"Classical Management" comprises three different approaches:
- Scientific Management (associated with the work of F W Taylor);
- Bureaucratic Management (hierarchical structure associated with the work of M Weber);
- Administrative Management (associated with the work of H Fayol).
The "Human Relations" approach is associated with the work of E Mayo and F Roethlisberger. Immediately, we can see a difference between the ideas of Taylor and Fayol and those of Mayo as they are even classified differently. In order to explain how these managerial ideas differ, I will first explain what those ideas were.
Taylor developed the four scientific principles...VIEW DOCUMENT
"The Southern and New England colonies were so different from each other, that there was not one feature shared by these two groups of colonies." This statement is true because of mainly two reasons. While cultural forces contributed to the differences of both regions, the distinction of economies played the key role in driving the quote true. These two characteristics made each of these regions unique in its own way.
Economy was the major distinction of the New England and Southern colonies. The New...VIEW DOCUMENT
The reaction to the death of a loved one is usually grief. It can also encompass a range of emotions that are powerful and consuming; anger, sadness, loneliness, fear, guilt and helplessness, depending on the nature of the death. A review done by the Catholic University of America in Maryland and Columbia University in New York respectively, links sudden and violent deaths with excessive or traumatic grief reactions.
Sudden violent deaths whether through suicide, fatal motor or other accidents, drowning or murder can create chaotic...VIEW DOCUMENT
Think Cinderella stories and ABBA then throw in some humour and romance and you'll end up with Muriel's Wedding. Directed by PJ Hogan, this bright, yet sad, film focuses on Australian family life and the meaning of "success."
Muriel Heslop (Toni Collete) is jobless, has a low self-esteem and is obsessed with getting married to become successful. She lives in Porpoise...VIEW DOCUMENT
To what extent, how and why, Plato and Aristotle's conception of democracy differ from the modern conception of democracy.
Many of our ideas about democracy originated with the ancient Greeks. The Greeks roots of the world democracy are demos, meaning the "people" or, to put it in Aristotle's way, self-government by the many, as opposed to the few or the one. This is similar to Lincoln's definition: "government of the people, by the people, and for the people." For the...VIEW DOCUMENT
How did the people of the Renaissance differ from those in the Middle Ages with regards to their attitude towards life, values, lifestyle, religious beliefs and appreciation of art." The Renaissance was a revival or rebirth of cultural awareness and learning among art, law, language, literature, philosophy, science, and mathematics, which occurred in the fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. It was a period, which saw the transition from the "dark ages" to modern times. In the "dark ages" people were only interested in fending for themselves. There was no interest in anything other than...VIEW DOCUMENT
'Life course' is a term that is used by sociologists to refer to an individual's path through life, and is defined as simply "The development of a person through childhood, adolescence, mid-life, old age and death" (Abercrombie et al. Dictionary of Sociology). The concept of a life course is useful in helping us understand our individual situations as it provides us with stages of social belonging (such as childhood, adolescence and old age). Naturally therefore the stage of social belonging that we currently identify with is subject to change as we progress through our life course. However, these stages are also structured by classes such as ethnicity and gender which are fixed and do...VIEW DOCUMENT
Functions of Management
To a degree, most people unknowingly possess management skills. Whether arranging their individual activities or that of children and family, the process to orchestrate a day's activity can be similar to that of managing an office. What probably differs the most is the scale on which the management skills are applied and what those skills effect. What remains a commonality, whether managing at the level of an individual or on a corporate level, is the need for a process based on the desired goal; management is the process by which to achieve a goal. There are four basic elements in...VIEW DOCUMENT
Community Policing and the Broken Windows Theory
The idea of community based policing and the broken windows theory go
hand in hand in this new era of policing. Robert C. Trojanowicz, an early visionary who helped define the community policing movement, described community policing as "... a philosophy of full-service, personalized policing where the same officer patrols and works in the same area on a permanent basis, from a decentralized place, working in a proactive partnership with citizens to identify and solve problems" (Trojanowicz and Bucqueroux, 1994, 1). This helps promote...VIEW DOCUMENT
In "Allegory of the Cave" Plato describes a cave in which people are born and are deceived by puppeteers who cast shadows using fires above and behind those in the cave. They are chained down so they cannot move nor turn their heads towards the exit of the cave where a true reality exists. To them, this is the true reality. They know of no other and will not accept it unless they were forced to meet it. The 1999 film titled The Matrix is very similar to Plato's cave. Billions upon billions of people unknowingly live out their lives in a virtual reality. They too would find it difficult to accept...VIEW DOCUMENT
Social research is the purposive and rigorous investigation that aims to generate new knowledge. It is the intellectual tool of social scientists; social research is about discovery, new ideas, expanding the horizons and new conclusions on aspects of life. Research is diverse and pluralistic, varying in focus, purpose, procedures and theoretical foundations. Research may focus on people and the physical and social environment or on hidden structures n meaning. It can aim to increase scientific knowledge or to help people and change their lives. (Sarantakos 2005)John Dewey (1859-1952) was an American psychologist, philosopher, educator, social critic and political activist. In 1933 Dewey...VIEW DOCUMENT
Question # 4
Aquinas worked out a highly articulated theory of theological reasoning. St. Bonaventure, an immediate precursor to Aquinas, had argued that no one could attain to truth unless he philosophizes in the light of faith. Aquinas held that our faith in eternal salvation shows that we have theological truths that exceed human reason. But he also claimed that one could attain truths about religious claims without faith, though such truths are incomplete.
Aquinas claimed that the act of faith consists essentially in knowledge. Faith is an intellectual act whose object is truth. Thus it has both a subjective and objective aspect....VIEW DOCUMENT
1.Digestion, Nutrition & Bonds
Foodstuffs mainly consist of biopolymers (complex carbohydrates, proteins and lipids); large molecules made of monomers (sugars, amino acids and fatty acids/glycerol) linked together by chemical bonds. Bonds are of vital importance in living systems, as they are broken in digestion, to provide energy - they are exergonic reactions - and constructed in repair and growth - endergonic reactions - where the energy previously generated is harnessed.
Carbohydrates®Monosaccharides ®4 kcals g-1
Proteins®Amino Acids (AAs)®4 kcals g-1
Lipids® Fatty...VIEW DOCUMENT
GDP = Consumption + Investment + Government + (Exports - Imports). Consumption spending by individuals, by far the largest portion of GDP (± 70%), includes goods and services used up in a relatively short period of time. These are goods and services which people buy on a regular basis, such as food, entertainment, rent, clothes, and gas. Investment spending accounts for the second largest portion of GDP (± 15%). These are goods and services that will provide future benefits and allow for greater production in the long-run. Examples are...VIEW DOCUMENT
What Do We Learn About Romeo's And Juliet's Feelings For Each Other And Their Characters From 'The Balcony Scene?'
The 'balcony scene' is one of the most famous scenes in the whole world of theatre. My initial imagination was of the two lovers deeply in love with no conditions but with this closer look at the scene I can see what it was really like.
The scene begins with Romeo running from his friends because he wants to find Juliet without his them finding him. Romeo and Juliet's 'fling' must be kept a secret because of the rivalry between their two families - the...VIEW DOCUMENT
BUSINESS LAW AND ETHICS.
Can the issue of profitability and ethics be balanced against each other:
Businesses in today's world is a major part of everyday life some corporate are even larger than many economies of the world thus the businesses have a responsibility towards the very society in which they carry out their operations. This is known as corporate social responsibility according to (Kotler year missing)"corporate social responsibility is a commitment to improve community well-being through discretionary business practices and contributions of corporate resources" this shows that firms have a duty towards the society and specially...VIEW DOCUMENT
IntroductionGood managers do not necessarily make effective leaders. However, both management and leadership are important to an organization in order to achieve its goals. In this paper I will show the difference between management and leadership, examine the role and responsibilities of leaders in creating and maintaining a healthy organizational culture, show how the four functions of management support the creation and maintenance of a healthy organizational culture, and give my two recommendations that I believe will help to create and maintain a healthy organizational culture.
Hewlett- Packard's BackgroundI would like to start by giving you a little background onVIEW DOCUMENT
The Broad Perspective
How Do Climate and Economy Affect Each Other?
North America along with other first world nations has now realized that as other nations aspire to develop along the same lines, serious implications on the ego-systems ability to sustain that type of growth will develop. With the end of the cold war and the demise of Marxist economies, capitalism is now the predominant economic system. Long associated with liberal democracy, it is also practiced within totalitarian societies like China. Many people believe that economic trade among nations is the basis to maintain geopolitical relationships. That being said, this trade is also creating the growth that is of...VIEW DOCUMENT
The interrelationship between society and the curriculum being taught in schools is deeply rooted in the history of American schools. The organization of society itself is believed to always shape the education of children in one way or another. Schools in turn reinforce the normality's of the society they are based within. The subject matter of the curriculum taught in the United States public schools has been an important issue throughout American history. Programs of study have varied in what is being taught, and how it is being taught; as the many types of social reform have also varied through the years.
In America in the late 1700s, following theVIEW DOCUMENT
The subject of motivation can be approached from a number of perspectives. Some theories approach motivation as coming from within a person (Drive Theory), whereas other theories approach motivation as coming from within the person (Incentive Theory). Compare and contrast two theories of motivation explaining how the two approaches may differ and how they may be similar. Does one theory seem to explain motivation better than the other? Support your argument with examples from each theory.
Motives are reasons people hold for initiating...VIEW DOCUMENT
A. Plan of the Investigation
With the combined forces of the United Nations, mostly the United States, and the Republic of Korea, the war turned out a stalemate instead of the total control to communism in the Korean peninsula. However, it was never known whether the United States army and Republic of Korea army ever got along with each other. Most people just assume that because they were fighting on the same side, they would get along with no tensions. The aim of this historical investigation will be to verify if this assumption is true. I will supplement my investigation with numerousVIEW DOCUMENT
Study the evolution of armor throughout the Middle Ages. How did the armor of the barbarians differ from that of the Carolingian period? Describe the armor of a knight depicted on the Bayeux Tapestry. What tactical and technological factors in the thirteenth century led to a transformation in armor construction? Describe the benefits and liabilities of full plate armor in warfare.
As DeVries notes, the most dramatic impact on Roman armor was not an introduction of technological advances, but a modification in...VIEW DOCUMENT
Critical Review of a Boring Reading
"Has American culture during the 1990s been too difficult for many families to handle?" In The Shelter of Each Other: Rebuilding our Families, author Mary Pipher argues yes, American culture during the 1990s has been too difficult for many families to handle. Pipher tries to sympathize with...VIEW DOCUMENT
What is third wave feminism? In what ways is it similar to or different from second wave feminism?
Four main points-
Explain third wave feminism, core ideas.
Second wave feminism.
Core notions- in second wave feminism, gender is socially constructed. Preoccupation with equality, what it is, what the ideas were [social, liberal, radical]. Key theorists during second wave feminism argued that the social construction of gender could be challenged in different ways. Not unified, argued for different approaches.
Make it clear that the basic assumption on which this thinking is based is that "women" can be discussed as a...VIEW DOCUMENT
"Contact" is a film mainly about faith, faith in yourself to do what is right and faith in others that they do right by you. It's also a film about belief, and whether we, as human beings should be forced to justify what we believe in when there is no physical proof that the focus of our belief actually exists. It's also a film about hope, and love, and life, and death.
The whole concept of the movie is based not on the question of whether extraterrestrial life exists, but whether what we believe should be determined by what we can prove.
The main character in the film is Dr.VIEW DOCUMENT
The English quickly became the dominant settlers of the East coast in the new world. The first colony, Jamestown, was established in Virginia. This settlement expanded rapidly north and became known as the Chesapeake Bay region. Many Catholics, Quakers, and people of Scotch-Irish decent settled here. A group known as the Puritans came from England in search of somewhere to worship freely. Other groups that split from the Puritans also came and settled in the New England area. This group was known as the Separatists....VIEW DOCUMENT
Describe how neurones communicate with each other. How do psychiatric drugs exploit this system?
The neurone is the operative element of the nervous system, and enables communication with other neurones which in turn detail different messages throughout the nervous system and indeed other neurones#. There are many varieties of neurone, and their are specific function determines their exact size and shape.# As demonstrated in 'The Physiology of Behaviour' - Neil R. Carlson - the neurone is comprised of four main structures; the soma, the dendrites, the axon and the terminal buttons. The soma (cell body) contains the nucleus, whose shape varies according to the function of the...VIEW DOCUMENT
Explain how an understanding of the main theories on leadership can benefit managers of organisations.
To be successful, a manager must have many qualities, one of which is leadership. The success of any group activity usually depends heavily on leadership. It can therefore be advantageous for a manager to possess a broad understanding of the different theoretic styles of leadership. There are three main types of theory:
· Trait Theories rely on certain personality characteristics, which can range from intelligence and self-assurance to upbringing and education or even personal appearance and health, the...VIEW DOCUMENT
Explain how an understanding of the main theories on leadership can benefit managers of organisations.
Anybody can learn the finer points of management and how and when to implement them, follow policy and do things by the book, however this does not guarantee a manager's success. To be successful, a manager must have many assets, one of which is leadership.
The success of any group activity usually depends heavily on leadership. It can therefore be advantageous for a manager to possess a broad understanding of the many different theoretic styles of leadership. There are three main types of theory which, although providing some enlightenment, do not fully explain what makes an...VIEW DOCUMENT
"Leadership is practiced not so much in words as in attitude and in actions" (Harold S. Geneen). The importance of leadership in an organization should not be regarded lightly. According to Bateman and Snell, 2004, leaders may launch enterprises, build organization cultures, win wars, or otherwise change the course of events. In the following discussion, Black Tie Dining will thoroughly analyze different theories and styles of leadership. In doing so Black Tie Dining will be in a position to understand which theory or theories may be best applied to our organization and which style will create the most effective leadership. With the application of such theories and styles of leadership,...VIEW DOCUMENT
The aim of this essay is to analyse how the management of people; and in particular the leadership of people; can contribute to effective organisational behaviour, development and good health. In order to do this it is important to define effective organisational behaviour, development and good health, consider all the factors that can contribute, before looking specifically at how leadership can contribute.
Defining effective organisational behaviour, development and good health is an area that can pose difficulty. Organisations are made up of...VIEW DOCUMENT
It is difficult to explain the ideology of conservatism as it can take on many forms; authoritarian, religious, libertarian and one-nation to name but a few. Many conservatives argue that conservatism is not an ideology at all but rather a political persuasion. Because of the broad spectrum of ideas that can all be called conservatism, this essay will deal with the basis of conservative theory that is common to most forms of the 'ideology'. Neoconservatism, conservatism's 'new right', will be contrasted with its predecessor to demonstrate the differences between traditional conservatism and its newest form,...VIEW DOCUMENT
ROMANCE IN THE SHOEMAKER'S HOLIDAY
Thomas Dekker's citizen comedy The Shoemaker's Holiday introduces two romantic sub-plots, which continually compare and contrast with each other. Although there are many similarities between the two couples, it is the differences that Dekker utilizes to provide social commentary. Dekker employs comedy to address some serious social issues. The Ralph-Jane plot provides interjections of reality into the fairytale romance of the Rose-Lacy plot. In doing so he...VIEW DOCUMENT
It is obvious that technology has had an effect on communications in the most straight forward sense that, for example, we now use the telephone which we didnt use before it was invented. But has the telephone, or more specifically the rising use of the internet and cell phones changed the style of our communications or its content, and if so, why?It doesnt take much reflection to come up with a few examples like the telegraph or typewriters becoming obsolete, or the fact that letter writing has pretty much seemed to die out. In a random survey conducted for this paper, I found that the participants sent an average of 4.2 letters in the mail over the last year compared to an average of...VIEW DOCUMENT
Many historians are locked in debate on, who was responsible in starting the Cold War and which side has the true expansionist policies? One thing, although, that is readily agreed upon is that the Cold War officially began with the defeat of Germany and the consequence of a power vacuum in Central Europe.
In February, 1945, the Yalta Conference took place and the participants were Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin. By this early stage of the Cold War, there had already been signs of ideological clashes and suspicion between both the U.S.S.R and the West. This conference was held in order to assure a...VIEW DOCUMENT
How does Aristotle's view of politics differ from that of Plato's? Do you consider that they are wholly opposed?
Political philosophy for both Aristotle and Plato was of reasonable concern. One's character, virtues, vices, desire and especially education were relevant to determine a correct system of government. They both opposed relativism, scepticism as well as individualism in sophism (which was gaining popularity at that time) equally both Plato and Aristotle were opposed to democracies (to varying degrees) and more so for Aristotle; monarchies and aristocracies. However they both...VIEW DOCUMENT
The Manual Worker replaced by the Knowledge Worker
Drucker saw the knowledge worker come of age in the 21st century. In order to analyse its effects and application methods, Drucker compared the Knowledge worker to the prior economy consisting of the "Manual Worker". The Knowledge economy is more focused on people's knowledge as the main asset, whereas the Manual-Worker economy is focused on production equipment and non-human capital. To assist Drucker's comparison, he...VIEW DOCUMENT
The story of Antony and Cleopatra is set just as world leaders began evolving. Prior to this change a good leader was seen as being a mighty warrior, someone who was skilful in the battlefield, but as demands of the world began changing, leaders began evolving into politicians. There was no need for them to be great warriors; they had to be cunning, manipulative and intelligent. Antony, Caesar and Lepidus are all different types of leaders and are each effective in their own...VIEW DOCUMENT
The Divine Comedy, despite its religious and political undertones, remains a piece of literature which can be considered to be a poem. When viewed in this manner, it is made possible for the reader to realize the connection between evil and good. The book "Inferno" is a depiction of Dante's journey through hell. His passage through hell symbolizes the connection between love, transgression and punishment. These connections can be best understood through cantos 2,3,5 and 15. As Dante journey's through hell and its nine circles, he comes to realize that each circle he enters into represents a greater sin, which, in turn, is followed by a greater punishment. Dante's journey through hell...VIEW DOCUMENT