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Food is the basic necessity for human being to live. Food can be found in anywhere with variety of tastes, texture, colour and physical appearance. Vitamins are the negligible components of food that plays important role in human nutrition. Fat soluble vitamin is one of the types of vitamins in the food. “Fat-soluble vitamins are defined as “vitamins in the various food groups that related to their fat-solubility” (deMan, 1999, p.355).In general, fat-soluble vitamins can be classified into four major categories: vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E and vitamin K (refer to Figure 1 in Appendix 1).
The first type of fat-soluble vitamin is vitamin A. Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional
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thermal couple and controlled to ±1 oC of the target temperatures by circulating water is regulated by mixing tap water with that from a water bath set a pre-determined temperature. A feedback control facilitated and interfaced by LabView version 7.1 is used to adjust the opening of a water valve to the tap water stream. Nitrogen gas is used as the pressure source to pressurize the MTS system .
Encapsulation of lipophilic components, such as vitamins, flavors, colors, preservatives, nutraceuticals and drugs is one of the most important applications of edible nanoemulsions in the food and pharmaceutical industries . Encapsulation of a lipophilic component is carried out for several reasons
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vitamins are superior to one another.
There are two categories of vitamins needed in the human body. The
first are water-soluble vitamins, like B and C. The second category is fat-
soluble vitamins, such as vitamins A, D, E, and K. Water-soluble vitamins are
absorbed by the intestine. Once the intestine absorbs them, the circulatory
system carries them to certain tissues.
Fat-soluble vitamins are also absorbed by the intestine, and the lymph
system carries the vitamins to the various parts of the body. These vitamins
are responsible for maintaining the structure of the cell membranes.
Don t think that you can have as many vitamins as you want. If too many
vitamins are taken into the body, the
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A glowing skin has good protective tissue, it is resistant to acne, the secretion
of sebum is optimal, the skin is not too dry or too oily, it is not too sensitive to damage by UV radiation, it is one that is healthy enough for a speedy cell regeneration to enable quick tissue growth and repair.
Fat soluble vitamins (A,D, E, and K) and water-soluble vitamins (different types of B complex vitamins) along with Vitamin C are important for healing acne. Minerals are also important for healing acne. Every bio-molecule of vitamin has a role in healing and maintaining the health and functioning of the skin.
A quick look in to fat soluble vitamins and their roles
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amino acids you need to consume. Carbohydrates often include many foods that are nutrient-rich as in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, as well as foods such as candy, pastries, cookies, and flavored beverages. These provide huge amounts of vitamins, minerals, and other essential nutrients. Vitamins consist of the 13 vitamins essential to the body. They are divided into two categories including: water-soluble (vitamin C and all the B vitamins) and fat-soluble (vitamins A, D, E, and K). The fat-soluble vitamins are easier for the body to store. You do not need large amounts of these vitamins since excess amounts can be toxic and can cause many different problems. Because the water-soluble
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. However, not all carbohydrates do this. Most fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains are digested more slowly. Fats, which are lipids, are the source of energy that is the most concentrated. Fats produce more that twice the amount of energy that is in carbohydrates or proteins. Besides having a high concentration of energy, fat acts as a carrier for the fat soluble vitamins, A, D, E, and K. Also, by helping in the absorption of vitamin D, fats help make calcium available to various body tissues, in particular, the bones and teeth. Another function of fat is to convert carotene to vitamin A. Fat also helps keep organs in place by surrounding them in a layer of fat. Fat also surrounds
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headache. However, not all carbohydrates do this. Most fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains are digested more slowly.Fats, which are lipids, are the source of energy that is the most concentrated. Fats produce more that twice the amount of energy that is in carbohydrates or proteins. Besides having a high concentration of energy, fat acts as a carrier for the fat soluble vitamins, A, D, E, and K. Also, by helping in the absorption of vitamin D, fats help make calcium available to various body tissues, in particular, the bones and teeth. Another function of fat is to convert carotene to vitamin A. Fat also helps keep organs in place by surrounding them in a layer of fat. Fat also
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body to use and store the energy found in the protein and carbohydrates eaten, and also helps hemoglobin (the substance that carries oxygen around the body) form. It can be found in pork, chicken, bread, vegetables, peanuts, and potatoes. Taking more than 200mg a day could lead the peripheral neuropathy (the loss of feeling in the arms and legs). This is often reversible once you stop taking the supplements, but if they have been taken for more than a few months, it can be permanent. The FSA does not recommend exceeding 10mg a day.
Perhaps the most common vitamin supplement is of vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid. Vitamin C is water soluble, versus fat soluble , so it
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that are participates in biochemical reactions and that build various molecules in the body; some vitamins are called coenzymes and activate specific enzymes. Vitamins can either be water or fat soluble, and water soluble vitamins dissolve in the body’s fluids while fat soluble vitamins are vitamins that become stored in the body if not used. Some examples of water soluble vitamins are vitamins: B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, B12, and C. The B vitamins are most responsible for helping make energy and setting it free, as well as making Red Blood Cells. Vitamin C helps maintain tissue health and assists the immune system. The fat soluble vitamins are vitamins: A, D, E, and K. Vitamin A helps
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, and the relationship between diet, health and disease (Nordqvist, Medical New Today). There are seven different nutrients, including:
carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, vitamins, fiber, and water. Each nutrient is important and needed for our bodies to be healthy, and different foods are richer in a nutrients than in others.
Carbohydrates are key for maximum energy, speed, stamina, concentration, recovery and better fluid balance (Active.com). Carbohydrates are needed for your body to produce energy during physical activity.They’re also stored in the body as glycogen. Glycogen is stored in your liver, muscles, and your blood. It’s important to have glycogen in your muscles
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they are the fat-soluble vitamins, and water-soluble vitamins. Fat-soluble vitamins are stored within the body, but water-soluble vitamins are not stored in the body. The vitamins should not be consumed in large amount like minerals because it can also cause harm to your body as well.
The water is important because it is involved in every body function. The water also maintain the proper functions of the human body, making up for more than half of your body’s weight. Water helps by protecting the body systems of the body, and also by getting rid of the wastes in the body. You need to consume large amount of because you need to replace what your body loses by the everyday functions that you
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may cause toxic reactions. For this reason, it is necessary to track the amount of fat-soluble vitamins that we ingest.Water soluble vitamins dissolve in water. Vitamins B and C are water soluble. Because these vitamins are excreted very rapidly from the body through the kidneys, they must be taken daily.Minerals are natural substances found in the earth's crust. They play many different roles in the body, including: regulating blood pressure, facilitating muscle contraction, providing major components of bones, healing wounds and helping conducting nerve impulses. Minerals are found in a variety of foods. There are two classifications of minerals in the human body, both of which are of
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disease), cognitive impairment, cataracts ( clouding of the eye lenses), Alzheimer's disease (loss of brain function; affects memory, thinking and behavior), macular degeneration (eye disease), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and immune dysfunction ( malfunction of the immune system). Fiber are carbohydrates that your body can not digest or absorb. Fiber boosts immune system in your gut, feeds the good probiotic bacteria there, keeps the digestive lining healthy and absorbs and pulls out excess hormones, cholesterol, fat and toxins from the body. Fiber also helps you digest and keeps you full longer without many calories. There are two types of fiber; soluble and insoluble. Soluble fiber
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all three types as well. The B vitamins and Vitamin C are all water soluble so they are not effected by fat being removed. As well as those, the minerals iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, and zinc are all about the same too. Interestingly enough, the mineral calcium is slightly higher in the lower fat milks. Whole milk contains 115mg of calcium per 100mls of milk while skimmed has 120mg and semi-skimmed contains 118mg of calcium. As well as the vitamins and minerals the milk contains, it also helps to protect you from diseases like osteoporosis.The last drink I want to discuss with you is Gatorade®. This drink is very popular among athletes. One main point of Gatorade is
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more vegetables with both lunch and dinner in order to provide myself with more vitamins and minerals. I should have had a small side salad consisting of dark leafy lettuce, carrots, and tomatoes with my lunch, and fresh cut broccoli with my dinner. Adding these two side dishes would have helped to add more vitamins and minerals in that day's diet. The Heatlh Link (2008) stated, "Folate and folic acid are forms of a water-soluble B vitamin. Folate occurs naturally in food. Folic acid is the synthetic form of this vitamin that is found in supplements and fortified foods," (para. 1). My recorded daily diet shows that I did not consume enough folate for the day. If I would have added the side
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Fat makes food palatable dogs and helps them feel full after a meal. In addition, dogs need fat for coat health, brain function, reproduction, kidney function, absorption of fat soluble vitamins and other important bodily functions. Because of the popularity of low fat diets for humans, many dog owners wrongly believe that they need to eliminate fat from their dogs’ diets. This, however, is not the case. Dogs unnecessarily fed very low fat diets can develop itchy, flaky skin, become lethargic and dull and have digestive problems.
Unlike humans, dogs do not usually develop heart disease or other vascular diseases from excess fat intake, but too much fat is
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known to the world. Vitamins carry various fat-soluble nutrients or water that gives nutritious growth and activates the bodies' metabolic processes. If fast foods do not contain certain types of vitamins then fast meals are not as good as anything else. Of course certain fast meals do have adequate amounts of proteins and some vitamins; however, fast foods are relatively high in fats, and are missing some essential vitamins or nutrition.People with low nutrition in their bodies, especially old people, get heart disease by consuming a lot of fast foods. The fats in the fast foods raise your blood cholesterol levels. Younger generations also could get heart disease from consuming great amounts
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vitamin supplements that they don’t even need, hoping that it would act like a barrier against some of the major chronic diseases.
Vitamins are organic and non-caloric micro-nutrients that are essential to life. They are broken down into two major classifications: Fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) and Water-soluble vitamins (C, B). Vitamins are co-enzymes, which mean that they help transform substances in your body. Even though vitamins are important, you only need small amounts in your diet to run efficiently. Vitamins are especially important for the very young, because they grow the most at that time in their lives. Without vitamins they would not be able to grow and
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that are required for general health and given a bad rap because of their associations with unhealthy foods and cardiovascular issues.
Healthy fats such as monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats are need in the synthesis of vitamin D and other fat-soluble vitamins. Monounsaturated fats easily sourced from food such as nuts, avocados, and olives. Polyunsaturated fat are primarily in fish and other seafood. The evil twins called, trans-fat and saturated fat on the other hand are the ones with the true bad rap for their influence toward heart disease.
Vitamins on the other hand have no such ugly twin and considered a component of nutrition because of they are so essential to our health
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A lipid is a group of naturally occurring molecules. That group includes fats, waxes, steroids, fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) phospholipids, etc. They are broadly defined as hydrophobic or amphiphilic small molecules. The amphiphilic molecules form structures such as vesicles, liposomes, and membranes in an aqueous environment.They are insoluble in water, yet soluble in alcohol. (Human Biology)
Lipids contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen but they have far less oxygen than carbohydrates. They have high melting points. (Human Biology) The saturated acids have a higher melting point than unsaturated acids. Lipids can be extracted from plants and animals using solvents such as
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Deficiencies of vitamins are associated with psychiatric illnesses either by being the primary cause or an exacerbating factor. Psychiatric symptoms could also lead to poor nutrition. Vitamin deficiencies may play a role in compromising patient recovery.
Vitamins are organic substances essential for several enzymatic functions.
There are 13 known vitamins which are either fat soluble (4 vitamins i.e. KEDA) or water soluble (9 vitamins i.e. C, & the B group).
Regarding brain function, B vitamins are essential in the maintenance of myelin, neuro-transmitter production, and methylation cycle. Fat-soluble vitamins are necessary in inflammatory regulation, regeneration of antioxidants and
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of the fat-soluble vitamins (vitamins A, D, E, and K) from the intestine. Milk, butter, meat, and oils are important sources of fat.VITAMINS, MINERALS, AND WATER:To keep the body functioning properly it is necessary to have, in addition to the basic foods, a sufficient intake of accessory substances such as vitamins, minerals (see mineral, dietary ), and enough water to carry nutrients to the tissues and waste products away from them. A minimum of about 2 liters of liquid per day are recommended for the average adult. Vitamins function as coenzymes in important body processes, with the exception of vitamin D, which is synthesized upon exposure to sunlight. A large variety of minerals are
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vessels healthy. Vitamin C can be found in citrus
fruits and juices, green vegetables, potatoes, frozen peas and
tomatoes. Vitamin D works with calcium to help prevent bones from
thinning. Good sources of vitamin D include oily fish (herrings,
mackerel, tinned sardines and pilchards) egg yolks, some margarine and
fortified breakfast cereals. Vitamin E is a fat-soluble nutrient. It
reduces the risk of health problems from cancer to heart disease.
Vitamin E also plays a crucial role in promoting overall health and
immunity by protecting cell membranes. Vitamin E may be found in green
leafy vegetables, wheat germ (bread and cereals), nuts, egg yolks and
Water is the most essential nutrient because humans can last weeks
without food but only 4-5 days without water. Two thirds of our body
weight is water. Water helps to regulate the body temperature. It also
helps the body to digest food once eaten. You should aim to drink two
litres of water everyday.
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assist in the processes and functions of the body. Vitamins are organic compounds that cannot be made by the body. They are found in various sources of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Currently there are thirteen vitamins. Four are fat soluble. Nine are water soluble. The four fat soluble vitamins are A, D, E, and K. The nine water soluble vitamins are Vitamin C and the Vitamin B family, which are: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, Folate, and Vitamin B12. Vitamins are multifunctional but one vitamin cannot be used in the place of another vitamin. They function best in their proper proportions, often coordinating and acting as coenzymes in cellular
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contains half of the egg's protein and vitamins D, A and E. The fat was detected in the Sudan III test as tiny red globules floated on top of a pink solution. This is because Sudan III combined preferentially to fat which had broken out of the yolk and floated to the surface of the water during heating The egg white formed a cloudy pink solution after the addition of Sudan III dye as it has an extremely low fat content and on heating in the boiling water chemical reactions would have occurred causing it to make the solution appear cloudy. The main function of the egg white is to protect the egg yolk and provide the cell with some of the nutrients which it will need to grow as the egg white is the
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the human body. Milk is mostly composed of water, which is also very healthy for the human body. The human body needs all of these nutrients to function properly. Milk contains vitamins A, B1, B2, B5, B6, B12 and vitamin C. Vitamin B1 and niacin help the body produce energy in its cells, among other things. Vitamin B6 helps the body fight illness and infection, while B12 is used to develop red blood cells. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) helps the mitochondria (fat-burning furnaces) of muscle cells to produce energy. B5 makes brain neurotransmitters and natural body steroid hormones. The right amount of B Vitamins in their diet helps protect children from slowed growth, anaemia, eye troubles, nerve
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carbons and 6 waters). Carbohydrates can be broken up into two groups, simple and complex. Simple carbohydrates (mono- & disaccharides) consist of one or two sugars, while complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides) consist of more.
What are Fats? Fats are a type of lipid that dissolves in alcohol and other organic solvents but doesn’t dissolve in water. (Fat Basics, 2012) Triglycerides are the major storage form of fat in the body. They consist of a molecule known as glycerol that is connected to one, two, or three fatty acids. Made up of a three-carbon chain that connects the fatty acids together, Glycerol is soluble (water-friendly) and is the basis of all fats. A fatty acid is insoluble (water
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Lipids: III. Lipids (fat) Test
Two clean test tubes were marked “A” and “B”. Approx. 2 cm (in height) of distilled water was added to both test tubes. Eight to ten drops of vegetable oil was added, to tube “B”. Three to four drops of Fat Testing Solution (a dye insoluble in water, but soluble in lipids) was added to both tubes. A finger was placed over the top of the tubes and shaken thoroughly. It was allow to stand.
Proteins: IV. Proteins Test
Two clean test tubes were marked “A” and “B”. Approx. 1.5 cm (in height) of distilled water was added to both tubes. Ten drops of Protein Solution was added to tube “B”. It was shaken gently to mix. Fifteen to eighteen drops of Protein
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because the drug industries make billions of dollars a year selling anti-cholesterol drug. Cholesterol is part of your weight. The human body needs two types of vitamins. They are water soluble vitamins and fat soluble vitamins. The human requires enough levels of appropriate fat ingestion to provide the important fat soluble vitamins. Those are Vitamins A, D, K and beta-carotene. If a person is deficient in these critical vitamins, disease can occur (Johnson).The low carb diet has been the new story for the last decade. It did not start with Dr. Robert Atkins. It was devised by an undertaker and coffin maker in London. His name is William Banting to treat his own obesity (Di Pasquale). This
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B1 and is in the group of water soluble vitamins. Thiamine is used in the body to break down foods into usable energy for the body and is also important in the maintenance of the immune system.
Soybean meal is the byproduct of grinding what material is left after the oil in the soybeans has been extracted for oil production. It makes for a good protein rich, highly digestible feedstuff for animals. It is used as a protein and carbohydrate source when developing rations for animals. Since most of the oil or fat is removed for oil production, soybean meal is fat-free.
Poultry By-Product Meal
Poultry by-product meal is made up of parts of the animal that are
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~ High blood pressure
~ High fat levels in blood
~ Disease of the coronary arteries
~ Damage to the heart muscle
Brain and Nervous System:
~ Nerve damage
Most alcoholics get 50% of calorie intake from alcohol
~ Anemia (due to iron and folic acid deficiency_
~ Skin Damage
~ Diarrhea Due to Vitamin B Deficiencies
~Loss of vitamin B1causes memory loss and abnormal co-ordination
~Thiamin and folate deficiencies can cause neurologic disorders
Even moderate levels of alcohol are said to be a poison!!
~Alcohol is a complex drug it is both water and fat soluble which means it affects all the
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obtained from the diet. Amino acids are
used inside cells for growth, repair, formation of enzymes, membranes
and some formation of hormones. Proteins are also, sometimes a source
Lipids are used for long-term stores of energy and to make cell
membranes. They protect delicate organs with a cushion of fat
surrounding the fragile tissue and act as heat insulators.
Minerals and vitamins keep all systems running properly. Minerals are
all soluble in water and have many uses. Deficiencies lead to anaemia,
slowing down of metabolic rate which causing tiredness and lack of
energy, weak bones, poor blood clotting, tooth decay, and in the young
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and colouring are added to make the soap more appealing. Soap made from animal fat (sheep and cattle) must be used with hot water because it is only slightly soluble in cold water. Soap made from vegetable oils (coconut and palm kernel) can be used in cold or warm water. The cleaning action is identical to that of detergents, but soaps are less effective in hard water. Metallic soaps (salts of calcium, magnesium, lithium, copper, and zinc) are used in greases and lubricating oils.Soaps and Detergents both have certain aspects that make the other look inferior. Detergents have their pros and con's as do soaps. But one thing is for sure and that is that without these cleaning products the world's standard of living would not be as high as high as it is now.
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from the liver to the gallbladder. Distal to the cystic duct is the bile duct which transports bile from the gallbladder to the duodenum. The bile can flow in either direction because there are no valves controlling which direction the bile goes.
The liver detoxifies the blood by transforming the fat-soluble toxins into a water- soluble form which helps the kidneys in eliminating them in urine, the toxins can also go into bile to be eliminated by the colon. Toxins that are not eliminated return to the bloodstream and are eventually stored in fatty tissues where they do not pose as an urgent threat. The liver has an ability to recover from injury and regenerate new tissue. This is especially
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(National Research Council, 1989). Vitamins are organic compounds and only very small amounts are needed per day to maintain health, however the body is unable to produce vitamins in the body and therefore they are seen as essential. Vitamins are further broken down depending on their solubility, these two groups are water soluble and fat soluble. Water soluble vitamins (B vitamins, vitamin C and cholone) are easily transported into the blood because of their solubility and therefore are not stored in large amounts in the body. Fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) require dietary fat for absorption into the blood via the intestines, because they are harder to absorb they are stored in larger
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almost all foods
and an excellent source of energy food. If consumed before and
after a workout, the workout will be more effective. According to
The balance of good health sheet, a person should consume 6-14
measures of carbohydrates per day.
Sources include: bread, beans, pasta, rice, dried fruit etc.
* 25%FATS- Function of fats are:
i) Production of and storage of energy in the body
ii) Supports organs in the body eg. Kidneys and eyes.
iii) Transports fat soluble vitamins (A,D,E,K)
iv) Forms part of the nervous sheath and sebum in the sebaceous gland.
v) Used in the formation of cholesterol and steroid hormones
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body activities and are important in keeping water inside cells. Electrolytes allow water to move between different parts of the body.Consuming essential nutrients is vital in having a healthy lifestyle. Essential nutrients would be the nutrients that your body needs, but can not make them on its own. The essential nutrients are proteins, carbohydrates, fats and oils, minerals, fat-soluble vitamins, water-soluble vitamins, and water. Protein is important in tissue repair, growth of nails and hair, balances fluids, immune system, providing energy, produces enzymes, and forming glucose. Protein is lost every day and the RDA recommends having 0.8 grams per kilograms of your body weight. Having
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significant higher than the desirable 200. Even considering other influences such as smoking, patients with lower cholesterol were found more likely to die than those with higher amounts.
Cholesterol is categorized as a sterol, which is an organic molecule derived from animals. It is considered a lipid, a category that includes fats, waxes and fat-soluble vitamins. It is mostly produced in the liver and nearly every cell in the body. (Colpo 12) Cholesterol is vital for producing sex hormones including estrogen and testosterone among other hormones such as cortisol, which balances stress in the body. Cortisol also regulates sleep patterns, and keeps the immune system working
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skin. Shown in the dry eyes and chapped lips, coarse hair, and the drying eye conjunctiva and yellowing skin. Lack of vitamin D causes problems in the skeleton leading to brittleness and easy breakage of bones. Vitamin K that adds to blood coagulation will cause an increase of clotting time and bruising. Those are to name the effects of low fat-soluble vitamin. The water-soluble vitamins effect the body in yet another way. Vitamin C, labels by many as the "health vitamin", is an antioxidant, meaning that it is used to repair the body of damage from free oxygen radicals. Low levels therefore, let damaged tissue to go unrepaired. Other common problems are an inability to form the intercellular
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. Carbohydrates are classified as nondigestible and digestible carbohydrates.
Nondigestible carbohydrate is also called as dietary fiber. There are two types of fiber --- soluble and insoluble. Soluble fiber dissolves in water to form a gel, which slows down the digestion and delays the emptying of stomach and makes the individual feel full. This results in gradual rise of glucose and insulin (a blood-soluble protein) in the body. Soluble fiber also helps to lower cholesterol levels in the blood by binding to the bile salts in the intesitne and eliminating them from the body. Fruits like apples, prunes, and citrus fruits, oatmeal, peas, and dried beans are some of the excellent source of soluble
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am at risk for deficiency in all of the fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K). Based on my report, I consumed an average of 491 μg of vitamin A, 3 μg of vitamin D, 8 mg of vitamin E, and 28 μg of vitamin K. The recommended intakes for each of these vitamins are as follows: 900 μg of vitamin A, 15 μg of vitamin D, 15 mg of vitamin E, and 120 μg of vitamin K. I should definitely increase my intake of all of these vitamins, especially vitamins D and K. According to my 5-day Nutrients Report, I consumed an average of 909 mg of calcium, 3335 mg of sodium, and 23 mg of iron. The DRI for each of these minerals as are as follows: 1000 mg of calcium, < 2300 mg of sodium, and 8 mg of iron. I
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absorbed through the small intestine. There are two different types of vitamins, water-soluble (All the B vitamins, and vitamin C) and fat-soluble (vitamins A, D and K).Neutral fats, or triglycerides, are the principal form of dietary fat. They are simple compounds, and within digestion are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids, their component parts.IngestionIntake of food in the Paramecium is controlled by the needs of the cell. When food is sensed, the organism guides itself towards the food, and guides it into the oral groove, then enclosing it in a vacuole. Enzymes are then secreted to digest the food, which is then absorbed into the cytoplasm and made available to the various organelles
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doses, fat soluble vitamins such as vitamins A, D, E and K can accumulate in the liver and cause toxic side effects. For example, vitamin A, which promotes good vision, cell growth and body immunity is highly toxic to the liver when taken in excess (more than 3,000 mcg). Toxic daily doses of other fat soluble vitamins are as follows: vitamin D, 1,925 mcg or 77,000 IU, and vitamin E, 1,000 mg or 1,500 IU. Although high intake of vitamin K may make blood clotting problems worse, no toxic dose has been established.
To obtain maximum benefit and avoid side effects from vitamin and mineral supplements, experts recommend taking the Recommended Dietary Allowance or RDA indicated, which is the
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COMPARATIVE STUDY OF WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS IN FROZEN AND FRESH VEGETABLES IN THE LOCAL MARKETS OF MOMBASA.
KIBET PASCAL MAGERER
A Project Report Submitted to the Technical University of Mombasa, Department of Pure and Applied Science in Partial Fulfillment of a Degree of Applied Chemistry
This thesis is my original work and has not been presented in any other university or college for degree
Name: Kibet Pascal Magerer
This proposal has been submitted for examination with our approval as university
Name Mr. Evans Omotto
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My personal health goal is to eat healthier foods and consume less junk food. As a runner, I realize that this is very important for me if I wish to achieve maximum results. In considering where to look for advice on good food choices, I decided that the best place to look would be in Runner's World Magazine. Sure enough, in the January 2001 issue I found an article titled Kitchen Think. The article gave helpful advice for my goal. The first thing mentioned was that fat should be an important aspect of every runner's diet. It is something that cannot be left out, but should be properly balanced. Only 30-35% of total calories should come from fat, which does not mean a ton of sugary
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low levels of plasma insulin throughout the day was key in preventing ER in horses with predisposing conditions8.
Best results in horses with PSSM and RER have been found during a mixture of high fat and high fiber diet10. Further research has demonstrated that 15% or less of the energy requirements should come from soluble carbohydrates in horses prone to ER. This method of feeding allows for a slowed glycemic response as the fiber and fat will slow the digestion of any soluble carbohydrate found in forages. The fat supplementation provides additional energy requirements as well as essential fatty acids that are key in energy metabolism. Ensuring that hay being fed is good quality and
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mentioned so far are treated with high doses of vitamin E along with a supplementation of dietary fat plus other fat-soluble vitamins. A third and last genetic cause of hypolipidemia is chylomicron retention disease, which is a very rare autosomal recessive condition wherein the mutation is still unknown that leads to deficient apo B secretion. This condition is treated with supplementation of fat and fat-soluble vitamins.
The secondary causes of hypolipidemia are more common compared to its genetic forms that are significantly rare, but are still potentially severe. Moreover, the treatment of hypolipidemia is fixated on its root causes instead of itself alone. One secondary factor is
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pregnancy, it is important to have folate and folic acid for the production and maintenance of new cells. Folate and folic acid are forms of water-soluble B vitamins that help protect against a number of congenital malformations including neural tube defects and reduce the risk of some serious birth defects such as spina difida, malformations of the spine, and brain anencephaly, malformations of the skull. Because of the involvement of folate in the synthesis, repair, and functioning of DNA, the building blocks of cells, it helps prevent changes to DNA that may lead to cancer. Infants and children who lack folate will experience slow growth rate. Pregnant women lacks folate may likely to give
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century. The term vitamin was created by Casimir Funk, a Polish Doctor. “Vitamins” was invented as essential factors in diets. E.V. McCollum began using rats in his experiments. Vitamin A was the first fat-soluble vitamin, discovered by him. His experiment led to the knowing of rats being healthier when they were fed butter, containing more Vitamin A, rather than lard. The supplement of health with vitamins was formed when a variety of other vitamins was exposed. During the 1930s, the first vitamin pills were beginning to be sold in markets. Congress approved the Dietary and Supplement Health and Education Act in October 1994. At the end of the 19th century, nutritionists began to be employed
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of these bonds form in liquid water, If these bonds did not exist, its boiling point would be in the region of -120oC, rather than the actual value of 100oC. Water is also very good at ionising substances due to its structure, and is therefore a good solvent.Many different polar substances dissolve in water because of its polarity. Ions such as sodium, potassium, and chloride can dissolve in it as well as sugars, amino acids, oxygen, carbon dioxide and water-soluble vitamins (B-complex and C). However, it does not dissolve non-polar substances, for example lipids, or the lipid-soluble vitamins (A,D,E and K).Often in living organisms, substances must be solution, and water is the solventwhich