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CHAPTER 11 MY NOTES
How application layer functions are spread among computers to deliver service to users
Thanks layering ability to separate function at different layers most application architecture can run over
TCP/IP, IPX/SPX and other standards below the application layer
Note: if you use TCP it does not care what application architecture you are using.
Important networked applications
world wide web
The only layer whose functionality users see directly
TRADTIONAL APPLICATION ARCHITECTURES
Terminal-host systems, client/server architectures (both file...
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Public relations can be looked at as building public relationships between a company and the general public. Public relations involves the evaluation of public attitudes and opinions, formulation and performance of an organization's procedures and policy regarding communication with the public, coordination of communication programs, developing relationships through a two way communication process and developing a positive relationship between a company and the public. The people who work in the public relations department work for businesses, governments, hospitals, schools, nonprofit charities and many others. Public Relations is not used just to get an organization known or as a cheap...
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In today environment there are many facets in the Public Relations field, which is often referred to as a complex profession. Although complex, there are thousands of men and women practicing in this field throughout the world. There are numerous diverse activities that fall under the public relations umbrella that can often be classified as organizational or societal within the broad range of functions. Many of the functions can essentially be tied in one way or another into both classifications.Although there is not a defined definition of the organizational or society functions in public relations, the organizational functions are those activities that relate to or involve organizations...
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University of PhoenixAugust 2, 2006MKT-438IntroductionPublic Relations is a vital part of a comprehensive marketing program. Every company, whether large or small, should have a PR group in place for unanticipated moments. PR should also be used on a regular basis and partnered with other marketing and advertising essentials. Great Public Relations can add power to the overall company image. When major magazines write about a particular company, this provides a different type of credibility and stature that can improve and clarify audiences' perceptions of that company. A single mention in the media can often be worth more than many ad placements in newspapers or on television and the best...
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By definition, “Outsourcing is the process of hiring an external provider to do the work that was previously done internally. Outsourcing has become a widespread and increasingly popular alternative involving virtually every business area” (Mondy, 2012). Many companies are choosing to outsource some of, if not all of their human resource functions due to other companies being able to perform the functions more efficiently and have more knowledge in an area then the company itself. For example, many companies decide to outsource their payroll functions because of some of the different compliance issues for taxes and relieving the accounting department of having to handle...
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The functions of Public Relations (PR) can be grouped into two loose categories: organizational and societal. Many viewpoints of the functions fall into both categories and are not mutually limited. The scope of organizational functions of PR involves actions concerning the company, and societal functions of PR interests' activities regarding society. Organizational functions of PR are activities that interact with or affect organizations while societal functions of PR have to do with actions that connect to the public. Communications management, media, government affairs, publicity, investor relations, community relations, consumer relations, and employee relations are organizational...
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In today’s era of raising slogan of global village, communication has become a burning issue. The world has turned into a global village, and one cannot survive alone. As man is a social animal, he cannot overcome worldly activities alone. For the fulfillment of daily activities and usual deeds, he needs help from other people and have to communicate with others. Infect, in habitual life everyone spend a lot of time in communicating i.e. writing, reading, talking and listening. People spent most of their time in communicating, for the execution of routine activities everyone needs assistance and support from others. Then communication process starts, no one can communicate alone. There‘s...
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Communication can be referred to as, the sending information through a channel to the receiver and the receiver understanding the meaning of the information. Effective communication is very important to any organization and without it the organization will not function effectively. Communication has four functions, they are control, motivation information and emotional expression. Communication can be broken down into two groups, interpersonal and non verbal. Within an organization formal and informal communication is used. Communication plays an important role in goal setting.
Communication can be used to control the behavior of employees. This is done with the use of hierarchies and...
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Choosing a topic for this paper was very difficult. Many topics seemed very interesting, but after reviewing many topics the choice was clear. I also took into consideration the fact that we would be presenting these topics to the class. So, I choose the communication process. It is very important in management. Having been a manager for three years, I felt I would be able to explain this topic well to the class.
Communication is the process of transmitting information and meaning. It is important for managers to develop their communication skills, because it is one major skills needed by managers. The management roles, which are interpersonal,...
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What are public relations? Several definitions have been adopted by businesses and organizations. Denny Griswold, who founded Public Relations News, claimed that public relations is a management function that evaluates public attitudes, identifies policy and procedures of an individual or organization with the public interest, and plans and executes a program of action to earn public understanding and acceptance (Seitel, 2004). Within that definition of public relations are functions of public relations. Functions of public relations are grouped into two categories. The first category of public relations is organizational functions.Organizational functions of public relations involve the...
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Functions of management PAGE \* Arabic 1
Functions of managementFunctions of management.In today's business environment all organizations, regardless of its specialty and size, are following basic management concept in order to accomplish their goals and objectives. INCLUDEPICTURE "https://api.turnitin.com/images/spacer.gif" \* MERGEFORMATINET Day to day business strategic, tactical and operational decisions for the organization are being supported by fundamental functions of management. They are divided into four interdependent functions of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling. All of these functions are implemented in projects my company is involved in.Planning is the...
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FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT PAGE \* MERGEFORMAT 1 Functions of Management PAGE \* MERGEFORMAT 5
Functions of ManagementMonique NilesUniversity of PhoenixMANAGEMENT: THEORY, PRACTICE AND APPLICATIONMGT 330KAREN HATFIELDMarch 22, 2010Functions of ManagementIn everyday business operations, the four basic functions of business play a vital role in their success. Businesses need to run smoothly, whether big, small, new or old, and the four functions of management, allows the ability to control preventive measures when handling tactical, planned, and set decisions.The four functions of management are planning, organizing, leading and controlling. Planning is the foundational function upon which all...
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Communication is important for the internal functioning of the organization and for interaction with the external environment. Communication is the transfer of information from a sender to a receiver, with the information being understood by the receiver. The communication process begins with the sender, who encodes an idea that is sent in oral, written, visual or some other form to the receiver. The receiver decodes the message and gains and understanding of what the sender wants to communicate. This in turn may result in some change or action. But the communication process may be interrupted by “noise”, which is anything that hinders communication. This assignment discusses communications...
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The process of setting and achieving the organization's goals through organizational resources is called management. To accomplish organizational goals, managers perform four basic functions of managerial work which are known as the four functions of management. These functions include planning, organizing, leading and controlling. These functions are highly integrated and recur throughout the organization. The four functions of management are important to all organizations, whether they are large national corporations, small family based businesses, or nonprofit organization.1. PlanningPlanning is the first function of management. Planning is the continuing process to set an organization's...
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This skill is one of the elementary functions of management in any business and its importance is hardly be overstated. It is a process of transmitting information, ideas, thoughts, opinions and plans between various parts of an organisation. It is impossible to have a relationship with stakeholders without communication. Good and effective communication is required not only for forming relations but also for success of the business.
Business communication encompasses not only communicating with external contacts but also with employees within the organisation. This will aid business in being well-organised and every matter whether it is a problem, an inquiry or a sales letter will be...
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Communication in the Work EnvironmentCommunication is the process of transmitting information and meaning. It is important for managers to develop their communication skills, because it is the one major skills needed by managers. The management roles, which are interpersonal, informational, and decisional and the management functions, which are planning, organizing, leading, and controlling all require communication. The success of any organization depends greatly on the effective communication among its employees and the larger community it serves.There are many types of communication. The first one I would like to communicate is vertical communication. The definition of vertical...
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According to Certo (1992), communication is the creation or exchange of thoughts, ideas, emotions, and understanding between sender and receiver. It is essential to building and maintaining relationships in the workplace. A communication occurs between senders toward another sender. There are few steps in the process of the communication. Diagram above shows the step taken in the process of the communication. The first sender will create a message that they wanted to send to the other senders. According to Certo (1992), a sender uses words and symbols to put forth information into a message for the receiver, the individual receiving the message. Messages are then received and decoded or...
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“Communication is the heart of nursing… your ability to use your growing knowledge and yourself as an instrument of care and caring and compassion” (Koerner, 2010, as cited in Balzer-Riley, 2012, p. 2). The knowledge base which Koerner is referring to includes important concepts such as communication, assertiveness, responsibility and caring (Balzer-Riley, 2012). Furthermore, communication is complex. It includes communication with patients, patient families, doctors, co-workers, nurse managers and many others. Due to those concepts and the variety of people involved, barriers and issues are present. Knowing how to communicate efficiently can be difficult.
The intent of this paper is...
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A way to enhance discussion about family life is to identify the ways that families achieve each of the internal functions. Besides the basic necessities such as shelter, water, warmth, and care; families may also provide internal and external functions such as socialization, intellectual development, recreation, accommodation, transmission, and emotional support. There are positive and negative communication patterns associated with each function, which will be further discussed.
Providing care is the basic internal function and a base for the definition of family according to the United States Government. Providing care can be achieved by providing food, shelter, clothing, and caretaking....
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Reasons Why Downward Communication is More Prevalent in Organizations than Upward Communication
Definition of communication
According to Merriam Webster, communication is the ways of sending information to people by using technology. Besides that, Michael Joyce said communication is the imparting or exchanging of information by writing, speaking or using some other medium. For example, are ‘We firmly believed that theatre is an effective medium of communication,” said the spokesman of the company. Moreover, Jack Ronald also said communication means of sending or receiving information, such as computers or telephone lines. For example, is in an emergency, reliance on digital...
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The topic for today's reading was Augmentative Communication Systems-Sign Languages, PECS. In the assigned reading and module, we observe that a characteristic of autism is difficulty developing and using verbal speech to communicate with others. The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is used to help children with autism to develop a system for communicating with others across multiple environments. It is used most often with learners that are non-verbal, but can also be used with learners with limited verbal skills. PECS can be used across age ranges, starting in preschool, to help individuals with ASD communicate with others. In fact, research has shown that learners...
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I-SYSTEMS COLLEGEDIPLOMA IN BUSINESSADMINISTRATIONBusiness CommunicationAssignmentNAME : SHARON WONG PEI CHENSTUDENT ID : 940930015824LECTURER NAME : MR.NANTHAAssignment QuestionModule : Business communicationQuestion :1)Communication is one the basic functions of management in any organization.Explain how communications flow and their advantages within organizations from the perspective of a middle manager.IntroductionCommunication plays a very important role in the management of an organization.It is a process which is an activity that server to connect sender and receiver of message through space and time. In other word, it is a transmission interaction of facts, ideas, opinions, feelings...
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Effective Communication Practices
Communication is defined as “the transfer and understanding of meaning” (Robbins & Judge, 2013) and is the foundation of every relationship. There are four main reasons for communication in business. They are to control, motivation, emotional expression and information (Robbins & Judge, 2013). Without effective communication the sharing of ideas, information, feelings and questions cannot be completed. There is a process to communication and when the process is broken communication is not effective. In business it is a manager’s responsibility to understand the process of communication, the functions of the communications and to minimize any barriers to...
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The�Ethnography of communication�(EOC) is a method of�discourse analysis�in�linguistics, which draws on the�anthropological�field ofethnography. Unlike ethnography proper, though, it takes both language and culture to be constitutive as well as constructive. In their bookQualitative Communication Research Methods, communications scholars�Thomas R. Lindlof�and�Bryan C. Taylor�(2002) explain "Ethnography of communication conceptualizes communication as a continuous flow of information, rather than as a segmented exchange of messages" (p. 44). According to�Deborah Cameron�(2001), EOC can be thought of as the application of ethnographic methods to the communication...
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The four functions of management are referred to as the management process,These functions include planning, organizing, leading and controlling. It is vital for an organization manager to implement these functions to ensure the success of the company. The functions of management as described as follows:Planning is setting goals and deciding on how to accomplish them. Planning is referred to as the "first" management function because all functions depend on planning.Organizing is the second major function. It involves managers grouping resources, identifying jobs and activities that will result in an efficient and effective manner.Leading is the process of influencing people to work towards...
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The functions of Public Relations (PR) can be grouped into two categories: Organizational and Societal. Many viewpoints of the functions fall into both categories and are not mutually limited. The scope of organizational functions of PR involves actions concerning the company, and societal functions of PR interests' activities regarding society. Organizational functions of PR are activities that interact with or affect organizations while societal functions of PR have to do with actions that connect to the public. Communications management, media relations, government affairs, publicity, investor relations, community relations, consumer relations, and employee relations are organizational...
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Management is creative problem solving. This creative problem solving is accomplished through four functions of management: planning, organizing, leading and controlling. The intended result is the use of an organization's resources in a way that accomplishes its mission and objectives (Higgins, 1994). The nature and work of management involves effectively applying these four functions to achieve organizational success. The purpose of this paper will be to explain the four functions of management as it relates to my department. It will describe how these functions are applied to my department, my supervisor, and my current position.Planning is the first required step in my department's...
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AbstractThe Army uses all four functions of management through a Chain of Command. All leaders throughout the military use at least one function, but multiple leaders working together covers all functions. Always someone is planning, organizing, leading, or controlling. The reason the United States Military is so effective is because leadership and management always try to stay a step ahead. The rank structure provides a guideline to how much a soldier manages. More rank brings more responsibility, more respect, and more use of each function. Though not all functions are needed to be a manager, a good manager does need all four. The Chain of Command is the best example to show leadership,...
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Functions of Management PAGE 4
Functions of ManagementElizabeth SanchezUniversity of PhoenixFunctions of ManagementManagement is defined as, "effective and efficient use of limited organizational resources to achieve organizational goals". Being a manager is not an easy job; it is a role that requires extra skills, effort, and creative problem solving. This creative problem solving is accomplished through four functions of management: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. The nature and work of management involves effectively applying these four functions to achieve organizational success. The purpose of this paper is to explain the four functions of management and describe how...
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Unified Communications Manager
With the advent of smart phones, Wireless PDA, Net books, and the ever decreasing cost of Wi-Fi laptops. Not to mention VOIP and media reach software (Video conference, steaming video) it had become increasingly more evident that an all encompassing communications solution is needed for the modern workplace.
Software solutions for business communication tend to give affordable, easily implemented options with much smaller short-term cost benefits and valuable improvements. However you will for the most part not get long term guarantees of QoS’. They may also fail to address the limitation of a dated hardware infrastructure that would take advantage of...
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IntroductionUnderstanding nonverbal communication and body language is a very important part of the work environment. Effective communication is essential in today's workplace. Functions, forms and cultural differences will help make communication more effective. "Studies show that you words account for only 7% of the messages you convey. The remaining 93% is nonverbal. 55% of communication is based on what people see and the other 38% is transmitted through tone of voice." Ramsey (2005). This paper will help you understand body language at work and how people must be aware of the messages they send through body language. I will describe the functions and the forms of body language, such as...
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Effective communication with the internal organizational public at all levels is the key to success of an organization. Communicating timely with the employees result in augmentation of confidence and productivity and reduction of job insecurity and other related fears. This paper highlights the significance of internal communications in a profitable organization that believes in long-term solutions and complete satisfaction of its employees. The paper will present a recent issue related to the same thereby addressing the impact of effective communication with the internal public. Furthermore, this research paper will also provide an expedient action plan for effective internal...
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Throughout the years there have been different ways that humans communicate with each other whether it be from talking, body language, or sign language. But how does this communication affect us as human beings? There are many different types of communication such as Interpersonal Communications, Intrapersonal Communications, and Cross-Cultural Communications. Finding out how people communicate with each other is a key factor in our lives and we need to be able to understand how we can communicate better with ourselves and each other especially when it comes to communicating with people with cultures unlike ours.
Humans have been communicating for years with themselves and others but only...
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The purpose of this report was to analyse the business communication issues affecting the efficient operation of Fairbrother, Fraser and Price, being a small civil engineering firm. The main objective was to identify key communication problems and offer recommendations as to their possible resolution.Communication and management problems were identified in four areas within the organisation. The four activities were considered the core issues in which to offer advice to help restore, and then create, a more effective and efficient communication and management environment within the organisation of Fairbrother, Fraser and Price.The four areas identified which have resulted...
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Introduction.Communication is a part of our everyday life that occurs whether we intend to or not. Every individual has a particular style of communicating. With so many styles of communication and several different personalities, it is easy to have discrepancies and misunderstandings that result in communication. These styles include both verbal and non-verbal approaches as well as being able to listen, except in unfortunate circumstances where a person is literally incapable of doing any.Within an organisation, poor communication can be a determining factor in its success or failure. McShane and Travaglione (2003) explain that good communication ensures individuals know what is expected of...
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In the five weeks of this class, we were studying Management-Theory, Practice, and Application. And in the five weeks, the terms that I am picking for this essay are a specific term, and these terms are environment of management, planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.I will minimally break down the terms that I have picked and studied for each week and explained how it relates to my job at Comcast at the end of this essay.In week one, for the term environment of management, we studied how the break down of management is done. The break down is called the four functions of management, and these four functions will be explained some more in my essay for each week. The four functions...
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There may be many ways for an organization to become successful but the key to success is not the system of the firm but the character and skills of the individual manager (Maister, 2002). Maister further stated that the character and skill of individual managers who "practice what they preach" and recognize the manager's role in training employees are what's really significant. Management is necessary for a business to function, yet when exploring the role of the manager, it becomes rather complex. Managers must be resourceful; they are individuals who wear many hats. The job of every manager involves what is known as the functions of management. Richard Daft definition of management is...
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Functions of Management PAGE 4
Functions of ManagementManagement is defined as "the process of working with people and resources to accomplish organizational goals" (Bateman & Snell, 2009, p. 19). When business is adequate, smaller emphasis is placed on managers and their roles. When times or markets change "it becomes evident that management is a challenge requiring constant adaptation to new circumstances" (Bateman & Snell, 2009, p. 6). Managers must be both effective and efficient to be successful. To achieve being effective and efficient there are four traditional functions of management that must be completed.The first of the functions that management is responsible for is...
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Functions of Management PAGE 1 Functions of Management PAGE 5
The Four Functions of ManagementMGT/33005/02/2010The Four Functions of ManagementDespite the changes required in managing a business in today's economy and with major technological advances, management has four functions that will not change. The four functions are planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. These functions are vital to the success of any organization and, as a manager, they are vital to me in my organization as well.The first function of management is planning. Planning is deciding what goals your company wants to achieve and what actions you can take to accomplish those goals in the future. This first...
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Functions of Public PAGE \* MERGEFORMAT 5
Running head: FUNCTIONS OF PUBLIC RELATIONSFunctions of Public RelationsTiffany Nicole JacksonUniversity of PhoenixPublic RelationsMKT/438John KautenbergerAugust 23, 2007Functions of Public RelationsThere are many functions of public relations that can be classified as organizational or societal. Some of the functions are media or electronic media relations, community or multicultural community relations, consumer relations, employee relations, and investor relations. There are many other functions of public relations, but for the purpose of this paper, I'll only focus on the ones listed above.When PR firms handle an organization's public relations...
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IDE AREA NETWORKS - TYPES OF CONNECTION------------------------------------------------------------------WIDE AREA NETWORKS-TYPES OF CONNECTIONSWIDE AREA NERWORK (WAN)The term WIDE AREA NETWORK (WAN) usually refers to a network which covers a large geographical area, and use communications circuits to connect the intermediate nodes. A major factor impacting WAN design and performance is a requirement that they lease communications circuits from telephone companies or other communications carriers.Numerous WANs have been constructed, including public packet networks, large corporate networks, military networks, banking networks, stock brokerage networks, and airline reservation networks. Some...
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H.323 is a protocol used for transmission of real-time video and audio data over a packet-switched network like Internet Protocol. It is a protocol standard for multimedia communications. H.323 protocol is maintained by the Study Group 16 within the ITU (International Telecommunication Union) Telecommunication Standardization Sector, also known as ITU-T. Most VoIP application utilizes H.323 protocol, since it supports call forwarding, call setup and teardown. A key feature of H.323 protocol is QoS (Quality of Service), which allows traffic management and real-time prioritization to be placed over Ethernet. Apart from packet switched network, it also supports multimedia communications over...
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Communication PAGE \* MERGEFORMAT 1
Communication in the WorkplaceInside and outside the workplace, communications exist. Communication is a part of our everyday life that occurs whether we intend it to or not. Each individual person has a particular style of communicating. These styles include both verbal and non-verbal approaches, and with so many styles of communication and several different personalities, it is easy to have discrepancies and misunderstandings that result in miscommunication. Being able to communicate well will help in many situations when it comes to business. Effective interpersonal, writing, and oral communication skills are vital in the professional environment. In...
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IntroductionAccording to the Community Cultural Development Center Publics can be defined as "A group of people who share common interests or concerns" (Community Cultural Development [CCD], 2006). The investigation for meaning of the term public led to a plethora of descriptions all relative to the defining agency. "In public relations, more specifically, a public is a group of people with a stake in an issue, organization, or idea" (Seitel, 2004, p. 9).Definition of Internal PublicBy digesting the previous definition of public and incorporating internal into the equation, one would gather that the definition of internal public to be; a group of people within an institution or community...
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We usually speak, write, or use a different way to communicate with another person, but do we really know what nonverbal communication means? Or which are some of the principles use it for identify the ways in which nonverbal communication functions? Or the existence of channels which are used to communicated nonverbally.
Nonverbal communication is when we communicate without words. We communicate nonverbally when we gesticulate, smile, touch someone or even when we stay quite. This ability of using nonverbal communication effectively can yield two major benefits, the advanced our ability to direct and obtain nonverbal signals, the more our popularity and psychosocial well-being are likely...
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The ability to communicate with one another is of paramount importance to the success of the human race (Hartley, 1999). Communication is a dynamic process with the interacting components of sending and receiving information. Nonverbal cues may provide clarity or contradiction for a message being sent (Dunn, 1998). This is not to say that nonverbal forms of communication merely provide a modem of clarity for verbal communication, they can, and do, stand alone (Krauss et al, 1995). Facial expressions, body movements, gaze and posture can all be used to provide further emphasis to language communication or can be employed silently and still convey important messages (Danziger, 1976). This...
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Communication in the field of pharmaceutics is very important. It is important to understand how and what forms of communication best fit for your practice setting. To name a few simple and appropriate gestures, patient counseling, verbal and non-verbal all play vital roles in forming quality relationships and understanding of the pharmacy world around us.
What we are trying to say is not always what the listeners hears. It is important to be as clear and precise with your answers as possible and it up to both parties to speak up if further explanation need be obtained. They say the voice is the selling feature of the individual. From our voices a person can tell if we are friendly,...
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In order to perform the functions of management and to assume multiple roles, managers must be skilled. Robert Katz identified three managerial skills that are essential to successful management: technical, human, and conceptual*. Technical skill involves process or technique knowledge and proficiency. Managers use the processes, techniques and tools of a specific area. Human skill involves the ability to interact effectively with people. Managers interact and cooperate with employees. Conceptual skill involves the formulation of ideas. Managers understand abstract relationships, develop ideas, and solve problems creatively. Thus, technical skill deals with things, human skill concerns...
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Communication in Management:In The WorkplaceInside and outside the workplace, communications in management exist. If you are breathing, you are a manager because everyone manages their own lives in which we communicate with ourselves about what choices and decisions we should make. Communication is a part of our everyday life that occurs whether we intend to or not. Every individual has a particular style of communicating. These styles include both verbal and non-verbal approaches, except in unfortunate circumstances where a person is literally incapable of verbally communicating. With so many styles of communication and several different personalities, it is easy to have discrepancies and...
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There is no one definition for the term management. However, Fayol (1916) defined the term management as; “To manage is to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.” Mc Ilwee.T and Roberts I, (1991): p.g117 Management is not standardized and is undertaken at all levels of the organization, as it is an integrating activity. Managers have to manage in order to achieve the overall objectives and strategy of the firm. All firms are seeking effective managers, and the quality of management is a key element of business success.
The four functions of management are essential to building strong teams and stronger organizations. Common to all managers, the four...