081 words - 4 pages
Female sovereignty was uncommon in Renaissance England. The social structure of the family assured the subjugation of woman under man. Daughters remained under the care of their fathers until they were married, at which time they became subject to their husband's authority. Economics ensured the wife's dependence on her husband. Unmarried and widowed women retained far more legal rights than married women, therefore, "for a woman, marriage meant the loss of her legal and economic rights, and therefore a dependence on the (chosen) man" (Motte 29). Even though marriage often meant a loss of legal rights, those daughters who had the good fortune to choose their mates faired better...
3466 words - 14 pages
Explore Austen’s Presentation Of Marriage in Pride & Prejudice
Marriage forms the basis of the events featured in Pride and Prejudice
and is presented in various ways in order to convey to readers the
importance of it in society and the expectations which come with it.
Throughout the book, Austen clarifies what makes a good marriage and
how society views marriage as a unity of equal classes and a way to
The first aspect of marriage which is revealed is the way a person’s
position in society affects the choice of partner. Austen states in
the opening line of the book:
“It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in
possession of a good...
892 words - 4 pages
Romeo and Juliet Victims of FateEven though nobody likes it, bad luck exists. There is no way to get rid of it, it is just a part of life. Not everything can go the way someone wants it to. If something random happens to someone and it favours them, like winning the lottery, then that is good luck for that person. Likewise, if something random happens to someone and it is unfavourable, like a rampaging rhinoceros escaping from a nearby zoo and brutally slaughtering them and 23 other people, that would be bad luck. Just like everybody else,
1238 words - 5 pages
Legalizing Same-Sex Marriage"There's no reason that the government should prevent homosexuals from entering civil marriages because some religions object to the concept, any more than the government should ban atheism because some religions object to it" (Pampuch, 2). Same-sex marriage refers to the legal recognition of civil institution of marriage between two people of the same sex (Cassola, 1). Supporters of this right around the world fought for the amendment of the legal definition of marriage, which was defined as a union between a man and a woman. In 2005, the Civil Marriage Act (CMA)...
940 words - 4 pages
"Bend it like Beckham" is an inspiring and meaningful movie for many different reasons. It highlights many important events that can be witnessed in real life situations today. One of the most crucial events that it focuses on is the confrontation between two completely different religions. The movie is about a Sikh girl named Jess on her mission to fulfill one of her secretive and deepest passions, and that is to play soccer. Unfortunately her passion leads her to many tribulations and impediments. The major tribulation is defying her religious faith of already being arranged a marriage with somebody, Jess...
2510 words - 10 pages
Debate over the legalization of same sex marriage has been a large debate in the US for a long time. The two biggest groups that partake in this opposition come from either the religious community or by gay and non religious individuals. Religion to date plays a big part and influences decisions to keep same sex marriage illegal. It has been shown in studies (Woodward) that there are many religious groups that have been actively involved in support of ballots such as Proposition 8 in California. The influence from the religious sector is not unanimous. It appears that not all religious groups are opposed to same sex marriage. There are some denominations such as the Evangelical Lutheran...
956 words - 4 pages
Pride and Prejudice vs Bride and Prejudice - More than a change of One LetterThe film, Pride and Prejudice directed by Joe Wright, had more of a natural tone setting and feeling to it. The scenery really draws the audience in by nature and the assumed innocence of the characters. Bride and Prejudice directed by Gurinder Chadha, is considered to be a Bollywood style movie. Bride… had a complete makeover of Pride… with an Indian traditional style twist. The main characters in both films were Lizzie (Lalita in Bride…) and Darcy. Both films were shot on location in the United Kingdom; with a few shots of Bride… shot in the United States. The director used a lot of...
830 words - 3 pages
Social roles and expectations of men and women are socially defined by the mores and norms of society. The social expectations and attitudes vary between societies, and usually change over time. These roles and expectations are learned from birth; they are acquired from various places such as parents, peers, teachers, and the media. Parents usual treat their male and female children differently, thus, allowing sex-differentiated expectations to continue throughout the rest of their lives. As a result, children receive different messages about gender roles from a very young age. Society?s gender roles become even more defined during adulthood. These gender expectations and roles greatly...
836 words - 3 pages
"The Merchant's Tale" and "The Franklin's Tale" tell about the marriages of two couples. In both tales, the manner by which marriage occurs differs between each couple. Furthermore, the exertion of control over the wives in the tales is also different in each story. Moreover, the loyalty of the wives to their husbands varies greatly between the wives in each tale. In spite of these numerous alterities, the stories both share the theme of sexuality. These tales serve to convey Chaucer's misogamistic and...
1407 words - 6 pages
The Roman institution of marriage has been lauded as being the first purely humanistic law of marriage, one that is based on the idea of marriage being a free and freely dissolvable union of two equal partners for life. (Schulz, 1951;103) This is quite a simplistic view, as there were many differing forms of marriage in Rome, from the arranged marriages of the elite to the unions of slaves and soldiers. As we shall see, the Romans' actual expectations of married life and the gains they envisioned they would receive from the experience depended greatly on their age, sex and social status.
Unlike our contemporary society, no specific civil ceremony was required for the creation of a marriage;...
1873 words - 7 pages
The seventeenth century was a fascinating time period of English history, and has always got a lot of attention from historians around the world. In this time period men had all the power over their women and had all the laws on their side of a marriage. During the seventeenth century marriages were slowly escaping the time when a lot of marriages were arranged by parents and people where starting to be able to choose their partners for themselves. This paper is going to be providing an outline of the seventeenth-century English marriage. Thing such as basic marriage values, concluding marriages, duties of a married woman and even possibilities of divorce were a lot different back then than...
1727 words - 7 pages
In the aftermath of the dual revolution, European society underwent vast changes spanning all aspects of society. Political ideologies began to evolve congruently with changes that were occurring across the continent. Various conservative, liberal, and utopian viewpoints emerged, critiquing the new modern society. The critiques encompassed all aspects of society, including the ideas of marriage and family. Three prominent intellectual figures that proposed differing ideas on marriage were Louis de Bonald, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, and Charles Fourier. All three came from various positions on the political spectrum; Bonald was conservative, Hegel a liberal, and Fourier a utopian...