741 words - 3 pages
Lady Justice, the symbol of our judicial system, holds a sword in one hand and a scale in the other. Across her face she wears a cloth over her eyes. With this she tells everyone that justice is blind to race, religion, sex, or other characteristics related to the worth of the individual. When it comes to taking legal action against somebody, in order to obtain something, also known as suing, Lady Justice is not so respected. The judicial system has let the right to sue got out of hand. There are situations, restrictions, and aftermaths...
662 words - 3 pages
Pets can be Friendly too Companionship, responsibility, happiness, and love are some of the results that come from a meaningful relationship. However, one can receive these rewards and many more from a different non-human source. Companion animals, namely cats and dogs, provide wonderful benefits that enhance many aspects of life. Ever since I was born, my family has shared the joys and responsibilities of owning a cat and/or a dog. So, naturally I have an intense love and appreciation for these domesticated animals. One of the ways my parents have taught me to be responsible is through the care taking of a family pet. I remember...
738 words - 3 pages
Here I have the challenge of writing an essay. It is one of the things that I dread the most in life. Many times I have been asked to write an essay for English class, and each time I despise it. Yet it has proved to be an invaluable skill, as I am writing one now. Some of the many things that I have learned from writing essays and other projects are time management, open-mindedness, and taking time to relax."You should have done these weeks ago. You'll be sorry that you waited until the last minute to do this!" Mom's words prove true again and again. Time management is one of the most useful skills I learned from my twelve years in school. I used it in planning my
879 words - 4 pages
Exemplification EssayEvery year my dad's side of the family gathers for a family reunion at my god-mother's house. My god-mothers house located far out in the warm, dry, deserted neighborhood in dusty Lemon Grove, where my family anticipates the grand event about to be rekindled once again, but I wasn't looking forward towards the event. With my family and friends about to be reunited with each other, each family member is trying not to notice how long the last kilometer will take. The trees along the road seem to crawl by...
2474 words - 10 pages
Antone S. PerreiraMetaphysicsEssay 2On Events: Individuation, Exemplification, and InstantiationWas Brutus's killing of Caesar a singular event, or in fact a plurality of events taken in context to one another? The concept, and ontological implications of answering this question are vast, and present philosophers with an array of possibilities in exploring the nature and metaphysical breadth of events. General consensus has been reached on the subject relative to the characterization of events as tropes, or property-instances; in essence, the realization of property-substance...
1532 words - 6 pages
It's Diana's turn at the tiny glass window. Her face burns red with shame as she is handed her monthly check. Two small children tug at her dress, their stomachs growling from a day without food. She looks down at her two children, her face filled with pain and guilt. What had happened to their happy life? With just the stroke of the pen across a divorce decree, Diana and her children were thrust into the humiliation of the welfare line. For two years now, Diana has tried to get back on her feet, but with only a high school diploma, she can't find a job to support her family. Getting a college degree is her only way out, but her check isn't enough to afford daycare, so she's...
1200 words - 5 pages
In 1995 Scotty Thurman was on top of the world. Thurman led the Arkansas Razorbacks to a NCAA basketball championship with one great performance after another. After this miracle season, Thurman made a decision that would change his fortunes. Rather than come back for his senior year and get his degree, he elected to make himself eligible for the NBA draft. With a NCAA championship under his belt, Thurman was confident he was ready for the NBA, but NBA scouts had different ideas. Thurman could only sit and watch the draft from start to finish. Today Thurman finds himself without a college education and still chasing his NBA dream in the Continental Basketball Association. With nothing left...
1167 words - 5 pages
We have based the very existence of our country on the belief that complete separation of church and state is best for the church and is best for the state. However, throughout history the roles between religion and American public life remain interwoven and continue to shape our beliefs and values.
In order to begin to understand the role of religion in American public life, one must first recognize that religion is present in many aspects of one's life. Even though the United States' Constitution provides for separation of religion and government, most aspects of government include religion as a basis for its operating procedures. The U.S. Senate and House of Representatives begin...
563 words - 2 pages
What is road rage and why should you care about it? Who are the offenders? What inspires their irrational outbursts of rage? Who is effected by this behavior and how?Today many people develop dangerous driving habits such as road rage, aggressive driving, speeding, improper or lack of turn signal use, improper passing, parking improperly, talking on a cell phone, impoliteness and other various distractions. However, I am going to focus on Road Rage. Road rage is a continuing problem not only in the United States, but in all countries where people who have tempers drive. Too often, we only focus on road...
1083 words - 4 pages
Road RageRoad rage can be defined as violent behavior exhibited by drivers in traffic. Most people consider road rage a dangerous habit to practice. It is believed that many people resolve to road rage because of a manifestation of stress. A core belief of mine is that everyone is guilty of some sort of road rage, whether tailgating someone or driving too aggressively due to someone else's mistake or temper. Unfortunately, many drivers today have dangerous habits.The first time I had been exposed to road rage, was when I was ten years old. My mother and I were driving down a heavily congested interstate...
1182 words - 5 pages
Every individual has a unique composite of values and is readily presented with contrasting choices in their daily lives. As individuals act on these choices, they are sometimes presented with a conflict of interest between the beliefs they hold and the actions they commit.
Such internal conflict is defined by Leon Festinger as cognitive dissonance: “a psychological state in which an individual’s cognitions—beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors—are at odds” (Bloom, Santos, & Egan, 2007, p. 978). Sendhil Mullainathan and Ebonya Washington (2009) describe cognitive dissonance as “the internal need for consistency” (p. 86). Mullainathan and Washington exemplify cognitive dissonance as occurring...
949 words - 4 pages
What’s that you say Doctor? I’ve got cancer… That doesn’t sound good, and by the way that you’re telling me, it’s probably worse than that. Well, I knew that this day was coming… Doctor? I don’t know why, but I’m not as upset by this news as I thought I would be – but I do know one thing, I don’t want it to hurt.
What will “Fred” choose to do? What is Fred allowed to do? Fred had his mind wrapped around the idea of his death years ago, but who can be completely ready for the moment when we hear the news that our life will be over soon? In our existence, what greater event besides birth can compete with death? Most of us have pondered the circumstances of our own death, what we’d...
1185 words - 5 pages
Are young people in today's society enamored with themselves? Do they care about others? Are they unfeeling; show little or no interest or emotion; unresponsive, indifferent; passionless or void of feeling? What is the cause or reason for apathy in young folks today that wasn't there a hundred years ago? Quite possibly it is a lack of mental stimulation. As responsible citizens of the United States, we should decide to not put up with indifference but encourage young people to get involved in their communities and to be concerned about what is going on in the government and around the world. We must not encourage the apathetic attitude that is creeping in on our young people today because...
1025 words - 4 pages
College life brings many thoughts to mind friendships, football , pizza, late nights, parties, fraternities, sororities, as well as racial discrimination, binge drinking, hazing and dying. The latter part of this list may not come naturally to most people, but they are frightening realities of the Greek system. Parents send their children to college assuming they will be in a safe, educational environment while enjoying all the benefits campus life has to offer, including fraternities and sororities. They do not expect a phone call in the early hours of the morning notifying them of their child's death. Since March of 2000, over 60 people have died in events associated with...
717 words - 3 pages
Thousands of people are killed in car accidents every year. There are an assortment of reasons why; from driving drunk to even falling asleep at the wheel. The main reason that most people are killed in car accidents each year is because most people have very bad driving habits, and the main of these people are teenagers. Many teens believe themselves to be immortal, so they feel they can do anything and nothing will go wrong, or hurt them. The three worst habits teens have are road rage, poor grasp on safety,...
680 words - 3 pages
In “Mommy, What Does Nigger Mean?”, author Gloria Naylor explains throughout her piece that reality shapes language and language can shape reality. Naylor explains this, “chicken or the egg dispute” (Naylor 1) through her experiences with the word nigger. Gloria explains how she starts on one side of reality and shaping her language, then comes to another understanding from the boy in her third grade class. Language can be how words are used, what their meaning is and the purpose behind that selection of words. Reality is everyday life and experiences. When in third grade Naylor encounters nigger as a racial derogatory when a boy said “nigger” to her while receiving graded tests back. To...
818 words - 3 pages
In “Idiot Nation,” Michael Moore discourses on the collapse of American education system and the three main reasons behind it: politicians’ ignorance, shortage of teachers, and the rise of Corporate America. Moore first points out how ignorant the President and politicians are by stating that the President cannot simply identify whether Africa is a nation or a continent. Next, Moore attributes the lack of funding in education to the fact that politicians prefer to build bomber than to improve our education system; this leads to shortage of resources, overpopulated classrooms, and decrease of books available for students. He then notes that the low salaries of teachers, which are caused by...
674 words - 3 pages
What makes an essay good? There are many elements that go into a well written comprehensible paper. A quality essay contains elements such as description and detail, thesis statement, exemplification, irony, and knowledge of your audience. A good essay is one that grabs the imagination of the reader. Anyone can write a quality essay following simple guidelines and steps.I think that description and detail are one of the most important elements in writing an essay. If you have good description and supporting details you will develop and present a word picture for your reader. This makes for a far more interesting story. In ?Thirty Eight Who Saw Murder Didn?t Call The Police?, the...
1440 words - 6 pages
1. Assessment and Evaluation
1.1. Monitoring the learning progress
Nunan & Lamb (1996) refer to monitoring as an integral part of the learning system which is comprised of assessment of student performance and evaluation of the effectiveness of the course design. According to Dudley-Evans & St. John (1998), “Evaluation is a process which begins with determining what information to gather and which ends with bringing about changes in current activities or future ones. It makes use of quantitative methods (e.g. tests) and qualitative methods (e.g. interview and questionnaire). It can be formative (on-going) or summative (end-of-course). An ESP programme acn use tests such as, In-class...
595 words - 2 pages
Nina HackettExemplification essayWhile physician assisted suicide is a much discussed and argued topic, I would like to present my reasons for believing that it should be legal and accepted. If a person is terminally ill, and there is suffering or no quality of life, I believe that it is their right to decide to end their life in a dignified manner. When we take away the last decision people can make for themselves we are stripping them of this dignity. I believe that humans are not...
1122 words - 4 pages
English is an invisible gate. Immigrants are the outsiders. And native speakers are the gatekeepers. Whether the gate is wide open to welcome the broken English speakers depends on their perceptions. Sadly, most of the times, the gate is shut tight, like the case of Tan’s mother as she discusses in her essay, "the mother tongue." People treat her mother with attitudes because of her improper English before they get to know her. Tan sympathizes for her mother as well as other immigrants. Tan, once embarrassed by her mother, now begins her writing journal through a brand-new kaleidoscope. She sees the beauty behind the "broken" English, even though it is different. Tan combines repetition,...
805 words - 3 pages
London's Social Class in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
One Victorian sentiment was that a civilized individual could be determined by her/his appearance. This notion was readily adopted by the upper classes and, among other things, helped shape their views of the lower classes, who certainly appeared inferior to them. In regards to social mobility, members of the upper classes may have (through personal tragedy or loss) often moved to a lower-class status, but rarely did one see an individual move up from the abysmal lower class. Although poverty could be found almost anywhere in Victorian London (one could walk along a street of an affluent neighborhood, turn the corner, and find oneself in...
754 words - 3 pages
Form, Style, and Content in Siddhartha
Joseph Mileck asserts in Hermann Hesse: Life and Art that Siddhartha is a perfect exemplification of what he calls, "conscious craftsmanship". For Mileck, Hesse consciously synchronized form and substance in Siddhartha to best illustrate a feeling of unity and the journey through the mind, body, and soul. In Siddhartha, Hesse consciously crafted a piece that is unified in form, style, and content, and created an atmosphere in which each one of these elements is perfectly complementary with the others.
In order to communicate most accurately the inner journey of Siddhartha through the three stages of experience, Hesse maintains...
806 words - 3 pages
One question we all seem to ask about any example of art that we see is, "Is it any good?" To critique any piece regardless of its form or medium according to Aristotle you start with a broad category and break it down until you are left with a minimum of examples. Therefore, to be able to critique any art form one must first select categorically and systematically until they are left with a single example that the individual feels is a truly great piece. To start that system the broadest of categories relating to art is needed and that is the humanities. The humanities which all forms of art are a part of can be broadly defined as aspects of our culture that look into what it means to be...
757 words - 3 pages
"The Case for Torture" by Michael Levin, presents excellent justification for the use of torture in situations of extreme desperation. Levin gives great arguments for the use of torture through clever wording and great exemplification. In supplement to the already great argument, he provides potential counter-arguments and proves why they are invalid. It is made very clear that he believes that torture is morally mandatory and makes great effort to sway the opinion of readers, provided they keep an open mind. Levin presents a great argument and presents the ideas in an organized fashion, but as with many...
597 words - 2 pages
Critic Roland Barthes has said, "Literature is the question minus the answer." In her novel, The Sound of Waves, Yukio Mishima raises one central question to the reader: are you or are you not a "get-up-and-go" person? A "get-up-and-go" person is, in her eyes, a "real" person, the kind of person "we need." Mishima, in her work,...
889 words - 4 pages
Adenosine triphosphate is a major source of energy of a cell and provides the energy for most of the energy consuming activities of the cell. The demonstration of skeletal muscle contraction was presented by A. F. Huxley, 1957. His hypothesis showed the importance of the size of the power stroke in isometrically contracting muscle fibers (Ferenczi 1). To better understand muscle contraction and muscle contractions speed under different chemical influences has been the forefront in beginning a conceptual viable understanding of how muscles contract at optimum reactions under different influences. The implications and significance in learning more about skeletal muscle...
981 words - 4 pages
In order to fully comprehend and appreciate the implication of literature and the power it has to elucidate upon life’s various facets, it is imperative to compare and contrast various works, which possess certain concepts and beliefs that are common. No Exit by Jean Paul Satre and Night Flight by Antoine De Saint-Exupery are two works of literature that share certain ideas and concepts, one of which is the exemplification of the different roles that men and women play in society and how they have been conformed to occupy certain positions. No Exit and Night Flight are two stories that explore the roles of men and women in society. However, a literary analysis and comparison of these two...
919 words - 4 pages
In his new article "The Cause of War and a Solution" Zimmerman states about the reality and source of warfare referring it as conflict:Where do these external conflicts come from? Every human being is functioning from inner conflicts.The cause of these inner conflicts are our nature. The brain, and its physical and functional aspects, is a compartmentalized structure . … The results of compartmentalization of the brain is that it competes with itself. That is one aspect of brain vies for dominance over another part of the brain. For example, we each have ideas within us that conflict. Also, we have desires that conflict....
2354 words - 9 pages
y.Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's...
641 words - 3 pages
The Roman Catholic Church's decline during the Reformation was clearly not caused by a single event or action. Indeed, numerous self-inflicted and externally inflicted wounds were imposed in the Church. Self-inflicted wounds hurting the Church included the decline in papal credibility and ill will amongst clerical authority. The latter of these two wounds entailed regional biases among nearly every the archdiocese leading to a Great Schism in the Church. The externally inflicted wounds all had more to do with increased educational opportunities spread throughout the Papacy's "jurisdiction". These obviously meant that...
892 words - 4 pages
Robert Fenhagen’s Beautiful People is a very short (I would say concise) story that is not concerned at all with beautiful people. Nor is it an essay on beauty, and what beauty may mean to different (beautiful) people, as seen (and perceived) from different (possibly beautiful) angles.
It is rather a minimalist piece of absurd literature that is about beautiful people as much as Eugène Ionesco’s The Bald Soprano (La cantatrice chauve) is about bald sopranos. Truth be told, both beautiful people and bald sopranos (and their equally juxtaposable positions) are only pretexts for the setting in of the absurd in a kind of literature that is absurd only inasmuch as its absurdness does not become...
793 words - 3 pages
American society prides itself on the right of free speech, or, the freedom to express oneself in any manner that is deemed appropriate. Even today, in an America in which citizens are supposed to be free from monopoly, disloyalty, and deceit, omnipotent businesses exercise their power to achieve their goals with minimal struggle. During a similar age in which big businesses dominated the world, and thus could get away with essentially any heinous crime, Upton Sinclair wrote his novel The Jungle to call the public to the truly disgusting truth about the meat packing industry. Similarly, Art France’s The World According to Monsanto exposes Monsanto and the scheme it shared with the FDA in...
805 words - 3 pages
Mary Shelley began writing “Frankenstien” with the intent of writing a story that frightens its readers. “Frankenstein” is a distinctive novel because it incorporates both Romantic and Gothic elements. In a deeper look at the characters, the role of scientific experimentation, and the settings of nature found in the book, you will appreciate how “Frankenstein” is a great model of both Romantic and Gothic exemplification.
Gothic novels often include highly emotional characters, tragic females and tyrannical males. Elizabeth, Frankenstein’s lifelong friend, is in distress; she is lonely and misses Victor. Elizabeth is the damsel in the story. She needs to be rescued from this unknown threat...
798 words - 3 pages
There are many times when song lyrics draw inspiration from poems. In many situations song writers get ideas for music through poems seeing as most are written on life experiences or events. It is evident that the poem, “The Ballad of Birmingham” written by Dudley Randall and the song “Strength, Courage, and Wisdom” written by India Arie have numerous similarities. These two works are about people who exemplify strength, courage, and wisdom. Even though both of these works were created in different time periods, they still convey the same meaning.
The characteristic of strength is found during the course of these two works of poetry. In stanza one of “The Ballad of Birmingham”,” Mother...
1199 words - 5 pages
SENTENCE CONNECTORS �
SENTENCE CONNECTORS1. Similaritylikewise similarly correspondingly by the same token in the same wayMen must wear a jacket and a tie; similarly, women must wear a skirt or a dress, not trousers.She was late and I similarly was delayed.You can't teach navigation in the middle of a storm. Likewise, you can't build a system of values in the current educational climate.2. Contrasta. Direct OppositionAli worked hard. On the other hand/In contrast/ However, Okan...
2094 words - 8 pages
In this paper we are going to study three different approaches to literature: the archetypical approach, the feminist approach and the poststructuralist approach. To do so, we will first focus on some notions which will make the understanding of these critical approaches possible. Having commented these notions, we will contrast the aims of the three perspectives in which we are interested in this essay, as well as their procedures. Finally, we will try to clarify all these theoretical ideas with the exemplification of the three critical perspectives in several literary works in English.First of all, we are going to expose some notions which will shed light on the aims and...
1077 words - 4 pages
In today’s society, it seems that we cannot turn the television on or look in a
magazine without being bombarded by images of seemingly flawless, incredible looking
women. Women today are held to such unattainable standards of beauty, which leads
to self-esteem and confidence issues. These standards have caused women to
overlook the beauty that God has created in them and find their solace in science. We
have make-up to cover our faces with, Botox and collagen injections to make us look
younger and plumper in just the right places, and the ultimate “gift”: plastic surgery.
Women seem not to care what the consequences are, just as long as their goal of
1046 words - 4 pages
The Film "O brother, where art thou?"
The film O brother, where art thou? is set in the Great Depression of the 1930’s and emphasizes the struggle between the upper and lower classes by using a variety of cinematic devices. Through the use of these cinematic devices and comedic relief the realities of the Depression are viewed without creating a stark, melancholy, documentary-styled film. Examples in this film of these cinematic devices used to show these realities include:
contrasting of light and dark colors,
high-angle shots, and
spherical camera lenses.
These particular devices provide a glimpse at the realities of the oppression,...
1139 words - 5 pages
Loyalty is being faithful to commitments and obligations. On the other hand there are many ways to display loyalty. One can be loyal to a person, political party, country, religion, or cause. The list is seemingly endless. William Shakespeare’s play King Lear exhibits many forms of loyalty, but one that shines particularly is loyalty to ones selfish needs. However there is a limit to loyalty which most over look. The characters Cordelia, the emotional King Lear, and the vile Edmund all manifest their loyalty to their own self, and all meet their demise. The limit to loyalty is death.
Often said to be the exemplification of an angel on earth, Cordelia’s character is won over by so many...
1079 words - 4 pages
D.H. Lawrence was a very notable writer in his prime and although he was not known for being an active practitioner of naturalism during the literary period of naturalism, Lawrence used this type of literary work exceptionally well. D.H. Lawrence used the characters, themes and motifs throughout The Rainbow, and Lady Chatterley’s Lover to exemplify the themes, motifs and characterization techniques used by many authors during the naturalism period.
D.H. Lawrence exemplified the main themes of the naturalism literary period throughout many of his novels, one especially including his short novel The Rainbow. The second tension of naturalism involves the fact that the characters are...
1305 words - 5 pages
In orthodox Christianity, myth in scripture makes objectifying claims on the real universe. With the prevalence of scientific reasoning in modern time, however, many theologians, including Earnest Wright, have seen a need to demythologize our understanding of historical biblical events in order to allow them to rationally fit into our understanding of the laws of nature. In so attempting to demythologize, as Langdon Gilkey points out, many theologians have rendered the scriptural language meaningless because, for example, saying, “The Hebrews saw God as acting,” does not make any claim as to what God actually did. Rudolf Bultmann’s approach to interpreting scripture uniquely preserves the...
1211 words - 5 pages
Known to all as the foundation upon which we stand, the helping hands and guiding leaders of our global society are both the world’s tools for progression towards unconditional happiness. Kindled by religious enthusiasts and community leaders, these aspects of support and guidance are embedded in families, societies, and the future generations. Service and leadership make up the thread of our society. In homes, both parents and children can serve and lead. In the public aspect, advocates of religion, advisors in community service or social mediators for peace all have the ability to support and guide the neighborhood. In schools, educators and peers can both help each other and lead by...
610 words - 2 pages
What did King Philip IV demand of the French clergy?
That they pay taxes.
What country was Philip IV the king of?
What was the bull,issued by Pope Boniface VIII,called? And what did it do?
987 words - 4 pages
Dear Mr. Scudder:I wholeheartedly disagree with you, Mr. Scudder, on your position of not publishing Charlotte Gilman's wonderful story, "The Yellow Wallpaper." "The Yellow Wallpaper," isn't a story which would "[make] others miserable." Rather, it's an inspiring story...
1282 words - 5 pages
Tom Schulman’s Dead Poets Society serves as a fictitious but accurate account of the Transcendentalist experiment in which a group of boys—led and encouraged by their English teacher Mr. Keating—liberate themselves from the order and tradition of Welton Academy in order to discover their own selves and wills. These teachings of free thought, individualism, and nonconformity, replete with platitudinous or otherwise vague and meaningless language, become the main impetus for the students’ eventual subversion of legitimate authority and devolution into chaos, errors which can be seen as the irreducible cause of their sorrows and which make the screenplay ultimately portray the futility of the...
1518 words - 6 pages
Ode to a Nightingale, Ode on a Grecian Urn, and Ode to Autumn
The casual reader of John Keats' poetry would most certainly be impressed by the exquisite and abundant detail of it's verse, the perpetual freshness of it's phrase and the extraordinarily rich sensory images scattered throughout it's lines. But, without a deeper, more intense reading of his poems as mere parts of a larger whole, the reader may miss specific themes and ideals which are not as readily apparent as are the obvious stylistic hallmarks. Through Keats' eyes, the world is a place full of idealistic beauty, both artistic and natural, who's inherent immortality, is to him a constant reminder of that man is...
1257 words - 5 pages
The Odyssey’ places emphasis on cunning and guilefulness rather than
strength as in the former epic; elucidated in Odysseus’ dealings with
Poseidon’s son, the Cyclops Polyphemus. Compelled
Composed approximately in 700 B.C., Homer’s epic narrative, ‘The
Odyssey’ depicts the homeward voyage of the legendary Greek hero
Odysseus. The Epos, commonly known as “The Wanderings of Odysseus” are
the protagonists’ recounting of his perilous misadventures to King
Alcinous of the Phaecians; to date, the most celebrated and noted
section of the great epic. Contrasting ‘The Iliad’, ‘The Odyssey’
places emphasis on cunning and guilefulness rather than strength as in
the former epic;...
1710 words - 7 pages
Analysis Of God As A Creator and Sustainer
It is generally accepted in western philosophy that if God is a
creator then he must also by definition, due in part to his other
attributes, be a sustainer. This essay assumes that a God does exist
because otherwise, rather than analysing the attributes in question,
one regresses into providing evidence for God's existence which is the
purpose of arguments such as the ontological argument. Using evidence
and reason, this essay will see whether creatorship and sustainership
can be assigned to God and if they are necessary for His existence.
The main literary source of this evidence is from Hugh J McCann in...
1811 words - 7 pages
New Criticism is an approach to literature, which was developed by a
group of American critics, most of whom taught at southern
universities during the years following the First World War. Like
Russian Formalism, following Boris Eikhenbaum and Victor Shklovskii,
the New Critics developed speculative positions and techniques of
reading that provide a vital complement to the literary and artistic
emergence of modernism. The New Critics wanted to avoid
impressionistic criticism, which risked being shallow and arbitrary,
and social/ historical (Marxist) approaches, which might easily be
subsumed by other disciplines. They were given their...