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The environmental problems seem to be key challenges of the XXI century. In the previous years the world politics and every person in general was occupied with politics and wars. But with the development of new technologies, with the increasing number of plants and factories all kind of manufacturing in general, a huge shift was made towards the environmental issues. The terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments have declined in virtually all aspects. New developments in industry and manufacturing were root causes of environmental degradation over the past three decades. The rapid growth of population, urbanization and globalization are the driving force of the environmental problems
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issue. The predominant factor within China's environmental problems is the accelerated birth rate. This issue makes the country work harder to support the massive amount of people. More people means more air pollution; doubling the demand for energy and natural resources. Overcrowding almost always results in the ecological problems China is facing. Sadly, not only have people created many of the earth's existing environmental struggles, like pollution, but also, they become the victims of it as well. Though many do not realize it, the environment plays a huge role in society.The country has put a demand on the use of birth control to try to get a hold on the number of Asian birth rates
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Economic Growth and environmental problemsThe industrial revolution, which began around 1750, ushered human beings into a new era of modern civilization. While the remarkable progress in science and technology has improved people's lives greatly, our earth is changing and the environment around us is becoming worse and worse. According to Booth (1991, p.552), the" long-run economic growth relies on the creation of new industries and new forms of economic activity, these new forms of economic activity create new kinds of environmental problems". Focusing on these aspects, the economic growth will bring about serious environmental problems such as water pollution, air pollution, ozone
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China has approximately 20% of the world’s population, which is around 1.3 billion people (Morris, 2009, p. 111). Also, China has become one of the worlds biggest manufacturing countries within 30 years (Fawssett, 2009, p. 27). However, such rapid development has come at a cost, which has created various environmental problems. Coincidentally, China has 16 cities on a list of the 20 worst polluted cities in the world (Fawssett, 2009, p. 15). Therefore, this essay will explain the reasons for China’s environmental problems, then evaluate the claim that the Chinese government and people, are tackling these environmental problems. First, crop farming techniques over the last hundred years
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A plastic shopping bag, the most known used product discovered by man. Data released by the United States Environmental Protection Agency shows that somewhere between 500 billion and 1 trillion plastic bags are consumed worldwide each year (National Geographic News, 2006). As the number of usage increases, the rate of plastic pollution grows eventually to be an immeasurable environmental obstacle that is difficult to control. This essay will unfold the case of plastic bags to identify the outcomes and impacts that are caused, and justify clarifications to this dilemma.
Plastic bags are seen to create many environmental challenges because of their physical and chemical properties. Due to
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Deformities”). These parasites burrow into the hindquarters of tadpoles and physically rearrange the limb bud cells; thus interfering with the limb development (“Decline in Amphibian Populations”; “Global Amphibian Declines”). In addition, fungus such as the Bd (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) “contributes to the extinction of frogs. Effects of this fungus are being felt in California’s High Sierra [killing yellow-legged frogs and Yosemite toads” (Perlman).
Frog extinctions are good indicators of environmental problems that may go initially undetected by humans. As humans, we breathe through lungs [inside our bodies] while frogs breathe through their skin [constantly exposed to the
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It is a fairly universal strategy to examine past and present trends in order to forecast the future. This can be commonly observed in everyday existence, as people rely on previous climate trends and recent weather phenomenon in order to make decisions such as how to dress and mode of transportation to use to go to work. Likewise, by employing the use of past and present data and trends, policymakers can make predictions of the future in order to create more effective policies, as well as find better “prescriptions” to solve existing problems (Lecture, 4/1/2010). There are existing neo-Malthusian theories, such as those made by Donella Meadows, et al., that the current trends
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social values and concerns. Canada must respect and employ the most appropriate actions and efforts of other nations in the facilitation of environmental concern, while promoting its own ideas and knowledge.
Facilitate International Co-operation
A primary requirement in the global effort to promote environmental concerns and raise awareness of environmental problems is increased co-operation between nations. Canada's position at the Earth Summit should be to promote the ability of nations to co-operate, emphasising improved diplomacy and interaction. Environmental degradation is presently occurring throughout the world, and is the result of international social, political, and economic
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IntroductionRationalBased on the past experience in the area of environment and resource studies, the environmental problems such as the accumulation of heavy metals in water and sediment in the canal and river have been the major focus in the study area. The study shows that the major source of heavy metals that accumulate in water and sediment is industries. As a result, it motivates the researcher to choose the research topic about industrialization is responsible for the world's environmental problems. This current research will certainly be useful for the researcher. It is because this research is closely related to the researcher's future study, particularly in the area of
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Buddhism is the Solution to Our Current Environmental Problems
The destruction of the environment is a major problem in the world today. The exploitation of natural resources, over population, pollution and the spread of human’s impact has negatively affected the quality of the Earth. All life is suffering from the environmental degradation. Air and water quality in cities and surrounding areas is poor. Greenhouse gas emissions are causing a global climate change that is displacing many species out of their natural habitat. The root cause of these issues is that human action negatively effects the environment. Western culture exploits the Earth as a resource for materialist growth
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, ethnicity, perceptions of risk, and landscape aesthetics into "discourse coalitions" around the concept of the threatened environment (Hajer 1995).The articles collected here reflect a cross-section of current anthropological research on discourses of the environment and environmentalism. The authors pay special attention to the cultural production of knowledge about environmental problems and the creation of environmentalist identities and coalitions through communicative processes. In some of the cases described here, the endangered environment provides an organizing narrative for building grassroots activist networks, forging coalitions across ethnic boundaries, and empowering public
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There has been a variety of assumptions made by different authors of how the world population is affecting the environment in terms of overpopulation and population growth.Some assume that controlling the birth rates in developing countries by using legal actions will improve the world´s environment, whereas others contend that overconsumption caused by the developed countries is a greater threat to the world´s environment (Albert,no date:3). This paper argues that both consumption and population must be considered when regarding the environmental problems and their causes as developing countries as well as developed countries stress the nature. Although developed countries have
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people and the planet in the 21st century. Environmental issues are complex. Not only do we need to study environmental issues from the perspective of interdisciplinary but, it is also necessary to include economics, sociology, anthropology, and many other disciplines, which help to explain the problems with which we are faced. Many other disciplines also help to explain the problems with which we are faced. An interdisciplinary approach will help us develop lasting solutions. Environmentalism and environmental problems are not new. Environmental problems caused by human activities have occurred since the dawn of agriculture. The current wave of environmentalism began in 1962 with the
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Environmental Activism in China
Lifan (Carol) Xue
China witnesses rapid economic growth after the economic reform in 1978. This economic development brings people great wealth and also a huge cost on the environment. Water and air pollution are among most serious environmental problems, others like soil retrogression and degradation, deforestation, and human health problems coming with these issues are becoming more severe too. In addition, due to China’s biggest population on earth, the impact of these pollutions goes beyond border and becomes a global issue too.
However, there is comfort to know that western developed countries like United States, United Kingdom and
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sources so polluted they cannot even be used for industrial purposes. In fact according to the Polish academy of Sciences "a third of the nations thirty eight million people live in designated ecological disaster areas." This checklist only scratches the surface of some of Poland's environmental problems but it is none the less alarming.A half-decade into the transition to market democracy, Poland's economy has the highest growth rate in Europe, and it is argued that environmental protection is vastly improved. Between 1990 and 1993, air pollution in Poland fell by 40%. While some analysts discounted these improvements, claiming that they were merely symptoms of the economic recession that
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is organized into three parts: General environmental economics, Business environmental economics, and selected topics.
The ﬁrst part, General environmental economics, covers fundamentals of the ﬁeld. Chapter one sets the stage for environmental problems with a discussion of markets and market failure. Correcting these failures inevitably involves economic valuation. Accordingly, the next two chapters address theoretical and empirical issues related to valuing the environment. How then are actual policy decisions made? A chapter on beneﬁt-cost analysis provides some guidance, while another chapter on principles of environmental policy shows how the answer involves consideration of
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characteristics formerly associated with the stereotypical image of the environmentalist are no longer particularly pertinent. Rather, a growing body of research indicates a demographic shift, and a more inclusive environmental public (Ferraro 2009; Mainieri et al, 1997; State of NSW & Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water 2010; Tranter 2010). Those expressing environmental concerns are coming from an increasingly diversified scope of economic, socio-demographic and political backgrounds. In the 2009 ‘Who Cares about the Environment?’ social research series, seventy-eight percent of people surveyed claimed to be ‘concerned to some extent about environmental problems’ (State of NSW
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philosophies of NIMEY (Not In My Election Year), NIMTOO (Not In My Term Of Office), and PIITBY (Put It In Their BackYard), illustrating the struggle to solve problems of hazardous material while avoiding political conflict. These acronyms emphasize the importance of community awareness and unity and of using knowledge to enact change when dealing with environmental hazards.
Pam Davidson, a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, spoke of the importance of empirical studies to investigate the distribution of hazardous sites when assessing environmental justice. These sites do not appear to be randomly distributed and instead are correlated to trends in the racial and economic
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' preferred approaches to addressing the problem of climate change in America.O'Connor et al.'s research was positioned firmly within the psychological and wider social science literature by their employment of the deep-rooted constructs of risk perception and general environmental beliefs which have conceptual origins in cognitive psychology, sociology, ethics and economics. They proposed that in the case of long-term environmental problems with a significant level of uncertainty, both general cognitive orientations and specific risk perceptions had an influence on individuals' likelihood of engagement in mitigating pro-environmental behaviours. They argued that general cognitive orientations
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5.2 Cooperative Enforcement: The Tainan Example
As analysed above, Taiwan’s environmental criminal law enforcement faces some common problems. Since 2005, there has been a new cooperative enforcement model run by the Tainan Local Prosecutors’ Office voluntarily. Three prosecutors in the Tainan Local Prosecutor Office were interviewed and it was realised that this model may provide many solutions to the problems identified in this research.
Figure 5.2 A Successful Cooperative Enforcement Model in Tainan City, Taiwan
Tainan, an old cultural centre in the southern part of Taiwan, has increasing industrial pollution. Many rivers have been polluted by factories in Tainan in last
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Scale Renewable Energy Projects Regional Training Workshop - General Principles of EIA.
Lawrence, D.P., 2003. Environmental Impact Assessment: Practical Solutions to Recurrent Problems. Wiley-Interscience, Hoboken, New Jersey, USA.
Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act, 2002. . Government Gazette, South Africa.
Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act 28 of 2002, 2002. . South Africa.
Murombo, T., 2008. Beyond Public Participation: The Disjuncture Between South Africa’s Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Law and Sustainable Development. Potchefstroom Electron. Law J. 11, 32.
National Air Quality Act, 2004. . Government Gazette, South Africa.
National Environmental Management
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In Canada, concerns involving environmental security are not the top priority. But due to recent research, Canada must be more strongly committed to environmental security due to increasing environmental problems internationally. There are many ways Canada can stay committed to environmental security, for example, increased funding to Canada’s Department of National Defence’s Environment Department. Also to stay committed to increased access and support to Voluntary Environmental Programs across Canada. Finally to completely stay up to world standards in environmental security, Canada must implement an effective environmental planning system. Throughout the essay, the topic at hand will be
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The film, Ecotoons, was basically about the environmental problems that we are facing today. It was presented in cartoons so that it would be clearly understood and would be a fun film to watch. They had made this film for us to be aware about the environmental issues that matter most today, and the only issues that may matter tomorrow. To be aware is not enough but it's the first step to find out solutions and to be one with the earth. Ecotoons enumerated the environmental problems by comparing it figuratively. The situations may not happen literally but it's showing the main cause and effect. Basically all the problems presented were all starting from man. Man is the root cause of
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point of this includes floral misuse and conservation; wild, avian and marine faunal species; as well as aquatic resources. These are referred to a ‘green resource utilisation issues’ (Glazewski, 2003).
POLLUTION CONTROL & WASTE MANAGEMENT
‘Brown issues’ such as waste management and the pollution of the three divisions of the environment, as mentioned previously; land, water and air; forms the focus of this section.
It should be noted that these three categories are integrated as the exploitation of a specific resource may be discussed under one category and the maintenance and preservation thereof under another category, for instance water.
PROBLEMS WITH ENVIRONMENTAL LAW
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environmental regulations. They may work with environmental scientists, planners, hazardous waste technicians, engineers, and other specialists to address environmental problems.
These problems are global issues: acid rain, global warming, air and water pollution, and ozone depletion. They create and revise environmental standards for environment safety (Environmental Protection Agency), recommendation reports (ASCE Infrastructure Report Cards) and supervise the progress of most of the environmental programs that are occurring. Furthermore, they mentor many industries, government agencies and common homes about the environmental policies and standards that are required to be achieved.
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Institution in Arlington, Virginia, argues that many government environmental policies are unreasonable and infringe on basic economic freedoms. He concedes that environmental problems exist but denies that there is no environmental "crisis."The challenge however lies on how to achieve a strong economy and a healthy environment. This issue started when people began to realize that their quality of life was deteriorating and this lead to the encouragement of aggressive policies to reduce pollution. However these policies frequently failed to live up to their sponsor's claims and they also became increasingly expensive. These policies have improved the environment in recent years however they
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, “Although debated, the main hypothesis explaining these disparities is that disadvantaged communities encounter greater exposure to environmental toxins such as air pollution, pesticides, and lead” (Gee and Payne-Sturges 2004: 1647). Therefore, disadvantaged groups, such as people of color and the poor, experience greater environmental risks. Additionally, “Blacks in particular are exposed to a disproportionate amount of pollution and suffer the highest levels of lead and pesticide poisoning and other associated health problems” (Jones and Rainey 2006: 474). People of color, essentially, compete to live healthily. For example, African-Americans and Africans alike, struggle with the negative
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policy statements and plans within districts and regions but there was a slow emergence of official guidance on national policies and environmental standards (Jackson and Dixon 2006). Some problems associated with the limited practice of SEA in New Zealand have been identified by (Wilson and Ward, 2011) such as limited resources of local government, lack of guidance from central government, no legal requirement of public participation. Important elements to ensure effective practice like monitoring are not sufficiently developed and under-resourced. Process of reviewing SEA is not included in legal documents. As the implementation depends on the available recourse and skill of council and
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In 1962 an American biologist Rachel Carson published a hugely influential novel called Silent Spring. The book highlighted the harmful effects of insecticides on all life on Earth and described a future without the songs of birds. It caused such great interest that Carson was widely acknowledged as the mother of environmentalism as a political ideology.Despite the fact that politics of global environmentalism is a fairly new aspect of International Relations, environmental problems are not new. People began to understand their role in environmental degradation and various policies and pressure groups have been emerging during the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. However
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There are many different environmental issues that face the world today; we discussed many of these issues in our Introduction to Environmental Science and Policy class. All environmental problems are different in some way, although many of them have factors in common. For the most part the environmental issues we discussed have to do with the degradation of the environment. We discussed many different issues throughout the semester. These issues varied from small issues that could be changed through community involvement to large issues that affect the entire world. The solutions brought up for these issues also varied in many different ways. I think that most of the
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difference is Environmental Justice. The term justice helps the environmental justice activists in distinguishing themselves from the white, middle class environmental organizations, and also to establish a connection between social justice issues like race, gender, class, etc. and environmental problems (Tarter 60). In Postcolonial Ecologies: Literatures of the Environment (2011), Deloughrey and Handley raise the question as to why the environmental concerns are often considered as distinct from postcolonial ones (14). Similarities can be seen between them as both are based on the concept of ‘othering’. While post-colonialism tends to be people-centred, ecocriticism is nature-centred in
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lethal toxic substances. We have some experience with the long-term effects of exposing military and civilian personnel to potentially dangerous chemicals such as the defoliant Agent Orange in Vietnam and a variety of toxic agents in the Gulf War. These health effects can be devastating.Just as terrorism knows no borders, neither do environmental problems. Those environmental harms that do not affect foreign civilians or our own troops directly will eventually come home to roost in the form of polluted air and water, destroyed habitat, and even climate change-which affect us all. Surely, the environmental devastation from the Gulf War (recall oil fields ablaze) ought to give us pause
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Ionel-Alin, in his article 'Environmental Reporting at international level study of the literature' explains that many accountancy researchers have begun to get involved with environmental related issues at a time when these issues are of high priority. Environmental protection has, therefore, become an opportunity for researchers to prove that they are ahead in contemporary problems and that they can master these new opportunities and modern problems (Medley, 1997). Ionel-alin tells us that there is a lot of environmental reporting frameworks at international level; but the appropriateness, thereofe, does not have a voluntary
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The supreme court of Canada has agreed that “The growth of modern societies has shown serious problems that can result from anarchic development and use of land, in particular those problems concerning public health and the environment.1” How can we maintain economic growth without major environmental consequences? In 1992, the Canadian Federal government enacted the Environmental Impact Assessment Act as a planning tool in attempts to identify and alleviate the environmental impact of new developments. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is the process of identifying and reducing the environmental effects of a proposed project before it begins. The (EIA) is a step by step process that
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surrounding forest. Takes 10- 30 years to return to normal.Industrial Revolution- mid-1700s spread to the US in the 1800sShift from renewable wood resource and flowing water to dependence on machines running on nonrenewable fossil fuels (first coal, later oil and nature gas)Reduced need for farmersInformation and Globalization Revolution- nowNew technologies have increased the rapid exchange of information on a global scale.Many positive sides to Information and Globalization Revolution Helps us understand the Earth better. Allows us to respond to the environmental problems more effectively and rapidly. Develop computer models to make maps of Earth's environmental systems
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environmental benefits in four areas, climate change, biodiversity, protection of international waters, and protection of the ozone layer. The creation of the GEF allowed the U.S. and its partners to define the global environmental problems as they perceived them, and to establish the limits and scope of their responsibility in assessing to the need of the developing countries. Although this may seem as if the World Bank is helping many developing nations and their environmental situations, there is much skepticism towards the World Bank and its many linked organizations.Environmental groups have fought to overhaul the World Banks and the IMF (International Monetary Fund), urging that the instruments to incorporate environmental goals, to become more open, and to change the nature of the investments they support. While the World Bank provided loans to those countries in need of environmental help,
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The physically of the environmental problems facing Nepal, Korea, and the Russian Fareast are overwhelmingly evident and unfortunately, impossible to ignore. They are factual burdens on these countries’ socioeconomic welfare. Nevertheless, a candid comparison to the Australian and the American experience insinuates a prevailing conflict in values towards the “political importance” of environment problems in lure of necessary social development. According to Elson Strahan’s (2000) article Comparative Environmental Policy: Australia and the U.S., he questions what set of values that will ultimately drive policymakers in these two countries, and thus “…environmental policies must be
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Thailand tourism plays an important role in its economic development and the hotel business is part of it. Tourism industry and hotel businesses are influence and supporting each other. The activities of hotel businesses are issues that had a much impact on the environment. The global warming phenomenon has been dramatically increasing. Environmental crisis has become one of the world’s most serious problems to be concerned about caused by increasing world population. People had doubled the consumption of natural resource (Webster, 2005).
Activities from tourism have affected directly and indirectly the ecosystems. For instance, coral reefs is damaged by tourists such as trampling
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Kemaman and the factor is the rainwater does not flow naturally due to the development at both areas (Arfa Yunus, 2013). However, nowadays, environmental issues are not only become crucial topic in Malaysia, but also become a great concerns at the international level. The environmental issues is about the problems on the earth's systems and mostly is the result of human mistreatment on the earth. The sequences of these environmental issues show us how important awareness on environmental issues. Thus, we really believe that awareness on environmental issues is crucial to every individual and can avoid or at least minimize the problems.
According to United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP
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the environment. But, if the chemicals stay used with large quantities, the environmental and human health impacts have become a concern. Today, there is a much better understanding of the mechanisms that determine how chemicals are transported and transformed in the environment and what their environmental and human health impacts are. This essay will discuss the causes and effects of global environmental issues; and who are the responsible to solve them and how.
One of the greatest problems that the world is facing is environmental pollution. It is increasing over years and causing grave and irreparable damage to the earth. It consists of five type of pollution namely: air, water, soil
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environmental problems for the benefit of individual well-being within society.Environmental psychology is a relatively new branch of psychology that focuses on the study of the interrelationship between the environment and human behavior. Within this field, the term environment is broadly defined to include the natural, or physical environments, the social environments, built environments, learning environments, and informational environments (De Young, 1999). Unlike other branches of psychology, such as cultural psychology, environmental psychology does not place emphasis on how the interactions among people influence behavior and personality; rather this disclipline focuses on studying
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students' understanding of these environmental problems was generally lower. Which action can have the greatest impact on reducing the threat global warming? Only 50% of the students could correctly identify reducing energy use as the main action to reduce global warming, the greenhouse effects were understood by only 44% of the students. Poorly understood (51%) was the functions of the ozone.In general, in the analysis of students' environmental knowledge, the mean knowledge score in this study is low. Overall correct response rates were just little more than 50%.Table 1 the responses to each option of knowledge item as percentagequestionsoption1234Don'tknow5. Which source of energy
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The purpose of this memo is to evaluate and analyze the validity of an article, A Restorative Environmental Justice for Prison E-Waste Recycling, written by Sarah Conrad in the Peace Review: Journal of Social Justice. With the problems of e-waste gaining world-wide attention, many companies and government have become creative in ways to dispose of their e-waste. According to the article, the U.S government has created a program to dispose of its e-waste by creating an e-waste recycling programs in federal prisons. The recycling program is managed by Federal Prison Industries (formally known as UNICOR), which is under the supervision of Bureau of Prison (BOP) (Conrad 348). This
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INDEX1 Environmental Marketing2 Driving Forces in Environmental3 ConclusionSources1 ENVINRONMENTAL MARKETINGEnvironmental marketing as a concept started in the late 1980s and early 1990s as consumer interests into environmentally friendly and sustainable products grew to a point where purchasing decisions were made on whether a product or company was environmentally friendly. According to surveys made during that time period, three major trends could be found; consumers avoided purchasing a product because they believed that the product or packaging was environmentally harmful, consumers purchased products specifically because they were environmentally friendly, and consumers were ready to
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problems. Once they have all that they have to have a plan to restore polluted areas and provide information to businesses and the general public of these health risks. The last step of their job is prepare technical reports and presentations that explain their findings (bls.gov).
Environmental Scientists can go from analyzing the polluted areas to reclaiming
these areas and they also assess the risks new construction projects have on the environment and then tell the government and businesses on how to minimize these issues and how human behavior can be changed to avoid some of the problems we have. Environmental Scientists work with the government to come up with regulations to ensure
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solve the problem. An analytical approach, therefore, becomes an appropriate process of breaking down a problem into elements that can solve it.Thwink.org believes that only analytical approach can solve difficult social problems. Public interest activists are nowadays using an intuitive approach mostly compared to the analytical approach. The intuitive approach works on easy problems and sometimes on medium difficulty ones. They fail on difficult problems simply because they are not capable of the deep methodical approach needed in solving difficult complex system social problems.
Environmental movement faces problems of climatic change and abnormal high rates of species extinction which are
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stratospheric ozone depletion, Global warming, degradation of water resources and water pollution, negative impact on recreational areas and wildlife, loss of agricultural land.The social problems are: exurban migration and economic and ethnic segregation, deterioration of cities, vicious cycles of human sprawl and inner city decay. (Uchatius, 2005)
All the environmental problems we have discussed, from the loss of ecosystems and biodiversity through various forms of pollution to depletion of energy resources, have their origins in people and lifestyle. The environmental impact is a function of population multiplied by the consumptives of lifestyle divided by environmental regard. (Scott, 2008
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Environmental studies is a paramount field to focus on for both the present day and the future. This field of studies pertains to all people, animals, plants, and biomes around the world. Environmental Studying is important because it is only by understands the environmental processes that we can begin to take the steps necessary to correct the on-going damage that is occurring, and ultimately protect and sustain life on the planet. Unless steps are taken to try and abate and control environmental problems, which are often human-generated or exacerbated, then the environmental that we live in will continue to deteriorate. There is no life without protecting the source that sustains us. Even
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development of a common market, common external tariffs and common policies on such issues as transport, agriculture and investment.Those activities in concern were going to deteriorate the environmental resources.The Need for an Environmental Policy for the E.U.European countries share common environmental resources which can not be protected through the territories of the states. The North Sea for the Northern people and the Mediterranean Sea for the Southern people are common environmental heritages. In addition, rivers, seas and lakes, the wild life is common natural value for the Europeans. It was so difficult to cope with the common environmental problems merely by each individual member
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Realists look at the world in a "realistic" way. They don't think
there is a point in trying to make the world a better place, because
human nature is fixed and it is selfish, but instead try to adapt the
situation in order to get maximum self-interest. The main actors for
Realists are sovereign states. Since there is no supreme power that
can decide over the states, this raises a struggle between the states,
as all of them want to become the greatest power. The most important
tool that they use to put into practice states' foreign policies is
military force. Realists acknowledge the environmental problems