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Clash of culturesDebates on differences and rationalness of the cultures of East and West have always been made by philosophers and academic people throughout the history. Some of them defend that the western civilization is modern, rational and mature, whereas the eastern civilization is irrational and depraved. Others oppose this idea and say that western civilization is materialist, thinks only about wealth and it is poor in the name of human relations.Some people discuss that the world is rotating around the capital and individuals carry no value in the capitalist system of the western civilization unless he or she has money, because the most important thing for them is capital or money
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The New World: A Clash of Cultures.
It all started with the Scandinavians who discovered native peoples in North America around A.D. 1000. Short lived as their stay was, this would be the beginning of a very violent and dangerous path for the Native American people. Spain, France, and England would follow the Vikings lead nearly 500 years later and the clash of cultures began. America was appealing to these European nations because of the desire to expand their countries power, the natural resources this "new world" offered and for some, religious freedom. The Europeans brought with them livestock, plant life, disease, and often times an attitude of superiority to these "primitive" native
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Running head: DEERFIELD MASSACRE PAGE 1 SHORT TITLE OF PAPER (50 CHARACTERS OR LESS) PAGE 5
Deerfield MassacreNameHIS/110March 19, 2011Paul PetrequimDeerfield MassacreThe New England frontier was filled with colonist that had left England seeking a better life and fleeing the oppressive rule of the King. However life on the new frontier was not easy and colonists did not only have to adapt to their new environment they had to face the danger of attacks from Indian tribes and wars with France and England. New England colonists were engaged in constant skirmishes with Indian tribes who later joined French troops from New France. They would then engage in small-scale attacks against the New
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Compare and contrast the ways in which Levy and Williams present the clash of cultures in “A Street Car Named Desire” and “Small Island”
A culture clash according to the Oxford dictionary is “a conflict between cultural values, or a disagreement arising between two parties of different beliefs, values and practices”. Throughout ‘Small Island’ and ‘A Streetcar Named Desire’, Levy and Williams explore the destructive culture clashes in 1940s New Orleans and 1948 Britain. Both use characters such as Hortense and Blanche who have extravagant and unrealistic standards so that their naivety and unworldly nature can be exposed by other characters and the society they live in to emphasise the
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When two civilizations as disparate as the Celts and Anglo-Saxons collide, the
ideas and perceptions of one will inevitably affect the other. These cultures had 600 years to interact with each other until the Normans came A.D. 1066, and the mix of the Celts’ Christianity and the Anglo-Saxon’s pagan belief system intermingled to create many interesting literary works. Perhaps most notable of these is Beowulf. With its blended Christian/pagan mythos and epic fight scenes, it has been a topic of discussion for centuries. Beowulf’s most impressive feat, however, is its ability to incorporate two very distinct ideologies without distorting either too heavily. From its gripping start to its
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A Clash of Cultures and the Promise of Rebirth: Dry Lips Oughta Move to Kapuskasing and The Rez SistersThroughout "The Rez Sisters" and "Dry Lips Oughta Move to Kapuskasing", TomsonHighway expresses his concern regarding the cultural conflict experienced by aboriginals on the reserve. He does this by demonstrating the juxtaposition of cultural and ethereal values faced by Native and White Canadians. Christian priests attempted to eradicate and demonize Native spirituality and force their own beliefs upon indigenous people and the negative aftereffect of cultural contention that is experienced is dramatized through the lives of the men and women who create the Native community of Wasaychigan
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Samuel Huntington's thesis on "The clash of civilisations" of 1993 provoked a plethora of varied responses. A Professor at Harvard University, Huntington wrote in order to voice his predictions and warn the world of an upcoming clash of cultures, most notably between the West and Islam. The recent reaction in the Middle East to America's self-styled 'war on terrorism' provides a timely case study for this debate. While an affinity will often exist between countries with similar cultural characteristics, great differences within 'civilisations' and the existence of national interests make unity unlikely. Certainly, cultural differences alone will not be enough to cause a clash. However
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mutually made, between two different cultures (Uwujaren). The key is common understanding and equality (Uwujaren). It is one’s personal responsibility to, listen to those of marginalized cultures, comprehend the blatant and subtle ways their culture has been appropriated, and educate themselves on the proper ways to engage with these cultures (Uwujaren).
As a result of appropriation, marginalized cultures face the bitter end. There is a history of viewing people of different cultures as exotic, uncivilized, barbaric, savage, and worthy of ridicule (“Culture Clash”). Many culturally formed languages, for example, African American Vernacular English is viewed as lesser than Standard English; yet
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in international relations. The basis for this conflict is a collision of opposing cultures and civilizations.
There are several main players in the clash of civilizations system, but in reality the situation is much more complex. Within each civilization there are different sects with different agendas. Extremism has breed hatred toward the West, resulting in events such as 9/11, the Madrid attacks, and the London attacks. The West then retaliates to these acts of terror. This has led us toward the model of the clash of civilizations. Culture, ethnic, and social disputes characterize international conflict, and this is encompassed by the clash of civilizations system. Although it is not comprehensive, it is “the best” system for the world today.
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democracy." (Norris 136).Besides the clash of civilizations theory, the modernization theory can also explain some of the differences we see between the West and the rest of the world, including Islamic cultures. The modernization theory "developed by Inglehart hypothesizes that human development generated changed cultural attitudes in virtually any society, although values also reflect the imprint of each society's religious legacies and historical experiences" (Norris 137-8). Dalton also talks about the change in values in his book Citizen Politics. He begins by explaining how whenever a country is still concerned about a stable economy, they are mainly worried about material values such as
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Imagine a world one day when every single person shares one culture, the most influential and powerful existing. There are millions of cultures in existence but how can they all possibly collapse, equaling only one? In Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, the father-son conflict of Okonkwo and Nwoye is used as a microcosm representing how societies of multiple cultures fall apart, reflecting upon the roots of the conflict. In this particular case, the Igbo society and British culture collides, resulting in the destruction of the inferior Igbo culture.
Three core reasons explain why the two cultures clashed with one another, leading to a fight for survival. To understand the destruction of
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Virtual Revolutionary Structurally-Paradigmatically Revolutionary
PTSS reaction to change PTSS reaction to stagnation
So, are these types of cultures doomed to clash, as the current fad goes – or can they cohabitate ?
It seems that the Neurotic cultures are less adapted to win the battle to survive. The fittest are those cultures flexible enough to respond to an ever changing world – and at an ever increasing pace, at that. The neurotic cultures are slow to respond, rigid and convulsive. Being past-orientated means that they emulate and imitate the normal cultures – but only when they have become part of the past. Alternatively, they assimilate
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development of cultures. For example, Huntington overlooks the importance of how wide spread the multinational states are on the world stage. Surprisingly, Huntington succeeds in his avoidance to provide in his article the definition of what a civilization really is. He does state, however, that a civilization may be characterized by a single religion (such as Islam), nation (such as Japan), or a group of countries (such as the western countries) or even an entire area (such as Latin America). Finally, Huntington believes that Saddam Hussein’s low-grade cant to give weight to his “Clash of Civilizations” theory when he relates that “Forswearing Arab nationalism, Saddam Hussein explicitly invoked
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principal conflict of global politics will occur between nations and groups of different civilizations.According to him Civilization Identity, will increasingly be important in future and the world will be shaped by the interaction of eight major civilizations. The most important conflicts of the future will occur along the cultural fault lines separating these civilizations. (P.48)Cultures and civilizations may change, develop, regress and disappear, but they remain mysteriously fixed in their identity, as if there existed a universal consensus somewhere agreeing to the six or eight civilizations.
Edward W. Said, who called for the interaction of civilizations rather than a clash between
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identify any fundamentalist Confucian movement. In fact, Confucianism is not a religion. A person can be a Buddhist, but he/she also can have the belief of Confucianism. There is no clash and contravention Between Confucianism and Buddhism.In addition, the second problem is Huntington indicates "economic regionalism will succeed only when it is rooted in a common civilization". The successful example, such as the North American Free Trade Area depends on the convergence now underway of Mexican, Canadian and American cultures. But on the other hand, economic regionalism may also succeed when it is in a totally different civilization. There is a good example, like Australia, its civilization
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. Putting the question of unity in civilizations aside, it is also important to analyse the source of this future conflict, namely: could culture become the battleground for future global conflict?Erikson (2004) suggests that despite the United States' Bush administration repeated denial that the current 'war on terror' is not a clash of civilizations, it is in fact exactly that: "the clash of civilizations posited by Huntington is real". Erikson (2004) believes the West's interference with the affairs of Arab countries and the fact that the jihad against the west is "tacitly subscribed to even by many moderate Arabs" is proof that the war on terror is being fought through a clash of cultures
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In this study, ideas of two great thinkers who affected the thoughts of Western world will be discussed. At first, you will find a summary of 'The Fault Lines Between Civilizations' by Samuel P. Huntington and then a comparative study of Samuel P. Huntington's and Edward W. Said's thoughts. The article entitled 'The Clash of Ignorance' by Edward W. Said will be used as the basic source of Said's thoughts. Finally, I will make my own analysis of these ideas.In his article entitled 'The Fault Lines Between Civilizations', Samuel P. Huntington claims that cultural differences between civilizations will be the reasons for international conflicts in the future. Huntington states that cultural
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these cultures clash, Apple are envious of the success and adaptability of Microsoft, but in the future will also rely on them to support their new operating system, an almost parasitic relationship. Instead of looking at this strategic alliance as an excellent way to share core competencies and reduce the cost of research and development, Apple are bickering about the integration of the system, Microsoft about the engineers employed by Apple, and the governmental stance to be successful. An alliance should be a win-win situation for both companies. They both need to understand the risks associated with any alliance, however small, they need to be similar both financially and culturally and as
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Bush so many times professed about after 9/11. A reason or an answer to gain support of policies to have many countries is on the same page as the Western civilization.
Huntington was correct somewhat that culture would clash but that is the basis of any culture. Different cultures will clash from time to time but conflicts do not arise out of a clash of a whole civilization (Pfaff 2006). When discussed on a broad sense culture are smaller units then complete civilizations. It is evident in today's world a clash of culture is taking place among civilizations in itself. We may even see a total break up of complete nations such as we did of the USSR, but in the end the civilization survived
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oddity in both worlds. "His father succeeded in making him nothing, nothing in the black town, nothing in the cantonment, nothing even in England because in England now he was no more than a memory" (JIC, p. 242). Although he feels distinctly invisible, he becomes certainly visible enough to Ronald Merrick. His mannerisms, the very idea that he would attempt to pose himself as English is what infuriates Merrick. The clash between Merrick and Kumar, represents the very clash between the two cultures, the white malevolent governance against the traditions and differences of native India.
The clash between these two cultures is seen significantly in the climax of the rape of Daphne
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In the novel by Fadiman, The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down, is written about two cultures and their differences: Hmong and American. The clash between these two cultures interferes with the treatment of a three-month child, Lia Lee, which has been diagnosed with epilepsy. Her parents’ think is actually caused by the spirits. When it comes to the treatment for Lia her parents prefer to treat her with their own particular ways and medications, like in the Hmong culture, instead of going for treatment through American medicine (Fadiman, 1997).
The writer explores the misunderstanding between her parents and the doctors. This cultural clash is basically a result of the Hmong’s
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Arguments are never won by those being the loudest or the most outrageous. When an argument turns into a hateful yelling match, the meaning is completely lost. Ideas about Culture start many heated shouting matches because of the connotation of the word. Their culture directly influences the way people choose to view the world. When cultures clash; people use argument to say or show that their culture is better. That clashing moment is when violence and social degradation can come into the lives of people belonging to these different cultures. Cultures should never been associated with hate, including argument, instead they should be accepted and appreciated. Deborah Tannen’s “The Triumph
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) and use this logic to declare the Arab-Israeli conflict an Islamic attack on the Jewish faith. On a grander scale, religion, in helping to define the cultures which in turn define civilizations, is no doubt a factor in any contention between Western and Islamic Civilization; indeed, it is often characterized as the very basis for the clash. This is not only a common Western perspective but also one of Sayyid Qutb, one of the greatest inspirations to of the jihad, who wrote that “the cause of Islamic Jihaad should be sought in the very nature of Islam” (Gerges 4) and of a “war the Jews began to wage against Islam and Muslims” (Stevens).
But Western critics of Israel take care to point
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Caste System The conquest of India by the Aryans led to a set of social institutions and class divisions that has persisted with only minor changes down to the present day. This set of social institutions and class divisions is commonly known as the caste, or class, system. It emerged from the clash of cultures in ancient India and was based on the superiority of the invading peoples over their conquered subjects.In a sense, the clash of cultures became an issue of color, because the Aryan invaders, primarily light-skinned people, were contemptuous of their subjects, who were darker. Light skin came to imply high status, while dark skin suggested the opposite.Indian classes were a set of
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The workplace is a diverse arena where people of different cultures are forced to coexist and cooperate in order for a company to become successful. In some cases people from different backgrounds and cultures can learn from one another and will then make the group stronger. In other cases, however, the cultures can clash due to each other's ignorance. The key to establishing a solid foundation of cultural understanding is to be open-minded, educated and aware of diversity.Communication IssueSome employees would say that the clash between two coworkers occurred on a May afternoon but truly the squabble had been brewing for years. The two coworkers, Jimmy and Pablo, had been working at the
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from war. America is symbolized as opportunity, a new chance and help symbolized by Baba Quan saving Uncle Michael from death and Thanh meeting her husband next to the Monkey Bridge. Unfortunately in Mai's case this link is very weak because of the clash of cultures and generation. The culture of the materialistic world is what Mai and her mother will have to accept to live in the world. Her mother is a strong orthodox and liberal in culture and this creates the tensions of the clash of ideals.Another focus is that of how Immigrants must adapt to society and the influence of the American Dream upon them. The mother and daughter's roles virtually switch because the mother must completely
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highlights the changing role of women during the 1920s in The Great Gatsby.
The 1920s allowed women to have a lot of new freedom, but women were still presented with setbacks that kept them from fully experiencing it. The Clash of Cultures in the 1910s and 1920s website explains how women were more restricted in how they dressed before the 1920s. It describes how women were forced to wear corsets and frilly clothes that were more conservative. This conservative way of dress changed during the 1920s with the flappers (“Image and Lifestyle”). The website goes on to explain that even though women had many new opportunities during the time period, they were still not given important roles at work
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pointing out these similarities and elaborating on how they contribute towards the same idea. By understanding contact zones and how to successfully handle them, one can effectively bridge the gap between cultures, and move towards the common goal of understanding and thereby become more complete.
Throughout Rodriguez’s narration in “The Achievement of Desire”, one cannot help but draw parallels between his story and Pratt’s concept of contact zones: “a social space[s] where cultures meet, clash, and grapple with each other, often in contexts of highly asymmetrical relations of power” (Pratt 501). Rodriguez frequently refers to a struggle; he feels that his parents’ lack of education limits
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communities and contact with different cultures. For instance the Mosques within Muslim communities in the Netherlands. The religious service of the Mosques, which occur at least four times a day, can cause irritation among Dutch citizens mainly for the reason of the noise pollution. Since subcultures have a different vision on life they can clash with the Dutch prospects.Overall the Dutch are afraid of the violence that different cultures carry along thus rather not have foreigners in the Netherlands to exclude these possibilities. Furthermore some cultures have not fully integrated in the Dutch culture which causes conflicts since some immigrants are at a certain phase of civilisation that
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The relationship between a character and their world can lead us to a deeper understanding of significant ideas in the text. ‘Witness’ directed by Peter Weir in 1985 effectively demonstrates how a crime fiction genre is explored through the significant ideas of characterisation and a clash of cultures. Ultimately, these aspects created through the relationships between characters and their worlds, allows us to have a deeper understanding of any texts main ideas.
The genre of crime fiction, exposed in 'Witness' has demonstrated the corruption within the police force after the murder of an undercover officer. The use of suspenseful non-diegetic music and an extreme close up shot of Samuel's
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difference between eastern and western cultures. In Asian countries, managers have the highest power in any positions and the employees are supposed to do as what their managers say. On the other hand, in western countries like the United States, the role of managers is to direct the employees toward the target of the company. The employees have the right to say what they think and what they are looking for in their jobs as well as in their managers. When east meets west, a clash may occur. As an effective managers, they should be well-prepared about culture shock, problem-solving. We cannot deny that the difference in cultures may give the managers a good chance to explore a new
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their traditions and roots, even while in America, is cherished and kept with the utmost sincerity to the family.
Another clash of culture is seen when Victoria’s brother returns home from college to help with the harvest of the grapes. Victoria’s brother, Pedro Jr., introduces himself to Paul with the name “Pete” to which his father becomes aggravated at the change in name. “Pete” looks and feels to be of a typical joyful college student who is care-free and almost the opposite of his father, regardless if they share the same name. The clash between cultures is seen even through the son’s nickname.
One aspect that we are able to see through this film is the beautiful imagery of a Latin
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The books mention that world culture is not monolithic and that “there is no single set of cultural practices that will be uniformly adopted everywhere”. The idea that globalization can create homogenous world culture is not realistically possible. Not every country will unify and adapt to form a homogenous world culture. Therefore, rather than thinking that globalization creates homogenous world culture, it is a force for cross-cultural exchange between countries. For example, the establishment of McDonalds is part of American culture, yet it has been adapted to the taste and preferences of different culture.
The clash of civilization thesis by Samuel Hunginton anticipated
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identified the end purpose for humans was union with God and this was achieved through following five primary precepts: protecting the innocent, reproduction, worshiping, education and living in an ordered society. Aquinas argued that all people seek to do good but due to their faulty reasoning sometimes they sometimes only achieve apparent good.
Some would argue that Natural Law has many strengths. They often claim that it is a good theory because observations of many cultures appear to show similar laws and customs. This supports the idea that there is a universal telos which all should follow and thus the primary precepts give us a successful way of determining right from wrong. Killing
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As we entered the new millennium, Edward Said’s article, “The Clash of Ignorance”, appeared in the October 22 edition of The Nation, in 2001. His paper was a critical response to my thesis which first appeared in 1993, “The Clash of Civilizations?”. The following years saw many adopting his argument as a valid counter to my thesis. However, I believe that his argument builds more to the notion of the clash of civilizations stated in my paper, strengthening it, rather than weakening it. In this paper, I will discuss and address the arguments that he had put forward.
If you recall my main point in “The Clash of Civilizations?”, I argued that the conflicts of the future will dominantly be due
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Merger and Acquisition happen all the time. But many companies unable to stimulate growth post mergers due to conflicting corporate cultures. Managing human resources means managing the people and cultures. In merger and acquisition (M&A), it is not merely as easy as putting two cultures into one bowl. Instead, it challenges the management to consider any possible culture clash, address employees concern due to management change, and the need to define the new company’s directions. Although managing cultures can ensure the smooth transitions in M&A, many executives regard managing culture is a low priority compare to the financial deals and strategic aspects (Marks & Mirvis
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When it comes to moral dilemmas between cultures, there is a grey area that can sometimes make it difficult to resolve issues surrounding the dilemma. What is morality? How is it possible to know what is morally correct when cultures differ so vastly? To answer these questions, and many more regarding the moral dilemmas in the world, there are theories that have been developed to resolve them. One example is known as Ethical Relativism. Ethical Relativism has been developed on the basis that there is no common set of values that can apply to everyone, as there are an infinite number of cultures that exist and clash with each other. Morality is extremely relative, so the best way to solve a
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There have been many conflicts throughout the history of human kind. Even though these conflicts cannot be clearly foreseen, there are analysts and political scientists that study the behavior of some countries and make very accurately predictions. Samuel P. Huntington wrote in 1993 the article “Clash of Civilizations” where he analyses the situation after the cold war and makes an evaluation of what can happen in a not distant future.
Huntington points out that the main source of the conflict will not be the ideologies or even economics, but the cultural background. He warns that the Nation States will be the most powerful actors in world affairs, but the main conflict in global politics
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; female clothing must look different from male and non-believing women's clothing (Rahman, 2003). To interact successfully and without offense in any business environment, understanding the ethics and values driving the culture of that environment is essential.Conflicts and DilemmasConflicts of InterestConflicts of interest arise when personal ethics and values clash with those of the organization. Before joining any organization, individuals must investigate the ethics, values, and corporate cultures of the organization to ensure compatibility. However, a common dilemma often occurs after compatibility has been verified. Organizations are regularly compelled to readjust their code of ethics
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Culture clash: conflict arising from the interaction of people with different cultural values. In the video “Postville: When Cultures Collide”, the small town of Postville, Iowa endures major a major culture shock from first having a moderate amount of people from the Jewish community in New York relocate to the shrinking town, to furthermore have a rise of Hispanic growth. Residents of the town inherently struggled to befriend the Jewish community due to the wide divergence of cultures creating many misconceptions. When the Mexican immigrants took home to Postville, Iowa the locals responded with less welcoming arms and were quite skeptical from only having a lack of knowledge of the new
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it easier to maintain the boundaries that form the American culture in the United States.
The growth of a culturally-Americanized world has been met, at times, with some unfavorable opposition. Although the promises of freedom and equality seem pleasing to the ears of an American citizen, they clash with many teachings and ideas of some of the world’s various cultures. Other nations, especially some in the Middle East of Asia, resist the change and only see America as the modern-day conquistador. Cultural Imperialism has become the new form of dominance over small countries by more powerful ones. Not only does this method deny what Theodore Roosevelt wrote in his autobiography, but it is a
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an individual or group’s face is threatened. Similarly, people from individualistic, low context cultures interact differently from collectivist, high context cultures. This means that “people from collectivistic cultures with an interdependent self-image are concerned with giving ‘other-face’ or ‘mutual face,’ so they adopt a conflict style of ‘avoiding or integrating’” (Griffin “List”). Likewise, “people from individualistic cultures with an independent self-image are concerned with protecting self-face, so they adopt a conflict style of ‘dominating’” (Griffin “List”).
Mentioned earlier, Stella Ting-Toomey is the individual who developed the Face-Negotiation theory and she is also a
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To what extent does Russell use comedy to explore the clash of class and culture in Educating Rita?
Class is a system in which separates society into sections of social and economic class. This is determined by how much money you have, who you are friends with and your priorities or beliefs. Class can be divided into three sections, upper class, middle class and lower class.
Willie Russell has created two extremes of culture, putting them together to identify the differences between them, how these two cultures collide as the play progresses. The play displays the reconstruction of Rita an initially self-assured, vociferous and socially naïve individual who is confined in
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KAWING LAMThe Clash of Civilizations: Culture & ConflictIn the modern world, the West is the most modernalized and powerful society. The main reason is because the West not only knows how to invent but also learn from other civilizations and make changes to become better. However, the non - Western countries, especially the Islamic and Chinese societies are catching up. As they are growing in a fast pace and have more control to the world, they both wanted to be the dominant country in the world in order to spread and introduce their cultures to other countries. Huntington (1996) also states that the non - Western countries have resented the rise of the West and reacted against it as
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Lately there has been a thought that the difference in Civilizations is another issue that may cause a conflict. Starting from World War I the arguments raised by nations were over an ideology: fascism vs. communism, communism vs. democracy. Some people believe that the next step would be a war based on a cultural sense and religion. Such war would unite people with similar beliefs, views on the world, language, tradition and history. They believe the conflict of the future will occur along the cultural fault lines separating civilizations .
So what exactly is the clash of civilizations? This was briefly addressed in Samuel Huntington’s paper “The clash of civilizations?”. In order to
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that migrant workers face in the American agricultural industry. Similarly, the Woodcutter by Robert Gwathmey shows how black workers in the south were destined to hard labor jobs with relatively little income. The Clash of Civilizations describes how the Western civilization took advantage of their modernity to assert their dominance and oppress other cultures. Overall, the west has used their advancement to exploit the under developed nations around the world for their resources and cheap labor.
America has rough history regarding the treatment of minorities, especially when the poor treatment leads to a better life for the oppressors. The good life for westerners has evolved over the
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When Two Cultures CollideThings Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe and The Tempest by William Shakespeare tell two similar stories about the events that occur when two completely different cultures clash. During times of European colonization, Achebe and Shakespeare offer their take on the interaction between the European invader and the natives of the lands. Although these two works of literature were written in different time periods, they both tell similar stories and display similar themes. Achebe and Shakespeare shine a light upon how European colonists used differences between the two cultures, such as religion, appearance, and language, to initially immerse themselves into the native
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Francis Fukuyama and Samuel Huntington are two of the most controversial and influential modern political theorists of our times. Fukuyama’s book, The End of History and the Last Man, and Huntington’s book, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, pose two very conflicting theories on international relations. In this paper I will summarize and compare/contrast the two theories. Both theories, written since the fall of communism and updated since the first gulf war, have been widely read, taught, praised and criticized
The End of History and the Last Man is a book in which Francis Fukuyama argues the controversial thesis that the end of history, a time when class
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, having different ways in communication can cause misunderstanding and confrontation.
Leadership would be another aspect in the culture difference. The balance of power in organizations between individuals and teams varies between cultures. This leads to different concepts of leadership and authority. In the high power-distance culture, like India and China, the leader is expected to be forceful and keep the distance from the subordinates. However, in the country like the US, leaders remain more or less on the same level as the rest of the team to involve them closely in decision making.
Organization issues would be very serious talking about the culture clash. Organizations are a
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regard, we can outline two major types of conflicts: at the level of interest and at the level of behaviour.
Conflict at the level of interest appears when the managers and employees differently see the desired results of the work performance. While the behavioural level of conflict exists when the parties clash over the perceived differences and engage in open confrontation (Leopold, Harris, Watson, 1999).
The two abovementioned types of conflicts may derive from the several major sources, which are:
Organisational. This source is related to hierarchy and inability to resolve the conflict of interest. The problem of `employees vs management` still exists in many organisations, consequently