1088 words - 4 pages
There are different views and definition of multiculturalism; the definition of multiculturalism depends on the context in which it is used. In sociology, multiculturalism is the idea that various cultures exist in a society and all these cultures deserve equal treatment (Macionis, 2010). Sociologists believe that members of different cultures can live peacefully alongside each other and assimilation is not necessary. This essay will focus on both the positive aspects and the main tensions that arise in a multicultural society.
SAMPLE BACKGROUND – HISTORY OF MULTICULTURALISM IN BRITAIN
Britain today has many people with different ethnic backgrounds from various countries. The...
865 words - 3 pages
Multiculturalism Our country was founded on the belief in freedom. This freedom was meant for everyone. When our country was founded, many different cultures existed on our land. We abused other cultures because we did not understand them. The United States today is much different. We are a melting pot of cultures. Although our country was founded predominately by Caucasian males, our country today is run by black, white, men and women of all sorts of different ethnic backgrounds. This is why our country can be run so effectively. We understand many different cultures simply because we live with them everyday....
1415 words - 6 pages
Multiculturalism has been a very important issue of concern in the west in the past few years. Debates and arguments have been going on over whether it is a good idea to actually practice multiculturalism. Politicians have been supposing that minority groups will merge into majority groups and become part of them without any troubles. However this has not been happening. Minority groups, especially the women in them, have been having difficulty in diffusing in the majority groups. Susan Moller Okin in her article: "Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women?" makes numerous claims and assumptions about whether multiculturalism is bad for women in cultures. I believe that we should leave the...
686 words - 3 pages
none reorganize thoughts
In, 'Multiculturalism and the Common Center,' Diane Ravitch compares the
plualist views on what the curriculum in the schools should include. The
pluralist would like to include the history of all cultures while the
particularist want to have the different cultures taught only their own history. In order to
live in a multicultural world pluralism is neccessary because people are more tolerant of
each other if they understand where a person is coming from and what their background is.
Ignorance is the cause of many conflicts between people, and education can prevent this
1234 words - 5 pages
Multiculturalism and Technology
Everything in life changes with time, and the same can be said about teaching methods that are used across the United States. At one point in time, students wrote on small chalkboards and were punished if answering a question wrong. Now days, a lot of learning is being done on computers, and students are encouraged to make mistakes so that the entire class can learn from them. With today's diversity and the growth of technology, classrooms are far from what they were seventy-five years ago, or even ten years ago. The introduction of multiculturalism and technology into today's writing classes is allowing students to learn more about themselves, each other,...
1014 words - 4 pages
Multiculturalism has become a controversial topic in the US and Canada as a result of increasing the number of immigrants from various backgrounds. Multiculturalism is a government policy such as the Canadian Multiculturalism Act. This policy has been established to manage cultural diversity which helps people to have deeper understanding of different cultures, races and religions in order to generate better interaction among different races in Canada and the US. This essay will discuss the advantages of North-American multiculturalism in terms of general tolerance and integration and economic development. Moreover, it will explore the disadvantages including socioeconomic discrimination and...
866 words - 3 pages
Who is an American? This question is very difficult to answer. According to the Funk and Wagnalls Standard Dictionary the definition is: American: adj. 1. Pertaining to the United States of America. 2. pertaining to North or South America. -n 1.a citizen of the United States. 2. an inhabitant of America. This definition is still unclear. What is to pertain? According to the same source: Pertain: v. 1. have reference; relate 2. belong as an adjunct, function, quality, etc. - pertaining to having to do with; belonging or relating to.
After reading these definitions I figured out that an American is someone who belongs, is related or has something to do with the United...
594 words - 2 pages
At this point London is the leading city when is comes to immigration, London receives even more immigrants than cosmopolitan metropolis cities as New York and Los Angeles. The article “London’s Comings and Goings” describes some of the advantages and disadvantages about the massive immigration that has happened these years. The immigration makes a total of two thirds of the immigration in Great Britain, and is the reason why London’s economic increases faster than other cities in Great Britain. Some of the disadvantages are as follows; the price on the housing market increases, great strain on the school-system and the main consequence is social inequality among the white- and black...
1066 words - 4 pages
The word multiculturalism has been touted and expounded on for many years. This is due to extensive immigration as well as to the world becoming a much smaller place because of communication technology, world travel and international trade. It obviously has some importance in our society and its benefits would probably not be quite as appreciated if we could see a time and a place where such a practice was not encouraged.
(1.Trade & Investment)
Multiculturalism encourages good relations with different nationalities be they local students, foreign students, visiting workers or visiting trade officials. Even...
774 words - 3 pages
Assimilationism vs. Multiculturalism
In the words of Thomas Bray, "Should we "assimilate" to one standard, or should we "celebrate" diversity?" This is a popular question in America's classrooms today. America, known as the melting pot, is made up of many different colors, races, religions, and beliefs. American professors, journalists, and authors would like to know if multiculturalism has a positive effect on children in today's classrooms. Whether or not the student's way of life and personal experiences should be discussed in class is a major issue.
Maxine Hairston, a Professor of Rhetoric and Composition at the University of Texas at Austin, writes of her experience with...
1688 words - 7 pages
Is multiculturalism a disruptive or an integrative force in Canadian society?
In terms of education, multiculturalism is becoming increasingly disruptive in Canadian society. It seems that there is a new issue in the media focus regarding education on a weekly basis. It's becoming increasingly apparent that most, if not all issues in recent years stem from the debate of whether to centralize or decentralize our current system of education. Proponents of centralization argue that a standard national system of education will provide all people with access to the same quality of education. On the other hand, proponent’s of decentralization claim that individual educational institutions will...
1434 words - 6 pages
Visualize in your head a rock band, and a rapper. What kind of clothes are they wearing. What lyric styles are they singing in? And what color are they? Ongoing stereotypes suggest that the rock band is a group of white musicians and the rapper would be black. However, examples from the past and present shows that these stereotypes are untrue. Music is defined as “The art of organizing tones to produce a coherent sequence of sounds to elicit an aesthetic response in a listener” (Morris, 864). This country’s youth is unlike any others, we have much control over what we do, and music is something that evolves around all of us. In this essay, I will discuss the evolution of youth music...
6922 words - 28 pages
TABLE OF CONTENTS
II. Theoretical Background5
1. Literature review5
2. Multiculturalism as a concept6
3. Canada as a multicultural state7
4. Multicultural features8
1. Joy Kogawa: Obasan10
1.1. Joy Kogawa as a multicultural writer10
1.2. Introducing the novel Obasan11
1.3. The language of the novel12
2. The multicultural features within the main characters' attitude12
2.1. Stephen - the character of assimilation12
2.2. Obasan - the character of...
1364 words - 5 pages
Canadians and the government of Canada have always been proud of presenting themselves around the world as advocators and protectors of human rights and multiculturalism. However, at home in Canada, not all people are proud and agree that multiculturalism has had only positive effects on Canada because there are some drawbacks that are caused by Canada's policies on immigration and multiculturalism and Neil Bissoondath's article, The simplification of Culture, is one of the many writings that criticize Canada's multiculturalism policy. However, the purpose of this essay is to examine key points concerning
541 words - 2 pages
There are layers to multiculturalism and its influence on psychological functioning and development of students in the classroom. These layers are made of constructs, helping to define contributing factors, highlight perspectives and better illustrate a continuum of acceptance.
Contributing factors to our diverse population are Americanization, assimilation, nativism, and xenophobia. In Human Differences, Kent Koppleman states Americanization “…encourages immigrants to abandon their heritage and conform to American ways” (Koppelman, 2011). Assimilation, adopting other’s traits (Koppelman, 2011), can be unfavorable if multicultural perspectives are not introduced in curriculum to help...
3037 words - 12 pages
Philosophy and Multiculturalism: Searle, Rorty, and Taylor
ABSTRACT: John Searle opposes multiculturalism because he views it as part of a movement to undermine the concepts of truth and objectivity in the Western tradition. Richard Rorty disagrees with Searle about the relation between philosophical theories of truth and academic practices, but he is neutral on the issue of multiculturalism. Charles Taylor approaches the issue historically, defending multiculturalism as emerging from one branch of liberal political theory. I argue that the debate over epistemological and political issues has tended to obscure the educational benefits of multiculturalism. A multicultural curriculum works...
2501 words - 10 pages
Since 1982, and the creation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms; Canada has asserted itself in the promotion of multiculturalism and equality for all citizens. Multiculturalism is defined as "the doctrine that several different cultures, rather than one national culture, can coexist peacefully and equitably in a single country" (Web Dictionary). Canada is a democratic society, which stands to address the needs and desires of individuals in a fair and open approach. In addressing multiculturalism, understanding how some specific groups may be at a significant disadvantage based on their perception in society. It is argued that the ideals and laws incorporated in the Islamic...
2183 words - 9 pages
John Howard's draft for the proposed preamble to the Constitution during the 1999 referendum for a republic included this line: "The Australian nation is woven together of people from many ancestries and arrivals". Indeed, all the authors of the other drafts sought to include some mention of an Australia made up of people from different cultures and to have that enshrined in the new preamble to the Constitution. On the face of it, this would appear to be evidence for and recognition of a multicultural society. I beg to differ. The term "multiculturalism" is a farce. It hides the fact that a society could never be truly multicultural. A "multicultural" society, as we understand it, is...
1935 words - 8 pages
Students attending American schools are taught clearly about the United States’ image as a melting pot; however, there is evidence to support that, while there is not an official federal stance on the matter (Sengupta), the amount of assimilation required to be legitimately considered a “melting pot” is not being reached. Although similar, there is often confusion about the differences between “multicultural” and “assimilated” communities. By definition, assimilation is the complete “merging of cultural traits from previously distinct culture groups” (Dictionary), while multiculturalism is delineated as the “preservation of different cultures or cultural identities within a unified society,...
1601 words - 6 pages
This morning while I was manually brewing the coffee grains using the dripping process (cup brewer), on top of hot milk in a clear glass mug, I notice that the coffee and the milk did not mix completely. The milk wasn’t completely white, but most of the dark bold coffee was settling down on top of the milk. This physical experiment showed me that: these two elements are not as oil and water; they are mixable, but natural method of dripping was not enough to acquire a mixed uniform color. They both needed some help to reach cohesiveness. Using this analogy is how I see our society today. We see the social prejudice and how the discrimination continues affecting the marginalized...
2176 words - 9 pages
Multiculturalism in Mother Tongue, Memorial Day and Multiculturalism, and College Writing
As an American it is very important to understand the different concepts of assimilation and multiculturalism. It is these terms that differ one person from everybody else in some kind of way. Multiculturalism is a term that is just what it sounds like. It is including several cultures. According to the American Heritage dictionary, multiculturalism is " a social or educational theory or program that encourages interest in many cultures within a society rather than in only one mainstream culture. " Assimilation is the exact opposite of what multiculturalism is. Assimilation is...
1527 words - 6 pages
The United States of America was once seen as the melting pot for many different ethnicities. However, the idea of assimilation became viewed as symbolically violent and because of this, the concept of multiculturalism was formed. According to The Real World: An Introduction to Sociology by Jill Stein and Kerry Ferris, multiculturalism is the encouragement of acceptance of cultural differences within a society instead of the forceful nature of eliminating other cultural ideas that are not the perceived “dominant” notions (G9). The question now is: How does our society go about making the difficult transition from totality through assimilation to diversity through multiculturalism? Henry...
2972 words - 12 pages
As Age Increases, Books Increase the Content of Critical MulticulturalismAccording to McLaren (1994), a critical multiculturalism must include both difference and sameness perspectives. Five books obtained from a recent web site titled Fifty Multicultural Books Every Child Should Know and presented in this essay attempt to embrace multiculturalism and pass it onto >the universal child=. Unfortunately, some of these books fall short of the expectation this web site leads one to place on these books. The books designed for younger children adopt a more conservative view, perhaps attempting to, as...
1402 words - 6 pages
Nieto and Bode (2008) observe that one myth about first-generation European immigrants who came to the United States during the period of immigration between 1880 and 1915 is that they succeeded academically. The fact, however, is they did not do well (Rothstein, 2004 as cited in Nieto & Bode, 2008) and most of the immigrants did not graduate from nor even attend high school ("Education," n.d.). Even second-generation immigrants often did not fare well; for example, only 17% of male and nine percent of female second-generation Italian students in 1915 in Providence, Rhode Island entered high school and a mere 33% of these graduated (Foner & Alba, 2006).
Despite these facts, the Horatio...
1845 words - 7 pages
Culture is what we distinguish us as nations; one from the other, but it is also through culture that we can understand each other, as individuals. Through culture we can designate the borders, both real and imagined, which keep us apart. We recognize not only the ways we are different but also the ways we are the same. Our cultures are an essential part of our own understanding of who we are or where we come from. The designated borders by human beings which keep us apart are mainly symbols of different ideologies or the practice of different ideologies. State; is he superior power or a hegemonizing power. On the other hand, apart from the hegemonizing power,...
1001 words - 4 pages
Multiculturalism vs. Melting Pot
Before I begin discussing these two topics, we must fully understand what they mean. The definition in the dictionary states that, multiculturalism consists of, relates to, or is designed for the cultures of several different races. Whereas the word melting pot is not a term used in the dictionary. For the purpose of this assignment I will make up my own definition for both these terms.
Multiculturalism to me is defined as abundant amounts of cultures in one area. Or it is simply a society where many different types of people with diverse cultural backgrounds, religion, and traditional values and beliefs cohabit peacefully with one...
1281 words - 5 pages
Colleges and universities should emphasize the diverse culture we live in. This position can be validated through the passages written by Mike Rose's "Lives on the Boundary" and Adrienne Rich's "What Does a Woman Need to Know." The following two quotes exemplify Mr. Rose's and Ms. Rich's point of view illustrating this topic. A quote from Mike Rose affirms "We are in the middle of an extraordinary social experiment: the attempt to provide education for all members of a vast pluralistic democracy."(Rose, 117) In another quote Ms. Rich states, "For no woman is really an insider in the institutions fathered by masculine consciousness."(Rich, 69) Our society is made up of various cultural...
1046 words - 4 pages
1. What is the policy of multiculturalism and why was it introduced by the 1970's?The policy of multiculturalism was embraced by the Whitlam Labor government in 1972. The policy recognised ethnic groups across Australia could preserve their identities and cultural heritage while at the same time having an overall commitment to the nation as a whole. In 1977 a charter for multicultural Australia was drawn up. This charter recognised the three basic principles for multiculturalism to be successful. They were: Economic Efficiency - the need to maintain and develop the skills and talents of all Australians regardless of their background. Cultural Identity - the right of all to express...
1340 words - 5 pages
The world was once made up of black and white nations. The color of one’s skin was an indication of where someone came from. This was most likely the scenario of the world, at the very least, a hundred years ago. Racism was rampant and very public throughout the world, but now racism is not as transparent especially in the United States. For this reason people must become more open and attuned to different attitudes held by individuals. One area where racism should be looked at is in classrooms. It is well documented that people have preferences or cognitive preferences without even realizing it. A teacher therefore, has extremely powerful ability to not only give certain children...
2082 words - 8 pages
A key feature of modern Australian society today is its multicultural background. Our society's multiculturalists like to pretend that we are colour blind and post racial (Moran 2011); and in doing so they pull a veil over the issue of racism. In the news article 'Is Australian Television Racist?' (Burt 2012), we are asked to look at the 'Aryan appetite' of our popular television programs, whereby minority. This essay will look at the way in which Australia has developed a 'new racism' of exclusionary tactics and how the diversity of our multicultural society is often overlooked (Cole 1997). For the purpose of this short essay I will use the program Home and Away as an illustration of the...
1024 words - 4 pages
VirginityFrom the ancient times till today virginity in some cultures is very important. Especially in Islamic or catholic countries it's a sign of purity and respectability. Already in Roman Times the Vestal Virgins remained celibate for 30 years on penalty of death and still today during Islamic weddings if the wife doesn't bleed out of her vagina while the wedding night the husband could anul the wedding. Indeed nowadays the situation changed a lot in western orientated countries, in Germany for examples the loss of verginity is commonly considered to be an important life event and a...
1044 words - 4 pages
When a child opens his (or her) first puzzle and the pieces fall to the ground, it may seem very confusing. What are they to do with this pile of shapes in front of them? It often takes a parent to explain to them that all the different pieces fit together into one whole picture. Although every piece is different and unique, when they are all put into their place they form one whole picture. In the same way, teachers can teach multiculturalism in the classroom. Although every member of our society is unique, with different cultural backgrounds, we all fit together to form one unit. As stated by Noel (1995), "Understanding our own identity and the culture of our...
834 words - 3 pages
Personal ResponseTo Looking for AlibrandiThe novel Looking for Alibrandi by Melina Marchetta (1993), is about a young 16 year old girl named Josephine Alibrandi trying to find herself in her final year of high school. It shows high and lows throughout the novel with Josie finding her father and starting a relationship with him, to losing her close friend John Barton from...
1279 words - 5 pages
Unity within diversity, does the whole world only see a tolerant, ethno cultural country that thrives on diversity? Metaphorically, Canada can be described as a coin because of the different appearance viewed on both sides. Canada is undeniably a racially and ethno culturally diverse society that is composed of individuals and groups who are different in terms of their physical appearance, language, and culture. One could easily say that Canada is unique, however, unique does not always prosper for the best. In fact, there are severe growing problems domestically in Canada. Having a government that flourishes on many identities brings much work to stabilize a unified government that is...
1292 words - 5 pages
Canada’s identity comes in many shapes and forms. Multiculturalism has been adopted and is at the forefront of Canadian identity. Following the Second World War, Canada’s multiculturalism policies became more acceptable and even successful in, not only accepting, but inviting multiple ethnic cultures in. In contrast to other countries, multiculturalism adaptation works for the Canadian culture. Canadian policies on multiculturalism have shifted over the past few decades; policies are now implemented for integration, not discrimination.
Multiculturalism is defines as “the policy of maintaining a diversity of ethnic cultures within a community” (). Canada does accept people from virtually...
826 words - 3 pages
Sociology/Cultural DiversityDiversity in OrganizationsWith the onset of that complex trend called "globalization," many organizations have increasingly found themselves dealing with a culturally diverse work force. In recent decades much scholarly effort by organizational scholars has been devoted to examining the negative and positive consequences of such diversity, whether conceptualized in "demographic" terms (for instance, age, length of service, or gender) or "cultural" terms (e.g., ethnicity, racial make-up, or language). According to one prominent view, demographic diversity...
616 words - 2 pages
School X is a school where prejudice is not an issue. Many factors contribute to School X's lack of prejudice, including compulsory uniforms, strict teacher enforcement, Catholicism and Canada?s multiculturalism. Even globally, society is becoming more accepting of different cultures. Although numerous people have the belief that many schools in the district suffer from discrimination, School X remains a school renowned for its acceptance. Aside from the very infrequent incident, School X sustains its angelic image of acceptance.
The main reason for School X's lack of prejudice is because of the moral beliefs Catholicism instills in School X's students. The Catholic faith is deeply...
2134 words - 9 pages
Internal communication is vital to building employee engagement, which brings competitive and financial benefits to organisations (CIPD, 2010).
In the globalised working environment, the challenge is delivering messages to a multicultural workforce, whilst setting the basis for engagement.
• assesses multiculturalism influence over internal communication;
• determines the most appropriate internal communication channels and messages to engage employees within multiculturalism; and
• draws recommendations for the organisation internal communication strategy.
Research methodology includes secondary and primary data, situation analysis, quantitative surveys, and a...
2229 words - 9 pages
When I arrived in Canada last year, I saw different people of different skin colors. There were white, yellow, black and brown. I got surprised cause I never thought about Canada like this. I never thought of Europeans, Americans, Latinos, Africans and Asians will ever settle in one place. But it is happening, right here where I immigrated to. It is a fact that Canada is racially diverse. The 250,000 to 300,000 residents of Canada are composing of about 50 societies belonging to twelve linguistic groups. Aside from the two prevailing groups co-existing inside Canada (Anglophones and Francophones), the presence of the minorities contributes in its culture, language and values (Burnet 66...
1148 words - 5 pages
Multiracial Identity in Essays by Julia Alvarez and Danzy Senna
The essays of Julia Alvarez and Danzy Senna address issues of multiracial identity important in their younger years as they grew up daughters of a multiethnic and multiracial background. Despite the slight generational differences, the same issues are as important today as they were twenty or thirty years ago.
The concept of one being multiracial is a relatively new concept. In the past, a person with a mixed racial background could not reasonably claim a mixed heritage openly, one had to identify with one or the either. Those that could not do that usually found themselves isolated from either background. This is made...
1062 words - 4 pages
Some of the social changes discussed in this paper are from the book The Human Project; others are social changes I have seen in my everyday life. I will also discuss the views of modernist, conservatives, and post-modernist. I will give a brief idea of what I think Multiculturalism is and how it has effected me in the good ways and bad ways.
I am a minority myself being from an East Indian household, I was born in Canada. I have been through much discrimination growing up in a middle class; English speaking, white neighbourhood, but more then me, my parents have had it much harder. My First memory or discrimination is when I was six years old and my dad had taken me and my siblings...
1847 words - 7 pages
Canada is renowned world wide for being a multi-cultural mosaic of people. The entire nation is built on centuries of immigration. In the world spotlight Canada is seen as a nation of peacekeepers, smiling faces, and immigration welcomers. Immigration changes more than just the amount of people in the country, it influences many different facets of the Canadian lifestyle, everything from education, to economics is altered in some way by bringing in new people. The changes that arise from immigration are speculated by some as either problematic or beneficial. It can be perceived that immigration stimulates the growth in the workforce thereby having a positive effect on the economy,...
672 words - 3 pages
The idea of multiculturalism in our schools is not a new one. School districts all over our country have been "teaching" some sort of multiculturalism in the classroom for quite some time now. However, as a student, I have always seen any study of multiculturalism as an add-on. We had Black History Month, Spanish Heritage Day, and a Chinese New Year celebration. These activities often required some sort of project work. I had felt that sometimes the celebration of these ethnic holidays did not really provide a true learning experience. We were not really provided with the historical and cultural significance of the events.
Recently, however, in good part because of...
590 words - 2 pages
It is human nature to avoid changes and cherish the traditional ways which we are so accustomed to. Change has never been wholeheartedly welcomed and embraced in the world without some resistance. When Galileo Galilee proclaimed that the universe does not revolve around the earth, in fact, the earth orbits about the sun, the church was violent in its effort to thwart the new idea. In the end, the church failed to keep such a sacrilegious theory in abeyance. Galileo's discoveries inspired many scientists who made huge contributions in constructing our modern world. Though changes are not always for the best, has...
798 words - 3 pages
“Antiracism, Multiculturalism and Interracial community:
Three Educational values for a multicultural society.”
Lawrence Blum is a philosophy professor at University of Massachussetts. He starts off his article stating four values that are important to the education program. They are antiracism, multiculturalism, sense of community and individuality. Racism is when a person or group has attitudes over another. The goal of antiracism is to be...
1110 words - 4 pages
In America, organizations are increasing in the numbers of minorities and women in the workforce. America has always been a multicultural society even though many people have not learned to accept this. These people fear that multiculturalism will bring in diverse ideas which will influence the nation to deviate from its course in history. Because of this fear, ignorance will take place. The organization as a whole must be educated because our student populations and workforce diversity will not go away, but it will increase more each year.Companies that strive to have the most productive employees...
1693 words - 7 pages
Canada is internationally recognized as a culturally diverse nation that emphasizes the concept of “The Mosaic”. No other country in the world encompasses inhabitants from so many different backgrounds who exhibit strong loyalty towards Canada, while still preserving their cultural heritage. This is contrasted to the American ideal of the "Melting Pot", which attempts to shape all of their citizens into a set mold. Canada’s philosophy is believed to be more effective and respectful than that which is possessed by our American neighbours. The following will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of both approaches, and analyze the impact of the structures on each country’s...
1865 words - 7 pages
To what extent should contemporary society respond to the legacies of historical globalization? In Romeo Dallaire's writing, "Shake Hands with the Devil", he discusses whether or not globalization has a positive impact on our society. I agree with Romeo Dallaire comment that we should continue with legacies of globalization and it should continue to be embraced in the world around us. Mr. Dallaire states that all humans should...
2154 words - 9 pages
My own suspicion is that the universe is not only queerer than we suppose, but queerer than we *can* suppose.
- J.B.S. Haldane, "On Being the Right Size" in the book _Possible Worlds_ (courtesy of The Quotations Page)
The inclusion of gay and lesbian authors in high school and college curricula can only help to expose students to things which they will more than likely face in their adult lives. The traditional readings should be read in conjunction with gay and lesbian authors in many schools’ English curricula, simply because most modern students cannot relate to the speech or themes of the traditionally taught works by usually straight British and American...
982 words - 4 pages
College Writing In a Global Age
To begin a discussion about teaching college writing in a digital era we must first understand what this era represents. It is an age when many people choose to "watch" books instead of read them, in the form of television programs or motion pictures. It is a time when product advertisements, "news" reports and controlled communications attempt to do the world's thinking for them and when computers-if given enough information on a subject-can compose a written report suitable for any university course. With the availability of these alternatives to reading, thinking and writing, it is a wonder that there is still a college writing requirement at all....