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How people deal with culture shock, especially reentry culture shock and culture shock in young people.
What is culture shock?
Culture shock is the period of change that people go through when they move from a culture they know to a culture they are not used to. According to Ting-Toomey and Chung (2012), it is usually a short-term phenomenon, although it varies from person to person. When people move to a different culture, they can feel as though their identity has been taken from them. Culture shock can sometimes be a good thing. It can make people less ethnocentric. It can make people more flexible and aware of themselves. Sometimes, culture shock can cause someone to shut down and
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1 Definition of Culture
Culture as the most complex terms has countless different definitions
ranging from complicated phrases to the simple statement describing
culture as "the way we do things around here". The widely used
definition of culture is that of Meads (1951), "A body of learned
behaviour, a collection of beliefs, habits and traditions, shared by a
group of people and successively learned by people who enter the
society"(Joynt and Warner, 1996, P. 33). Hofstede(1980) created the
very illustrative definition of culture as "the collective programming
of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category
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they are moving to.2 Definition of Culture ShockNowadays there are many definitions for culture shock. The term Culture Shock was first mentioned in literature by Kalvero Oberg in 1960. In his article he defined Culture Shock as follows' the distress experienced by the sojourner as a result of losing all the familiar signs and symbols of social interaction' (Selmar, 1999, P.517). And these signs or cues include the thousand and one ways in which people orient themselves to the situations of daily life. Oberg mentioned at least six aspects of culture shock:(1) Strain due to the effort required to make necessary psychological adjustments.(2) A sense of loss and feelings of deprivation in regard
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Culture in simplicity is a body of learned behavior, a collection of beliefs, habits and traditions, shared by a group of people and successively learned by people who enter the society. Furthermore, culture is learned, not inherited. If this is correct, then it can be assumed that it is not impossible to learn new cultural traits and to unlearn old ones. Therefore, it must be feasible to integrate cultural differences. Cultural adaptation would involve many essentials as, language; verbal and non-verbal, economics, religion, politics, social institutions, values, attitudes, manners, customs, material items, aesthetics and education.Culture shock is primarily a set of emotional reactions to
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A SHOCKED CULTUREWhen speaking of the term "culture shock" immediately I identify with being in a foreign country for the first time. This is true but it is not the only exception of culture shock, many encounters can lead to culture shock. For example: starting a new job, moving to a new city, even moving to a new house. According to Kalervo Oberg, who is credited for finding the term "culture shock", there are four stages of this phenomenon. To assist me with describe the four stages I will use the events surrounding September 11, 2001. I will start with first explaining the honeymoon phase.During the honeymoon phase, just like that brief period after two people get married, it is a time
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"Preparing for a two year overseas assignment in Lagos, Nigeria, a U.S. business person during the 1970's submitted to no fewer than 27 shots as a protective measure against everything from yellow fever to hepatitis. Although he managed to avoid any dreaded tropical disease during his assignment, he contracted one malady for which there was no vaccination. The disease was culture shock". (Ferraro, 1998, 130)"Critically analyse why a manager working abroad might experience culture shock and what can be done to manage or alleviate it".From 1945 onwards, international business operations have become reality for a multitude of corporations. A profuse number of these companies' initial efforts
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to define the complex term of culture with varying elements of distinguishable characteristics is a difficult task. Today, culture is viewed as consisting primarily of the symbolic, ideational, and intangible aspects of human societies. The essence of a culture is not its artifacts, tools, or other tangible cultural elements but how the members of the group interpret, use, and perceive them I still remember the shock I got when I first moved here. What a terribly superficial culture this country has, I could not imagine. The way people treat each other, especially in conversations when they meet you, they may ask you: "How are you?" for that incidence beware that they do not really want to
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"Kids today have no moral values or sense of culture!" - a very common grievance of parents today whose parents -in their time- lamented about their lack of ethics and whose parents in turn complained of their unfavorable attitudes, whose parents again worried about the decline in tradition. This cycle of change in culture dates back even to times when what we now call 'our culture' and 'our ethics' were not even formed. It is evident that man has constantly felt the breath of changing values and cultural shock breathing down his neck, following him relentlessly over ages and posing him the same apparent danger that we claim to face today. Many have felt it, seen it, hated it and feared it
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Culture shock is one of the most grueling experience an individual has to go through when moving to a new location. In this week´s journal I will talk about my experience with culture shocks, how I overcame them and compare my journey with the model of the Expatriate Adjustment.
I had to endure this feeling multiple times before coming to London and to Hult. As we moved a lot as a family, I had to get comfortable with new surroundings very often. Every time I encountered a new environment, mixed feelings came up. Someone could call these experiences “mini culture shocks”, as they were not caused because of a change in culture. The differences were only of subcultural nature, since we moved
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Dealing with Culture Shock in American Expatriate Community
The American expatriate community is the population of all Americans that are temporarily or permanently living outside the borders of the United States. These overseas-Americans, numbering over 6.32 million strong (Association for American Residents Overseas), confront many issues when they leave their homeland and transition to a new life in a foreign country. These issues can include dealing with the local language or trying to unravel the esoteric tax laws overseas workers must follow.
One of the major issues that American expatriates (or “expats”) confront is the issue of culture shock (Top Eight). Culture shock, in
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Warning: Ready for a Culture Shock
What really is a culture shock? According to Webster’s II 1994 Dictionary, Culture is a particular form of civilization, esp. the beliefs, customs, arts, and institutions of society at a given tome. In this essay I have to admit I will not be discussing how the world is going to be hit by some huge culture shock, but how Culture and Identity relate to situations in my life. For those that know me, know that I was a child exposed to many things while growing up. I moved to many different cities throughout my life and embraced all that I saw around me. These movements brought me to learn and understand cultures besides my own. The way I was raised
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Personal Narrative- A Lesson in Culture Shock
“ You want to be the same as American girls on the outside.” (Tan, Amy) Like Tan in her narrative “Fish Cheeks”, everyone has had a time in their lives when they wanted to fit in at school or home. Sometimes it is hard to try to blend into the surroundings. Moving from Boston to Tallahassee has taught me a lot about such things like honor, pride, and self-reliance. Such is related to us in Wilfred Owens’s “Dulce et Decorum est” which is about his experience in World War I. Sometimes experiences such as moving can teach more about life than any long lecture from any adult. As the old saying goes: “Actions speak louder than words.”
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A sudden change in one’s surroundings can result in culture shock. Culture shock refers to the anxiety and surprise a person feels when he or she is discontented with an unfamiliar setting. The majority of practices or customs are different from what a person is used to. One may experience withdrawal, homesickness, or a desire for old friends. For example, when a person goes to live in a different place with unfamiliar surroundings, they may experience culture shock. Sometimes it is the result of losing their identity. In the article “The Phases of Culture Shock”, Pamela J. Brink and Judith Saunders describe four phases of culture shock. They are: Honeymoon Phase, Disenchantment
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Although periodically unpleasant, unsettling and possibly detrimental to anthropological
research due not only to self-alienation but to confused hostility from the host population, culture
shock can be an invaluable tool to a fieldworker. It forces one to overcome the cultural divides
between peoples, especially that of language; and, instead of withdrawing, it eventually forces
one to engage deeply and personally in cultural practices and, therefore, learn through direct
participation, even if reluctantly, rather than indirect observation. Learning through one's
mistakes, a hallmark of the latter stages of culture shock, helps to highlight salient cultural
differences between the
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In its evolution the multinational corporation faced serious contradictions. Evolving from its national context, the multinational corporation employs large numbers of employees of diverse nationalities and ethnicities. Westney (1993) notes that managers are, thus, caught between the institutional pressures to conform to the company norms and values, as well as to the cultural and social influences of its local national environment.
Foreign assignments require adjustment to new culture, new job, new language. The need to interact with host nationals at work and in general life makes the expatriate feel the culture shock. Culture shock can be best defined as a natural response to
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years during high school in Pennsylvania. Growing up in various locations proved to be difficult for Johanna. She had to assimilate to many new cultures while attempting to create and maintain an identity. As a self-proclaimed “sojourner,” it was interesting to speak with Johanna about how she negotiates her identity through an intercultural communication lens.
“Culture shock is the psychological and emotional reaction people experience when they encounter a culture that is very different from their own (Furnham & Bochner, 1986)” (Oetzel, 2009, p. 126). Although we all experience culture shock differently, researchers have compiled six different stages, which describe what
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Esmeralda JimenezBlock 28/9/03"Big Bob's Place"It is five years later and I can still remember my first, and last, visit to Big Bob's Place. Stopping in to see if anyone could tell us where to locate the turn we had missed, my mom and I, saw the most disgusting place we had ever seen. I could tell my mother was in total disbelief because of her red face and the loud gagging sound coming from her sunburned neck. She was about to throw-up the grease drenched fries and hamburger we had eaten earlier all over the beat- up chairs that couldn't withstand the weight of a feather. Big Bob owns and runs that restaurant in the middle of the town of Brownsville, Texas, ever since 1999. Even though the
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In this paper, I am trying to discuss the culture shock that people who study abroad face, or when they go to different cities. Culture shock refers to ‘‘the difficulties that you experience as you integrate into a new society’’ UCI Study Abroad Center. (n.d.). In my class I learned that there are many differences between cultures. These differences can be the reasons why people have a culture shock. For example, I had a culture shock first when I came to the U.S for study. My culture shock was because the relationship between men and women which is really different with my country. In Saudi Arabia the men cannot have a close relationship with women, which is okay here in the
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Culture in ancient times was defined as “the sum total of the equipment of the human individual, which enables him to be attuned to his immediate environment on the historical past on the other”. It reflects in effect what humans have added to Nature. It comprises the spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features of a society and includes, in addition to the arts and letters, the value systems, traditions, modes of life and beliefs of the society. It also absorbs from other cultures and undergoes changes with time, sometimes beneficial, sometimes regressive. (Barlas, 15). Culture shock is a severe psychological reaction that results from adjusting to the realities of a
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ending.Mai Thi Heip goes through her first culture shock at the age of seven. She is brought to a more than confusing world where she is told to forget her past and who she is, when in life that's really all that matters, and all that is really known especially at such a young age. Fully Americanized Heidi finds herself getting ready to go to Vietnam to reunite with her mother, and to unexpectedly be hit full force with cultural shock once again.Many people have never even heard of cultural shock until after they have experienced it. Definitively cultural shock is the anxiety and feelings such as confusion, surprise, and disorientation someone experiences. This is caused by coming in contact
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ethnocentric because people will always find some aspect of another culture that they don’t like. However, as cultural anthropologists, it is something they should constantly be aware of, so that when we are tempted to make value judgments about another way of life.
I can imagine in my mind the details of Elizabeth Fernea and Bob’s house as I read. I imagine that if I was Elizabeth Fernea then I will not accept the conditions. As Elizabeth Fernea first saw their house she experience culture shock. Culture shock means in the textbook “Cultures of the United State”, “the change or adjustment period of becoming socialized into a new culture with its own life ways” (9). Moving to a new place
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Linton does not have enough knowledge to conclude with the right thought. She compares Toilets as the "shrine", hospitals as the "great temple or latipsoh", medicine kid as "the charm box", and etc. When she evaluate her culture with the Nacirema culture, it creates a certain degree of ethnocentrism, she believes that her culture is more correct and superior than the Nacirema culture, she later states that the Nacirema is "a magic -ridden culture". Culture shock is generated in piece of writing when she observed the Nacirema culture, she believes that the Nacirema culture is a strange culture. She concludes her writing by saying "It is hard to understand how these people have exited so long under the burdens of their beliefs".
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own unique way of conducting business (traditions, viewpoints, philosophies, etc.) (Kotter, 2002).
• Video 2 showed Ranjini Manian, CEO of Global Adjustments talk about culture shock especially in the case of expatriates transplanted to a new geographic location foreign and different from the social and corporate culture one is used to in his home country affecting personal and professional life. She talks about preparing for the 'shock' for by doing so one can overcome it.
• Video 3 showed a clip from the comedy movie 'Outsourced' where the 'transplanted American' explains 'American Kitsch' - in this particular scene, that of burgers and the branding of cows and their meats, to a
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Kingdom that are: homesickness, culture shock and language.
‘’There are clearly challenges for international students studying at higher education institutions in the UK’’ ( Bamford, 2008 ).It is quite normal that international students in their first year might find studying abroad uncomfortable as the familiar surroundings and faces are being replaced by new faces, culture, activities and scenery. Therefore, here homesickness often takes place, it is defined as a feeling of distress and anxious that affects sleep, concentration and health, it occurs when a student is being separated from home, even though is not a sign of weakness despite the real name. When a person is born he/she makes a
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eventually exploiting the developing countries resources. This is where managerial problems arise. Managers have to go through culture shock when being sent to an abroad corporation location while making sure employees are paid fairly and maintaining the ethical duty of their post.
Culture shock is probably one of the hardest things management has to face when involved with globalization. Different people from different parts of the world have different laws, traditions, customs, languages, clothes and culture. If a person who has been living in the US his/her whole life is sent to Canada, to manage a service facility for the company he/she works for, they will experience culture
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am also quickly going to discuss culture shock and re entry shock because these are a couple important concepts that a sociologist would need to know to understand what happens when a person is removed from the culture that they grew up in or that they are use to and are forced into a new culture. When this happens and the person is introduced to a new culture it can be extremely stressful and overwhelming. You are taking someone who has only ever been use to one way of life and throwing them into a new way. It takes time for someone to adjust to this and at other times they just can’t adjust. Re Entry shock if when someone has been away from their home culture and has learned a new one
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In the last few years, studying abroad has become an increasingly popular choice for higher education among international students (Accessibility Navigation, 2014). An average of 10% of students in universities all across the UK are international students from countries all over the world. (Accessibility Navigation, 2014). Although the experience is different for each individual student, there are many common problems that international students face. Those problems include: culture shock to varying degrees coupled with emotional issues(Bailey, 2005), Language barriers along with other communication problems (Sherry et al, 2009), and academic problems due to a change in school curriculum
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damaged and fatal.
In 1996, “Google” became the most popular search engine, with over one billion searches a day and 10,000 employees by 2009. The company views improving user experience before money making. Their mission statement, “To organise the world’s information and to make it universally accessible and useful”. “Google” was ranked number one, “Best place to work for” by fortune magazine in 2007 and this is no shock with the organisation culture, and emphasis on keeping employees happy. Organisation culture in the company provides a relaxed and friendly environment, including “Staff video games, childcare, doctors and gyms. This unique environment, encourages workers to feel as if they
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The Waste Land, written by T.S. Eliot, is poem portraying the lack and/or the corruption of culture in England during the post WWI period. Eliot uses a form of symbolism, in which he uses small pieces from popular literary works, to deliver his message. He begins by saying that culture during the post WWI period is a “barren wasteland.” Eliot goes on to support this claim by saying that people in England are in a sort of shock from the violence of World War I. Eliot believes that the lack of culture open doors for immorality to grow among the populace.
Eliot’s use of symbolism can be very disorienting. It has been proposed that this choppy medley is actually furthering his point by
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I was born in the island of Haiti. When I was the age of six my father and I took a flight to the United States to live. We lived in Brooklyn New York; It was my dad, my aunt and me in a one bedroom apartment. I don’t remember me getting on the flight to the U.S, but I do remember how cold it was. I remember seeing all of the buildings and lights around me.
There’s a lot that I remember about that first year in a U.S. I had a little bit of culture shock because Culture shock can arise when a person's is unfamiliarity with local customs, language and acceptable behavior, since norms can vary significantly across cultures. I learn that people had different ways of solving the same challenges
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important to objectively analyze one’s own culture before entering a new one. Cultural intelligence is the tool that makes this possible.
The transition will not be perfect, so it is important for an individual to expect culture shock, which occurs when an individual is forced to accept that the familiar social interactions of his original culture are not present. (217 Livermore New Book).
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interpretation as the famous four words Planning, Organization, Leading and Controlling (P- O-L-C). And the focus of this essay put the accent on the multinational corporation, culture shock experience by manager who works abroad, fair trade issues, ethical issues faced by managers in dealing with international business, the difference in managerial styles in selected countries and the managerial culture of a selected country.
Multinational Corporation is a very good step and very important relation. It’s an operation that views by the presence of several enterprises in several countries but it’s managed from and by one country. We can fine four categories of Multinational Corporation. And each is
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avoid cultural problem that they might encounter during their stay. With 98 years of experience, AFS knows that most of those cultural problems caused by miscommunication and cultural differences. Hence, the knowledge of “intercultural communication” is to be provided during the AFS orientation for every soon-to-be exchange students. For example, culture shock is one the first challenges for every exchange student upon their arrival in another country. Delia Flanja, a Ph.D. candidate in philosophy mentions that “Culture shock is the state of discomfort experienced by the intercultural traveler, in a more or less profound way, once he or she is placed in an unfamiliar environment” (Flanja, 2009
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was to be used to administer electric shocks. The learner was told that though the shocks could be extremely painful, they cause no permanent tissue damage.The teacher was then taken to an adjacent room and seated in front of a 'shock generator' consisting of thirty switches set in a horizontal line. The switches were marked, increasing from 0 to 450 colts, 15 volts at a time. Each group of four switches was also marked, from lowest voltage to highest, "slight shock", "moderate shock", "strong shock", "very strong shock", "intense shock", "extreme intense shock", "danger, severe shock" with the last two switches simply marked "XXX" (Moghaddam, 1998). The participant was given an example
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that are needed to achieve their degree. That what makes a university different from others.
The different way of learning techniques that Australia University taught, language barrier that international students face; especially for those where English is not their first language, cultural differences and financial pressures, are some of the difficulty that international students are going through. It is not easy for students to adjust themselves from high school to university life, especially for international students. Culture shock is one of the variables that a lot of international students face when it is their first time studying abroad. Furthermore, the lack of cultural knowledge
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more than half. By any measure these are remarkable achievements for the newly established democracy, and thereby ending the four-phase “shock therapy” program.
Why did Chile’s abrupt economic change work as opposed to that of Russia? The answer is based in Chile’s democratic structure, in accord with its drive to grow on a microeconomic scale. That is, the organizational, administrative, and political skills of the latter governments and their ability to create efficient, coherent coalitions allowed them to combine a free market policy with equitable development. There is no doubt that the government’s ability to develop and strengthen itself by developing an underlying political culture
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cultures. College provides many ways to become acquainted with new friends from various cultures. Universities open the doors to a cultural community, as well as a higher education. Overall, culture is a way of life, and student culture has and is influenced people’s walk to a better future.
"Universities use cultural bridge to lure foreign students - University World News." RSS. N.p.,
n.d. Web. 11 Apr. 2014.
"Reverse Culture Shock." CollegeXpress: Scholarships, College Search, Lists and Rankings.
N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Apr. 2014. http://www.collegexpress.com/interests/international
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Lebanon is the most free and liberal country in the Arab world, a combination of the western culture and Arab culture gives it a unique culture spectrum, the country is more tolerant with the regard to relations between men and women and also homosexuality , however the country has not yet grasped the idea of sexuality Preparing children for the transition to adulthood has always been a challenge, parents play a vital role in shaping youth knowledge about sex and sexuality, public schools in Lebanon provide inadequate information, leaving the youth vulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases, unwanted pregnancy and sexual abuse, thereby allowing children learning through their own way and
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it is there. For example, American woman wear makeup to look beautiful and in other countries they may wear bones and view that as beautiful. Being immersed in a new culture and having to adapt is called culture shock. There is a real and an ideal culture. The real culture is how the culture really is and the ideal culture is how the society views their culture. When the gap between the two grows to be too large then there is social designation.As Americans we tend to be louder and more boisterous. Our culture is more vulgar and more straightforward then most. We tend to say what is on our minds without the fear of offending people. Our freedom of speech allows us to be more opinionated, we could stand on our soapboxes and preach all day long if we wanted. Where in other countries you are expected to be more reserved. Cultures may differ greatly, maybe even only slightly, but I don't feel as if our culture is lacking in comparison to others. Then again, I am bias.
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biological instinct in which forces us to search for those needs. On the other hand, secondary reinforcement must be paired with primary reinforcement in order to occur. A secondary reinforce is created after operant discriminate stimuli. There are two types of reinforces involved in operant conditioning such as secondary reinforcement and generalized reinforcement
Generalized reinforcement often paired with primary reinforcement and secondary reinforcement that related to social culture. This involved money, fame, social class, recognition, social status, and social position within the greater social structure. This transition to certain characteristics of generalized reinforcers
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seizures probably caused her vegetative state, septic shock to which her body was susceptible because of the heavy doses of medications she had been receiving. Thus, the Lee’s suspicion that the doctors were exacerbating Lia’s condition with their treatments was not entirely incorrect, while the doctors’ opinion that if Lia’s medication had been administered correctly from the start she might not have deteriorated so dramatically may have been accurate as well.
The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down provides an education in Hmong history and American medicine. When seen from the Hmong perspective, “truths” previously taken for granted come under question and issues of right and wrong are no longer clear-cut. As the medical establishment increasingly splinters into specialized groups, this book serves as a vivid reminder that the best medicine must always recognize the interconnectedness of culture, family, body, and soul.
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tries to avoid the real situation when the human could not believe it. That was my first gift from my brain when he released a lot of melatonin hormone which is responsible for making me sleepy all the times. Therefore, I slept more than 12 hours per a day which helped me to relax my mind from thinking about my situation to being in a new country without any family. However, our techniques and brain sometimes do not want to work with humans for a short time when that happened, my cultural shock appeared.
After I had come to the United States, I asked in the airport how to go back to my home in the same day. Coming from a small city from Saudi Arabia is a huge difference to be in a
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efficient to the new environment than people who are more self-centered and would like to have everybody do things in the same way. When the more self-centered people get into a new culture, the unawareness of the local culture and high-anticipation cause a big shock which in turn make the comfort level decreases. Those people have hard time to adjust to the new culture. However, people with realistic anticipation are fully aware of the culture difference would adjusted faster.
It is also pointed out by Cross-Cultural Coping model that the more self-centered people would like to impose their culture to people from other countries and force people to do things in their way. They would
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) also suggested that there is a certain period within acculturation for learners to master the second language and that is the Optical Period (Brown, 1980). Cultural adjustment or acculturation come about in four stages based on sociological researches: the honeymoon/euphoria stage, the culture shock stage, the anomie stage, and the recovery stage. According to Brown (1980), optimal period is the third stage of acculturation. This is the time that the learner stands neither in his/her native culture and nor the second culture. A significant element in this stage is the anomie feeling, when the learner experiences a social distance between both cultures and him or herself. This stage is, also
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open-minded and accommodating. For immigrants or guests in a host country, they may experience a ‘culture shock’, which is a “psychological reaction people experience when they find themselves in a culture very different from their own” (Lewis and Slade 2000, 136). In Schumann’s Language Learning 26 from 1976, (quoted in Holliday, Hyde and Kullman 2010, 119-120), the experience of ‘culture shock’ can cause “disorientation, stress, fear and anxiety” and the individual may “reject himself” or “the people of the host country” in an attempt to deal with it. A method to combatting both the intolerance by the host culture, as well as the ‘culture shock’ of the guest, is that of acculturation
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What is culture? Dennis Coon, the author of "Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behavior," defines culture as " an ongoing pattern of life, characterizing a society at a given point in history." This means that a set of beliefs, values and behaviors are shared by the members of a society, which make them distinct and unique from others. In this short essay, the Japanese culture will be compared and contrasted to the US culture in order to manifest its uniqueness and distinction. Learning such culture may provide information and less culture shock as one intends to travel or migrate abroad.Generally, it can be said that Japan and USA are similar in some ways. This includes both
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No1) "Studying adroa is better than studying in local universities." Do you agree with the statement? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.In Malaysia, there are many local universities that have a good quality and students have a variety of choice that they can choose. In my opinion, I disagree that studying abroad is better than studying in local universities. This is because studying in local universities can save the cost and it is as good as universities abroad while students who study abroad are exposed to culture shock and they will not have communication barrier.First, studying in local universities can save the cost compared to studying in universities abroad
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easier. Then someone from there visited me and stayed in my home to see how I lived.
There is cultural shock when you integrate yourself into another society’s culture, reverse culture shock when you return from another place to your own home, and then I could call it reflective shock when you transplant someone you know from another culture into yours.
There were quite a few curious moments to my friend’s visit. He lives his life thanking mother-nature for the life that he has and what she provides to support this life. She provides for this life through earth. He smiled and laughed curiously as he recognized how city folks have lost that perspective as we buy dirt in bags. “Where I live
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want to remember any details of her journey.2 years later, she did not want to have any contact with her family, because during these 2 years all the letters she received from them were about money. She said that she does not know them at all and they are like strangers to her.I think the problem was about understanding intercultural communication and there was a culture shock for Heidi. Culture shock often results in a failure to communicate, an erroneous reading of reality, and an inability to cope. The model which Heidi communicated with her family was like the constructivist model, because sender and receiver were different. Heidi and her family had their own observations, they saw
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define the perplexing term of culture with varying component of distinguishable characteristics is difficult to restrict. Presenly, culture is viewed as consisting primarily of the symbolic, untouched and conception aspects of human societies.
The distinctive culture is not a man made object, tools, or other tangible cultural elements but how the members of the group interpret, use, and perceive them. It is still fresh in my memory the shock I got when I came to this country. This country has a unique superficial culture, I could not imagine. The way people treat each other, especially in conversations when they meet you, they may ask you: "How are you doing?" for that