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I was unprepared, unknowing, and curious about what South County middle school would offer me for my observation. South County is established in a well developed neighborhood with most of the houses costing $329,232 or more. The middle school has over 1,100 students with different ethnic backgrounds including: 59% Caucasian, 29% Hispanic, 6% African American, 4% unknown ethnicity, and 2% Asian (publicschoolreview.com, 2013). As I walked into the middle school the Leander ISD vision is posted on the walls stating, “Every student is encouraged, supported, and challenged to achieve the highest levels of knowledge, skills, and character.” South County tries to uphold this vision by...
2189 words - 9 pages
In this document, I will describe a teacher and her students in an observation I did in a false
beginner English as Second Language (ESL) class at the University of Texas. The purpose of this
report is to reflect on the teacher’s teaching strategies and class environment in relation with what I
have learned in my Teaching Methods class. Throughout this paper, a variety of students’ and
teacher’s behavior will be discussed that will be analyzed in the reflection section.
II. Before the Observation
After I arranged a day and time to go observe the ESL teacher, she asked me if we could
meet a few minutes before the class to give me a brief overview...
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I use to believe that being a teacher was going to be eight hours of teaching and being
with children. Being a teacher seemed to be the easiest career choice out there for me. After
viewing the students of all ages and levels, I have changed my opinion of teaching. There is an
unknown side to the world that can only be seen when inside a classroom. Watching the students
have made me realize that being a teacher will carry some difficulties. Observing has made me
realize that there is more to teaching, the...
961 words - 4 pages
On Monday February 24, 2014 I visited Mrs. Randus’ third and fourth grade split class at Kline Elementary. Her classroom consisted of a mixture of third and fourth grade students who were tested and labeled as gifted in various subject matters. Mrs. Randus was responsible for teaching the children language and reading skills. The class consisted of an equal number of boys and girls, along with a wide variety of cultures. According to my observation, Cushner, McClelland, and Safford (2000) were correct when they stated,...
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These observations were made in three collegiate ESL courses during the semester, a Writing Class, a Grammar Class and a Reading/Discussion Class.
This class was mainly teacher-centered. The teacher explained the agenda, reviewed a feedback survey, and then led the next activity which lasted about 1 hour. Even though she elicited student participation, she facilitated the discussions. As the class discussed each student's essay map on the overhead, she asked students to critique the quality. Sometimes she scaffolded the critiques to bring awareness to the main grammatical problems. The Attention Theories, including Krashen's Monitor theory and Bialystock's explicit...
2228 words - 9 pages
Mrs. Laners’ teaches first grade at Smallville Elementary School in Smallville, Ohio. Her class is made up of nineteen students, eight of which have been diagnosed with ADHD. In addition to ADHD one student has also been diagnosed as oppositionally defiant, meaning he does the opposite of what is being said to him. He is the only student to have his own desk; all other students have assigned seats along three long tables on one side of the classroom. There is no teacher assistant assigned to this classroom.
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Memphis Intermediate School is located in the city of Memphis, TN. It is comprised of grades 3-5 with a total enrollment of 464 students and a student/teacher ratio of 20. Memphis has been in operation for only seven years and is a public school. The ethnicity of the student body is largely White at 86%, followed by Hispanic 6%, Multi-racial 2%, Asian 2%, Native American 2%, and Black 1%, “not provided” and Pacific Islander are both less than 1%. There is prevalence of students who require free or reduced lunch, about...
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Classroom Observation INTRODUCTION
I attended a second grade class at Smallville Elementary on February 22, 2014; the class began promptly at 0855. There are 26 children in this second grade class. There are 15 male students and 11 female students. The student diversity is 2 Hispanics, 1 African-American, 1 East Indian, and 1 New Zealander (White but with an extreme accent). Three children were left-handed.
Two days a week in the morning, the children participate in a reading and writing block called “literacy and writing...
1137 words - 5 pages
Maria and I were going to observe a kindergarten classroom social studies class that combined their lesson with a first grade class. We were scheduled to arrive at 2 PM. When I arrived at 1:50 PM, Maria was waiting outside the school and informed me that she had already gone in and was told that there was going to be a fire drill in just a few minutes. We waited for the fire drill to finish and then went into the class. The time was about 2:10 at this point, so the teachers were running a little behind.
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Before I observed this particular class, I looked up information about the English Language Program (ELP) on-line. This program is designed for people who wish to expand their English for communication, study, business, pleasure, etc. This program offers four core courses. The core course that I observed was an Intermediate Reading and Discussion group which meets every Tuesday and Thursday from 1:00-3:15.
Before the class observation:
I met the instructor before class to discuss overall goals as well as goals for that day’s lesson. The overall goal of the course is to improve reading comprehension skills, increase vocabulary and reading speed, and develop discussion skills. The goal of...
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I observed an upper level biology class, in which the teacher is applying a combination of collaborative (team-based) learning, problem-solving approaches, discussions on "what-if" scenarios and student-teaching.
Below you will find a general overview of the class, a crude analysis of reasons for various successes and problems, and finally a more detailed analysis of things to address in this particular class.
The class atmosphere was congenial and the students were actively engaged in discussion. You have clearly developed a format where students participate in"authentic" discussion and understand theiraccountability to that discussion and to their peers. The learning...
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Classroom Observation After fifteen hours of classroom observation, I look forward to being a teacher even more than at the beginning of this semester. However, there is a lot more to learn about the profession of teaching. It is very different than what one might anticipate. Everything I have learned up to this point has only made my future as a...
772 words - 3 pages
Exploration, into the workings of a classroom, always provides a unique experience. Each teacher does her class a little different. There are so many different standards that must be reached and so many different opinions on the best way to meet the requirements. Experiencing the differences in each class helps me to develop my opinion and ideas on what I want to see in my classroom and how I want to handle my students. I work at United Methodist Church’s child development center/ preschool. I did my observations there. I work full a full day on Thursday and have had the chance to see how different teachers handle different situation and how they implement there curriculum. So from 7:30 to...
2108 words - 8 pages
Classroom Observation When I arrived at Casey Elementary School I was sure that kindergarten was the grade I wanted to teach. After my observation was done I knew that a higher grade was more appropriate for me. Working with such young kids at a close proximity had given me a better perspective of what grade and age I would be most beneficial and more comfortable teaching. Observing in the classroom has given me a larger standpoint about myself and my capabilities in the classroom.
Observing at Casey Elementary I received...
1737 words - 7 pages
Primary Reference Source
Loucopoulos P and V Karakostas (1995) System Requirements Engineering. McGraw Hill International.
Observational methods involve an investigator viewing users as they work and taking notes on the activity which takes place. Observation may be either direct, where the investigator is actually present during the task, or indirect, where the task is viewed by some other means such as through use of a video camera.
Typical Application Areas
Useful early in specification for obtaining qualitative data. This method is an alternative (non-involving) version of Contextual Inquiry. It is useful for studying currently...
1186 words - 5 pages
Education is not a group of classes containing a series of facts to be used on a test and then forgotten. Education is a series of tools that students use every day in the classroom and in the real world. The English language is the primary language of the United States and people use it to communicate throughout the world. Yet, many students have difficulty using the language properly. As an educator, I would like to make a difference and help students write better and use proper grammar and punctuation. All students are capable of learning and learning about language does not mean students simply learn a series of rules. Using the language is the key to understanding it.
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Meeting Academic Expectations in the ClassroomIn the classroom that I observed I found it hard to pick just one academic expectation to talk about in this paper. Out of six classes that I observed I have chosen three that I believe meeting the academic expectations fully.One class that I found that meet the expectations number 2.22 is Mrs. Philips photography class. In this expectation she lets the students develop their abilities to apply the in real life. The teacher assigned them to work on a book natural thing, for example the growth of a tree or the life a butterfly. The book could not have word, only pictures and it could be of any thing that grows or changes over time. This project...
1439 words - 6 pages
Teaching Status Report
After the wondering, dreading, and preparing, I am teaching in a middle school classroom. I entered the school feeling very ready. After weeks of studying, discussing, and writing about topics related to teaching, I was ready to implement my learning. During my first week I started by simply observing my cooperating teacher. From this observation, I have formed many opinions and views on my teacher’s approaches to classroom management and other topics. In regards to classroom management and discipline, my cooperating teacher is a naturally confident and strong-minded individual. When he walks into a classroom, he commands attention and even his peers feel...
1734 words - 7 pages
Technology and Education
The idea of integrating technology (like computers in every classroom and an overhead projector that is connected to the teachers computer) into education is a relatively new idea, and when I first started researching the topic I tried to look for the adverse effects of technology and education. Through my research I have decided that integrating technology into the classroom is indeed a good idea. Even though some teachers and students have a hard time working with the new technology many schools are starting to use, the adverse effects of technology do not compare with all the benefits of integrating technology into education.
The Ameritech Electronic...
2721 words - 11 pages
Studies indicate that bullying is highly prevalent in classrooms today and that bullying has negative consequences on self-esteem, motivation and learning. Administrators understand the seriousness of bullying and agree that prevention programs should be implemented. Studies have been conducted on how to prevent bullying using school-wide inclusion programs but no studies have currently been conducted regarding one teacher’s attempt at providing a safe learning environment using these resources. As well, no current studies have confirmed which separate elements of these approaches can offer an educator success.
The researcher will study this particular phenomenon by observing...
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I. The Classroom Physical EnvironmentA. Observations1. Draw a map of the classroom. In your map include: clock, student desks, chairs, blackboards, computers, closets, shelves, learning centers, audio video equipment, bulletin boards, teacher's desk, plants, door, windows, animals, waste basket, pencil sharpener, tables, and other furniture and/or equipment,2. What is posted on the walls? How are displays arranged? Are people shown in the displays? List the different cultures or ethnic groups that are included in the displays.3. List the title and author of ten books that you see on the shelves.4. Describe the view seen through the windows.5. Describe the classroom in terms of lighting,...
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Behavior Intervention 1
RUNNING HEAD: Behavior Intervention
Behavioral intervention of a
schoolboy displaying low on-task behavior
in his classroom
Behavior Intervention 2
The on-task behavior of a schoolboy aged 11 named Alan was monitored over an
intervention period of 39 days. This period consisted of observation, intervention and
follow-up segments. Target behaviors were defined. These behaviors were then
isolated during the intervention to extricate the functional association of antecedents
and consequences. Previous studies from the Journal of Applied Behavior...
525 words - 2 pages
Special Education "" Final Exam Review 1999 1. You will be teaching a grade 3 class in September and want to use learning centres. Your class has a wide range of students including: 3 gifted, 3 with reading difficulties, 3 who act out and disrupt. Parents have been very resistant to the idea of centres because of the Grade 3 assessments. To address their concerns, the principal has arranged a Parent Meeting so that you can present your learning centres approach. Outline your presentation. Remember to include"¦ 2000 1. You are teaching a Grade 3 class. You are using learning centres, co-operative groups and "˜hands-on' learning activities. There is a wide range of ability in the...
694 words - 3 pages
Mobile devices such as mobile phones, smart phones, palmtops and handheld computers (personal digital assistants (PDAs) and tablet PCs Kukulska-Hulme (2005) add an extra dimension to the technology used in teaching and learning. This change has led to a new concept called m-learning (mobile learning) and there are now a number of examples where mobile devices have been integrated into formal education and/or informal learning (Kukulska-Hulme 2009).
Opportunities such as learner-centred learning and learning outside the classroom are made possible within m-learning due to the number of different attributes that are offered by mobile devices (Kukulska-Hulme 2005). Pachler et al, (2010)...
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Fs 1 episode 1 school as a learning environmentDocument TranscriptFIELD STUDY 1 The Learner's Development and EnvironmentEpisode 1SCHOOL AS A LEARNING ENVIRONMENT______________________________________________________________________________Name of FS Student Noel JabagatParohinog___________________________________Course _ BSED major in English__________________________ Year & Section I-CResource Teacher Mrs. Flerida L. Demegillo Signature _______________Cooperating School Binalbagan Catholic College - High School Department Your Target At the end of this activity, you will be competent in determining a school environmentthat provides social, physiological, and physical environment...
2303 words - 9 pages
Is Ethnography a Suitable method for Research on Residential Satisfaction and Community Participation.
Ethnography within its wider field of research is described as the study of people’s behaviour in terms of social contexts, with emphasis on interaction in everyday situations (Lindsay, 1997). It is further defined as research that constitutes the art and science of describing a group or culture (Fetterman, 1989). However, the specific definition that will be used throughout this work, is that of its role within qualitative research, which is summarised by Wainwright (1997) in his paper in The Qualitative Report, stating that ethnography can be distinguished as:
1776 words - 7 pages
Collaboration in the world of education has become an increasingly popular method of addressing a variety of school issues, such as curriculum design, behavioral plans, professional development and management of resources. One of the areas in which collaboration is becoming more popular is co-teaching in special education, where special education teachers and general education teachers share the planning and instruction responsibilities for inclusion classrooms (Friend & Cook, 2010). As academic standards for the education of students with disabilities are held to the same standards as their typical peers due to the No Child Left Behind Act and the Individuals with Disabilities Education...
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2. SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS
In recent years, the quality of education became both a subject of scientific inquiry and an applied
field of interest in educational policy and management (Bosker & Scheerens, 1989: 41-751 .
School effectiveness is defined by Sihono Yusof (2012: 142-152) as the ability of a school to reach
and maintain aims and objectives in the manner that it can been seen as an reflection on the
extent in which a school can achieve there function in the fields of technical and economics,
human and social, political, culture, and educational policy and management (Scheerens, 2013: 4).
School effectiveness is also defined by Scheerens (2000, 20) as the way in which schools ...
6305 words - 25 pages
European Scientific Journal May edition vol. 8, No.11 ISSN: 1857 - 7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857- 7431
THE USEFULNESS OF SYSTEMIC FUNCTIONAL GRAMMAR
AND ITS IMPACT ON STUDENTS' COMMUNICATIVE SKILLS
IN ESL CONTEXT
The University of South Australia, The Division of Education, Arts and Social sciences, School of
As globalization spreads investigation of the teaching of English grammar in the ESL/EFL
context is of critical interest to learners. This comparative study examined the place of grammar
in the ESL context; described the kind of grammar that is used by teachers to design teaching
activities in ESL classes; and discusses the implications for English...
1696 words - 7 pages
Creationism and intelligent design should be given the same status as evolution in the classroom according to 29% of teachers in a poll by Teachers’ TV (2008). While half of those polled considered otherwise, some 89% thought it should be discussed if raised in a science lesson. Such views from the metaphorical ‘chalk face’ no doubt reflect the reality of the classroom but resources geared to facilitate this are sparse indeed.
Nor are such views confined to teachers. In a survey of the UK population some 27% considered that intelligent design should be taught alongside evolution in science lessons. (Lawes 2009). A recent survey among churchgoers revealed that 61% thought...
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In this outline, I will briefly describe my area of focus in my research provided with reasons. Then, I will go on to describe observations that I find inspiring, useful and worth mentioning. The research question will be stated and methods of data collection and respective difficulties will be illustrated thereafter. Finally, I will indicate what I have already read and what I intend to read in the bibliography.
Area of Focus
In my research, I will focus on the area of motivations. It is because in my observation, I found most students on task even they have been misbehaving, let alone what ability they have, what year they study or what lessons they attend. I have never seen this...
1476 words - 6 pages
Many elementary schools promote sustained silent reading time. In sustained silent reading, students read silently for a designated time period every day in school. It will usually last for about 20-30 minutes. They select their own reading material and are not asked to answer comprehension questions or write book reports. Sustained Silent Reading is based on the theory that the more a student reads, the better the student will comprehend what they are reading. This will lead to better attitudes about reading, higher test scores and a better vocabulary. Teachers devote class time to drop everything they are working on so the students will have a chance to stop and read...
1946 words - 8 pages
It has been theorised by Liddle (1963) that disaffected children can make up to 25% of the school population, however this term can refer to several different groups of students, including those with SEN needs. From what I have observed and the classes I have taught I feel that there tends to be around three or four ‘invisible children’ per classroom, depending on class size. These children are generally overlooked by members of staff as do not openly contribute to class discussions and most importantly never cause any disruption. The following essay will attempt to look at the strategies available to include this group of children within the maths classroom, linking together observation and...
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Executive summaryThis report is used to analyze the Rotot Sdn. Bhd., which is own by Mr. Gabriel and his business partners, training activities that are conducted currently. In this report does not only refer to the training program of the company, but also the trainers, trainees, training parameter and implements some of the proper training activities that have been analyze according to the theory and practical. After analyzing the training activities that have been done by the Rotot corporate, most of the training process was not properly done. For instance, the individual need assessment does not fully reflect to the needs of the trainees and trainer; secondly, the trainers don't...
1588 words - 6 pages
Personnel selection, supervision, and evaluation are significant factors in employing the right person for the right job. Teachers are no exception. In fact, the task of hiring quality teachers is vast given the implication that a school must adhere to the decision permanently with little recourse to alter the choice of the selected candidate. While discovering a perfect formula would be ideal, many variables exist in each process. While every school aspires to hire top educators, efficiently supervise teachers, and effectively evaluate them, obstacles can impede success when high-quality teachers are not in the classroom, which negatively impacts student achievement.
Hiring is merely the...
2401 words - 10 pages
In 1861, the Sunflower State was adopted into the USA as the 34th state. It is home to the geographical center of the United States and not to forget the largest ball of twine ever recorded. With its vast plains and prariers Kansas is the largest producer of wheat and is known as the ‘bread-basket state’. Many schools in this agricultural governance still base their hours around the harvest schedule allowing the children to lend a hand in the tradition of family farming. There is currently over 2.8 million Kansans calling this prairie land home. Kansans are predominantly white, Christian, republicans and have an average income of about 50k with about 11% below poverty. Recent educational...
2330 words - 9 pages
It has been over a decade now since we’ve been hearing from federal agencies, professional organizations and teaching accreditation agencies about the need to integrate technology into school curriculum. Culp, Honey and Mandinach (2005) reported despite several educational reports and other governmental reports of the large investments in instructional technology resources, computers, high speed internet access and other forms of technology within the country’s schools are yet to be effectively integrated into instruction in most our nation’s K-12 classrooms.
The true meaning for technology integration means to integrate different forms of technologies and technology-based resources and...
1629 words - 7 pages
An investigative study into the curriculum provisions that help students with learning disabilities in the private regular schools of Dubai achieve better academic skills.
The current universal trend of including students with special needs in an inclusive setting has gained momentum in the United Arab Emirates with the advent of the federal law 29/2006. Moreover, it is in accordance with the United Nations Salamanca statement (UNESCO, 1994) wherein it ensures that education is a fundamental right for every child and it is the responsibility of the state to provide the adequate opportunity to achieve the child’s maximum potential. This study would help to obtain an insight...
1910 words - 8 pages
Chaos, disaster, everything destroyed. This is the visual that I thought I would see when entering a classroom filled with twenty kindergarten students. Sandy Creek elementary school breaks that vision as the students can be seen walking reverently and hastily to get to the gym for their morning messages from the principal. With over 670 students, the gym was filled with chatter and excitement to hear what the announcements were for that day (Texas Education Agency Accountability, 2013). Sandy Creekelementary lies right on the boarder of the cities Cedar Park and Leander and is hidden behind the Running Brushy middle school. Since 2006 the school’s amount of students has been slowly...
1113 words - 4 pages
All About Staffing
I. Nature of Staffing
Staffing is an organization-wide function, comparable to other functions such as marketing, focused on solving problems and adding value with a company's human, social, and intellectual capital. Staffing includes attracting and hiring talented people, as well as developing, appraising, and rewarding them through performance management and training programs. Staffing has a heavy legal emphasis, since employment and labor laws significantly impact both employee and employer rights and responsibilities.
Staffing is the process of recruiting, selecting and training of personnel. It means putting the right men on the right jobs.
3446 words - 14 pages
Motivation affects nearly 75% of K-12 learners in education. It is a problem that effects students' learning ability, causing them to detach from the classroom setting, which later results in failure on standardize tests. Motivation is very essential in education. It implicates the reason of a child's actions and behaviors in a particular way. The theoretical background for this study centers around ways students' interest level arises and fails, and what strategies and activities motivates them when learning. Educational researchers pronounces that students are motivated in education, proving that they learn best when they take lead of the academic curriculum. By taking lead of the academic...
6714 words - 27 pages
The University Of Trinidad And TobagoCentre for Education ProgrammeField Observation ReportAt The Penal Secondary SchoolIn partial fulfilment of the coursePRAC 3001PRACTICUM V: Engaging in Classroom Practice IInstructor: Dr. Pearl RiversTABLE OF CONTENTSIntroductionAnalysis of the school and classroom of the field teaching experienceA diagram of the layout of the classroomTeaching /Learning ExperienceAnalysis of Challenge EncounteredSample of Lesson PlansExamples of Lesson materialsAlignment of Lesson Objectives and Assessment StrategiesReflection and Self- Evaluation of the Field - teaching ExperienceINTRODUCTION"A pupil needs a teacher who knows his work, who has the gift of teaching, who...
1046 words - 4 pages
Normalisation, as defined by Ashman & Elkins, (2008) is the ‘belief that people with a disability or impairment should enjoy the same rights, privileges, opportunities, and access to services and facilities as those who do not have impairment’. In a country where diversity and equality are promoted within our nations Identity, the concept of ‘Normalisation’ is a concept which should also come naturally to Australian societal behaviours.
Normalisation is a process which cannot operate without the appropriate support from both the educational community and the wider community. This support exists within the integration and development of Policies, Principles, Legislations and Frameworks....
2337 words - 9 pages
Innovations that include strengthening the practice of formative assessment produce significant and often substantial learning gains.
-Black and William, 1998b, p. 140
This conclusion from influential review of research by Black and Wiliam (1998a, 1998b) on formative assessment has changed the face of assessment in current education system. This comprehensive review emphasises the potential of assessment in raising standards i.e. assessment for learning (AfL). During research, it was found that pupils gain achievement when teachers rely on formative assessment/s. Another outcome from their study claims that certain formative assessment practices...
3701 words - 15 pages
Special Educational Needs
What are the four separate categories of Special Educational Needs and constituent sub-categories, as detailed in the S.E.R.C. report?
1. Pupils with learning difficulties and disorders
· Pupils in need of Remedial Teaching (Learning Support)
· Pupils with Specific Learning Disabilities
· Pupils with Specific Speech and Language disorders
2. Pupils with Physical and Sensory Disabilities
· Pupils with Physical Handicap
· Pupils with Hearing Impairment
· Pupils with Visual Impairment
1576 words - 6 pages
There used to be a time, when the world once offered various kinds of free play to children, they once had access to the world at large; whether it was streets, alleys, or forests, where they were able to interact with the natural world without restriction. Today the lives of children are more structured and supervised. Concerns for safety and with modern housing offering limited or no outdoor play spaces keep children away from natural experiences. When children have free time, it is more often than not spent in front of the television or computers. If children aren't at home they are in schools. Unfortunately school environments are situated in grounds which are uninviting, sterile and...
1817 words - 7 pages
There are many concerns that teachers have about rules and regulations in education. Depending upon the teachers’ focus areas, they might be worried about the development of special education; if their primary focus is athletics, they are concerned about pass / play; if a teacher is in charge of an organization that is in need of extra funds, they are worried about the new rules concerning fundraising that view raffles as gambling. All in all, they all have legitimate concerns. The new teacher evaluation system, however, seems to be the most relevant, pressing concern.
The state’s new evaluation system was in response to administrators who produced, “superficial and capricious teacher...
1090 words - 4 pages
School is a very unique and significant journey in an individual's life. During these years a child develops and blossoms considerably, in almost every aspect of their being. There are numerous factors that influence a child's educational experience and their attitude towards school. Factors such as family life, peers, cognitive ability, personal integrity, administrative demeanor, race, socioeconomic status, and culture are exceedingly dynamic and, in most cases, ultimately fashion lifetime characteristics. In this observation report I will assess the ways in which a group of sixth graders convey themselves in their school environment.My research began at a middle school called McLane...
4111 words - 16 pages
For years, females have been marginalized by American society. Until 1920, they could not participate fully in the so-called democratic organization of this country by way of voting, and even then, it was considered "improper" for females to be involved or interested in politics. In years past, females were discouraged from entering certain professions, as the general consensus was that jobs that required intense levels of higher training were "male-only" jobs. Similarly, the place for females was considered to be at home taking care of the children, rather than attending university or going to work. Today, however, things are different. The outlook for the future is much brighter. Females...
2302 words - 9 pages
In order to fully understand and meet the needs of learners, teachers must be knowledgeable in using a variety of methods for assessment purposes. What is important is that teachers are able to understand and use assessment in a way that meets ‘best practice’. As students learn their knowledge expands and their skills develop, and for that reason teachers must use a combination of strategies to meet best practice in assessment. Not only must assessment follow learning in order to gauge a student’s performance for example, but there is also a place for using assessment before instruction in order make informed future instructional decisions.
In order to demonstrate...