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systems. Physiologists study living systems from the subcellular level (molecules and organelles) all the way to the level of the whole organism and how organisms adapt to vastly different environmental conditions such as hot, cold, dry, humid, or high altitude. In their attempt to elucidate the mechanisms operating in living systems, physiologists make use of an enormous array of experimental techniques. Techniques of cell and molecular biology, genetics, genomics, bioinformatics, chemistry, physics, and engineering, all find applications in the study of living systems by physiologists.
Another thing that helped me was the fact that physiology is the basis for all of the biomedical sciences, and
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In this essay, I will be exploring the hypotheses of the interaction between cognition and physiology in terms of amnesia. I will first define the key terms that are relevant to this essay: cognition is the mental process of acquiring and processing knowledge and understanding through thought, experience and the senses. Cognitive processes include perception, attention, language, memory and thinking. Physiology is the internal, biological mechanisms of living organisms – the way the organism functions. Amnesia can be defined as the inability to learn new information or retrieve information that has already been stored in memory – in short; it is the condition in which people lose their
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element but rather an assortment of living things - an assortment that differs in each direction one looks. Hence it is true of any biological system: a cell, an organism, a group of organisms, in fact the whole universe is comprised of elements different from each other. Therefore, we can say that from the very small algae to the very huge animal, life is certainly wondrous in all aspects.The field of biology is quite broad in scope and can be divided into several categories according to the type of organism study one does. In the most general sense, biology deals with the type of organism studied. Zoology, for instance, deals with animal studies, while botany is about plant studies, and
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constant in spite of significant changes in blood volume stimulated by fasting, feeding, or watering the organism (Gray, 1979). Although these findings left no long-term impression on the field of physiology, the experiments did allow Pavlov to perfect his research methods.Pavlov did not approve of the then-popular acute experiments, in which the animal was anesthetized, the organ of interest separated and examined as quickly as possible, and the animal killed. Pavlov was a strongly believed that all organs of the body are connected and work together, and separating one organ was not an effective research method. He preferred experimenting on healthy, conscious animals that were available
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vitalistic explanation of life through consideration of the organism as an open system endowed with specific properties capable of scientific investigation. Together with the related concepts of levels of organization and of the active as opposed to the passive (or reactive) organism, it constituted an early statement of a holistic theory of life and nature. (LUDWIG VON Bertalanffy) His views were rejected by other biological theorists who used chemical and physical laws on subcellular levels to elucidate the development and progression of life. Ludwigs aim was to unite metabolism, growth, and morphogenesis and sense physiology to a dynamic theory of stationary open
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In general, a cell can be defined as a stem cell if two basic criteria are met. First, stem cell is capable of self renewal for indefinite period throughout life while maintaining undifferentiated state, i.e., the cell can divide and produce two identical daughter cells and thereby maintains the stem cell pool. Second, stem cell possesses capacity for differentiate into specialised and functional progeny under the right conditions, or given the right signals. It may divide asymmetrically to yield an identical cell and a daughter cell that acquires a particular cell type’s properties, such as morphology, phenotype and functional physiology that classified it belongs to a particular tissue
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Investigation of Tissues
Tissues are defined as a group of associated, similarly structured
cells that with their ground substance act together in the performance
of a specialised function for the survival of the multicellular
organism. The tissues are classified into four main groups which are
epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous.
(http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia accessed 08 October 2004)
Epithelial tissues form the covering of all body surfaces with the
functions being to provide protective covering, absorption, secretion,
diffusion, sensation and contractility. They are tightly packed
together with little
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permanent....Genetic engineers cannot fully and reliably predict the biological effects of these alterations. They cannot adequately predict how these manipulations will influence cellular functioning, the physiology and behavior of the organism as a whole, and the ecosystem into which that genetically engineered organism will be introduced. It is impossible to confidently predict the effects of genetic manipulations because of the complexity and interconnectedness of living systems. (Fagan 1)
We do have to be careful so herbicide resistance genes do not get transferred to weeds; or "super weeds" might be created which cannot be killed with traditional methods. We also have to make sure
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black moth population increased.
The environment is not the only condition that determines how an organism camouflages itself. The behavior of the prey or predator and the organism’s physiology are the other main factors that determine the organism’s camouflage. An animal with fur will develop a different kind of camouflage than an animal with scales. Also, an animal will not develop any camouflage that does not help it survive. For example, an animal does not need to blend in with the color of the background if their predator is colorblind.
Without the ability for some animals to camouflage, they would not be suited to their environment and would die.
plants, people, latest technological advances
Without the ability for some animals to camouflage, they would not be suited to their environment and would die.
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Chimera is a term not many people have heard of before. Some may know it but confuse it with hybrids. A chimera is single organism, usually an animal but can be human as well, which is composed by at least two different sets of DNA. It can also be a fusion of many different zygotes (fertilised eggs). Chimeras are formed by at least four parent cells; two fertilised eggs or embryos fused together. The individual cells keep its own character. This resolves in an organism with different tissues. It is often animals experiments are done on but it can also occur naturally. In “I, chimera” from BBC Focus 2007 they describe how that can happen. According to Henry Nicholls, an
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Bill Gates likes his bananas genetically modified, how about you? As part of ongoing efforts to battle hunger and malnutrition throughout the developing world, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Rockefeller Foundation are teaming up to fund research into the development of genetically modified bananas. There has been rapid advancement in the development and application in modern biotechnology. This application might have great potential to make a significant contribution in order to improve human being and also sustainable development. Therefore, it must develop well and used with an adequate safety measures. Genetically modified organism or GMO’s is one of major application
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A rapidly changing healthcare industry requires researchers to explore various possibilities in the attempt to develop effective treatment options. The human genome is a complex organism that is vulnerable to invading pathogens and environmental changes. Advancements in human health directly require treatment of the human body on a cellular level. Rigorous examination and experimentation of microorganisms revealed encouraging scientific discoveries. An efficient mechanism promising vast improvements to healthcare is the development of gene manipulation.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genome by using biotechnologies. The
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physiology, give students the opportunity to observe the effects of some commonly used drugs, and to provide students with a "hands-on" experience working with live patients. Students are given the option of not participating, but are still responsible for learning the material presented in the lab. This year, thirty students (out of one hundred and thirty-two) opted to skip the lab, which prompts the question: Why not more?
The argument used by the Washington Post that the labs are cruel to the dogs, because of the "questionable" source of the animals, is completely unsubstantiated. The Daily was very upset to learn that the universtiy obtains its dogs from C.C. Baird, a class
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to sustain life. They grow and divide, thereby producing more cells. This requires that they take in nutrients, which they use to provide energy for work that cells do and to make the materials that a cell or an organism needs.LS3a. All organisms must be able to obtain and use resources, grow, reproduce, and maintain stable internal conditions while living in a constantly changing external environment.LS5a.Millions of species of animals, plants, and microorganisms are alive today. Although different species might look dissimilar, the unity among organisms becomes apparent from an analysis of internal structures, the similarity of their chemical processes, and the evidence of common
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years afterward, the tobacco industry was able to use these studies to delay government warnings and to discourage physicians from intervening in their patients' smoking habits. We all know now that this is totally untrue and that smoking is a large contributor to cancer. It turns out that cancer research is especially sensitive to differences in physiology between humans and other animals. Many animals, particularly rats and mice, synthesize within their bodies approximately 100 times the recommended daily allowance for humans of vitamin C, which is believed to help the body ward off cancer. The stress of handling, confinement and isolation alters the animal's mental stability and
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All organisms are adapted to life within a constrained environmental envelope, with cosequent specializations in ecology, physiology and biochemistry. Associated with these adaptations is a species-specific capacity to cope with environmental changes. If an organism is taken outside of its “normal” environmental envelope, for example, by changing temperature, salinity or oxygen availability, the organism become vulnerable, a situation generically described as stress. In turn, this environmental challenge tiggers a biochemical response, the aim of which is to counteract or mitigate any potential cell damage caused by the environmental insult and to enhance survival.
Fish, like other
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inside a cell, and I chose Biomedical Research in order to understand how the cells work so coordinately to accomplish all the body functions. I dreamed of being able to understand DNA mutations that lead to disease but my first lab experience gave me a lot of knowledge and quite a lot of new doubts that science has not been able to clarify.
My research Interests are mainly focused on cellular and molecular biology. I am very interested in how gene expression is regulated among all different cells in an organism. Epigenetic is one of my preferred topics I really enjoy read and understand epigenetics mechanisms that orchestrate the great concert of gene expression. I would love to have the
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that plants exists to be consumed by animals and for the actively participate with living interactions. Of course this is not limited to animals but also extends to plants possessing characteristics set by latitude and temperance for their particular grounds of growth. Another proponent of vitalism was Caspar Friedrich Wolff, his dissertation proposed the idea of epigenesis that conflicted preformation. Caspar used plant roots as an example for epigenesis. The idea is that plants are able to regenerate new tissue after being severed or damaged. This was subsequently controversial because it refuted the theory of preformation, which avowed that the physiology of organisms was fix formed at the
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Osmoregulation Field Assignment
Osmoregulation is the process in which an organism balances the uptake and loss of water and solutes, on a cellular level, in an attempt to maintain homeostasis (Campbell and Reece, 2009). In osmoregulation, the regulation of osmotic pressure is the way in which organisms prevent their fluid from becoming to concentrated or diluted. The osmotic pressure, generated by the net movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane, driven by differences in solute concentrations on each side of the membrane, is critical in the maintenance of homeostasis. During osmosis, water flows from the solution with the lower concentration of solute to the higher
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bacteria. He concluded that type III-S transformed into type II-R. This experiment showed that traits could be transferred from one organism to another. it was one of the first experiments to suggest that DNA was the genetic code because heat denatures protein, thus ruling out the possibility of protein being the genetic code. At this time, DNA was still poorly understood and people were skeptical so Griffith was not recognized for his discovery.
In 1940, a bacteriologist and geneticist from Owosso, Michigan by the name of Alfred Hershey made significant strides in his work with bacteriophages. He observed that when two different bacteriophages have infected the same bacteria, the two
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The study of the way people think and behave is called psychology. The field of psychology has a number of sub-disciplines devoted to the study of the different levels and contexts of human thought and behavior. In early psychology, the different perspectives are functionalism, Gestalt, behavioral, psychodynamic, humanistic, physiological, evolutionary, cognitive, and cultural and diversity.The structuralism approach, which according to the textbook is the earliest approach in modern psychology, attempts to identify the basic elements and structure of conscious experience. Wundt believed that the essence of all total adjustments of the organism was a psychophysical process, an organic
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Over the course of time, animal testing has served as an implement to enhance the life quality of humans. Even the great medic Galen of Pergamon used animals for research which made him become the father of vivisection. According to the article “Should Vivisection be abolished” by Bayard Webster, vivisection “is a surgery on a living organism for experimental purposes.” Furthermore, Niccolo Machiavelli once said, “The end justifies the means.” It is a modest way to express how science has developed because of the use of animals in scientific research. Nowadays, some people have started a revolt to stop the usage of living beings on medical research. Nevertheless, animal rights activists
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Part I.PhotosynthesisAerobic Cellular RespirationBalanced Equation: FullReactantsCarbon Dioxide, Water, EnergyOxygen & GlucoseProductsOxygen and GlucoseWater, Carbon Dioxide and EnergyReaction: Endergonic or Exergonic?EndergonicExergonicEnergy source usedLightEnergy (ATP)Reaction: Cell organelles involvedChloroplasts; found mostly in the mesophyll (palisade layer)MitochondriaRole of ATPCreated in the light reaction so that it can be used in the dark reaction. It is used immediately in the dark reaction.The covalent bonds between atoms store energy then are sent out to the other cells in the organism to provide them with an energy source.Part II.Q. 1 Autotrophs; the names given to the
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Metabolomics is the ‘omics’ science of metabolism and its definition is in analogy with other part of biological science genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics. The metabolome or study of metabolites covers all the compounds formed in a biological system, from an organelle to a whole organism. Also, metabolome can be explained as the entire set of small molecules (non-polymeric compounds with a molecular weight less than ~1000Da) that are found in general metabolic reactions as byproduct and that are biosynthesized by a vital system like cell, tissue or organism. (Harrigan GG. 2003).
Metabolites are undergone by dynamic changes because they are sensitive to genetic or
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At a glance the skeletal system can seem misleadingly simple but in essence forms a complex component of many of the bodies systems; its functionality being integral to optimal body performance. Thus, the mental and physical state of a person, being determined by the systems making up the organism is also determined by the functionality of bones. I define a person as being constituted of an interdependent physical and mental state; hence bones influence a person's identity. It is worthwhile noting, however, that the skeletal system of an organism is not restricted to playing a role in the organism from which it is derived - components of it can also utilised in another organism. This can
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Ivan Pavlov and Classical Conditioning
1904 Nobel Prize Winner, Ivan Pavlov was born in Ryazan, Russia on September 14, 1849. Pavlov is best known for his intricate workings with the drooling dog experiment that lead to his further research in conditioning. This experiment, which began in 1889, had an influence on the development of physiologically oriented behaviorist theories of psychology in the early years of the nineteenth century. His work on the physiology of the digestive glands won him the 1904 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine.
Pavlov's first independent work focused on the physiology of the circulation of the blood (Girogian, 1974). He studied the
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conditions of the body2. Clearance and volume of distribution would be expected to vary with changes in plasma protein binding. The usage of in vitro setting could help us to measure these modifiable elements. Although plasma concentration measurements are usually easiest to perform via in vitro settings, clarification of parameters in original organism or the human body terms requires blood cell cultures, so the relevant plasma concentration of the drug partition parameter should be determined1. This major pharmacokinetic input parameter is determinant of the extent of availability as the other parameters being ignored on these in vitro settings.
The in vitro setting can help us to
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Tuberculosis infects over 8 million people per year. Nearly 2 million people die each year from complications due to being plagued with the organism that causes tuberculosis1. Tuberculosis is the second most common cause of death worldwide from an infectious agent1. While incidence numbers are slowly declining with regards to tuberculosis, new barriers to effective treatment are presenting themselves. One such challenge is the emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extremely drug-resistant (XDR) forms of the disease. These facts underscore the importance of uncovering new preventative measures and treatments for tuberculosis. This paper will give an overview of the
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Cells are the basic units of life and their processes are vital to the functioning of all organism. The reactions of photosynthesis and cellular respiration are complimentary and are also the most important pathways on the Earth. Photosynthesis is a process that converts carbon dioxide into organic compounds in presence of sunlight. Cellular respiration is the set of metabolic reactions that take in cells of living organisms that convert nutrients like sugar into energy , which is known as ATP (adenosine triphosphate), and waste products. The two processes are closely related and likewise, they share many similarities and differences
Processes in a Nutshell
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what role pathogens play in the advance of it.
2.0 What is a pathogen ?
Diseases in all humans, plants and other organisms are caused by micro-organisms called pathogens; these can be micro-organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, helminths and protozoa (Inglis,1996). The term pathogen is most commonly used to describe an infectious organism which interrupts the usual physiology of a multi-cellular animal or plant (Wassenaar, 2009). There are many pathogens which have been responsible for massive outbreaks of disease, an example of this is Yersinia Pestis which was the bacteria responsible for the black plague (Harwood 1979).
Yersinia Pestis is an extracellular pathogen
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, so water molecule has no overall charge (Brooker et al., 2007).
As water is a polar molecule, it is an excellent transport medium, since it can dissolve and interact with a wide range of “polar and charged molecules” (Gerstein & Levitt, 1998), such as, water in the interstitial fluid, dissolves oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood, to be transported around the organism. Furthermore, as CO2 concentration builds up, water combines with the dissolved carbon dioxide, catalysed by carbonic anhydrase, to form H2CO3. This dissociates to form H+ and HCO3 - , which acts as buffer in blood plasma, keeping the pH constant for efficient enzyme activity. The dissociation occurs, because water has a
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function within the organism. Sex cells are the only cells that contain a complete DNA map of the organism, therefore, 'the structure of a DNA molecule or combination of DNA molecules determines the shape, form, and function of the [organism's] offspring ' (Lewin 1). DNA discovery is attributed to the research of three scientists, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins, and James Dewey Watson in 1951. They were all later accredited with the Nobel Price in physiology and medicine in 1962 (Lewin 1).'The new science of genetic engineering aims to take a dramatic short cut in the slow process of evolution' (Stableford 25). In essence, scientists aim to remove one gene from an organism's DNA, and place it
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complex working organism. We all work together to survive and we need each other to do that. Gaia provides conditions that are suitable for a perfect planet. For example, Gaia regulates the ocean, atmosphere, and temperature. A scientist named James Lovelock formed this idea in the 1970s. The Gaia Theory is used in many different topics of science that scientist question all the time like ecology, climate science, and physiology. Lovelock describes the Earth as abiotic where evolution and its environment affect each other. All of these aspects of Gaia will be based on my views on nature, how we affect the Earth, and how much of an influence we are.
We do not realize that nature is
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they would be unable to hear or if one lost or broke their glasses they would be unable to see. As a result, to lesson the burden on the user, as technology has become more advanced so have these devices. The simple machines being used before have become more complex, efficient, smaller, and were able to implanted into the body. This allowed the complete integration of machine and human as one, creating the medical cyborg.
Cyborg is short for the term ‘cybernetic organism’ and was first coined by Clynes and Klein in “Cyborgs and Space” a paper on space travel and humans. Cybernetics is the study of feedback in human physiology and the possible replacement of these systems by electrical and
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dynamics:"An organism may absorb energy from its surroundings, or it may give up some energy into its surroundings, but the total energy content of the organism and its surroundings is always the same. An organism can't create the energy it requires to live. Instead, it must capture energy from the environment to use for biological work, a process involving the transformation of energy from one form to another."What this means in the marine ecosystem is that whether the organism is a Plankton, Nekton or Benthos they cannot make energy from nothing but must catch energy and transfer it. A good example of this is a shark must hunt for its food by eating smaller nekton. The energy cannot be
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adverse effects on human health, even at low concentrations?
Studies involving various animals seem to indicate that there may be a scientific basis on proving the risks of BPA on the physiology of several animals. Bear in mind, however, that these studies only provide an argument towards the biological significance of BPA. They do not give any factual correlation between human health and BPA. The studies may infer towards the potential risk on humans, but to infer a specific conclusion, given the data on a different species, would be inappropriate. Studies done on animals can only infer conclusions based on the animal observed and cannot be extrapolated to any other species. Two
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called apoptosis. This in-built program of cell suicide prevents cancer by eliminating cells with damaged genes (Cotran 18). Similarly, our bodies replace cells with a new type of cell when a change is needed, such as during embryonic development (Cotran 18). To illustrate this point, we look at one of Dr. Adamchak’s “stories of physiology,” as taught from Martini, when a bone is being formed cartilage cells, or condrocytes, come into an area to build a cartilage model of the bone. Once this model of bone is complete, the cartilage cells are given the command to die. Osteoblasts, or bone building cells, move in to the space formerly occupied by the Condrocytes, and replace the cartilage matrix
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contraction is less depending on the general condition of the organism Bale et al (2000).Wound contraction is mediated by fibroblasts of the granulation tissue. Under certain conditions fibroblasts can convert into a cell type that shares many structural and functional features with smooth muscle cells, including the formation of the contractile smooth muscles protein actomyosin Bale et al (2000).Carville (1994) explains that the main objective in applying a dressing is to create an environment that is conductive to healing. Therefore as a student nurse it is important to understand the physiology of wound healing, the ideal dressing should be chosen.Natural fibre dry dressing, such as gauze
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animals, their behavior is less aggressive than the former and shyer (Hosoyo et al., 2008). But reactive animals have a higher activation of the HPA axis (Hosoyo et al., 2008). Reactive subjects are more flexible in their behavior and react to stressors with a high amount of cortisol release (Archard et al., 2012).
Causes of stress
There are several factors in a fish’s environment that may pose as a stressor. For instance, stress and an organism’s food searching behavior are inversely related (O’Connor et al., 2011); meaning, more stress an organism has, the less it will be able to forage for food. Social interaction with other fish and a fish’ social status is an acute stressor (LeBlanc
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The growth of dwarf peas, Pisum sativum depends on the characteristics of the soil and the seeds. Sterile conditions will have a positive effect on P. sativum below and above ground physiology. The plants’ root length, root width and number of leaves will be positively affected by sterile conditions because the pathogens in soil which out compete the plants for its nutrients will be killed off. Soil and some seeds were sterilized and grown for twenty one days before root length, root width, and number of leaf parameters was tested. From the three parameters, root length was the only one affected by sterile conditions. No changes were observed in the other parameters because more growth
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Psychology is the investigation of the mind and how it processes and directs our thoughts, actions and conceptions. However, in 1879 Wilhelm Wundt opened the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig in Germany. Nevertheless, the origins of psychology go all the way back thousands of years starting with the early Greeks. This foundation is closely connected to biology and philosophy; and especially the subfields of physiology which is the study of the roles of living things and epistemology, which is the study of comprehension and how we understand what we have learned. The connection to physiology and epistemology is often viewed as psychology, which is the hybrid offspring
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, yeast is an ideal system in which to look for anti-silencing - and anti-cancer - drugs. (The world learned of the significance of yeast as a model organism this fall when Hutchinson Center President and Director Lee Hartwell, Ph.D., was awarded the 2001 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine. His groundbreaking use of yeast to study the mechanisms of cell division in all nucleated organisms, from yeast to frogs to humans, has had a profound impact on our understanding cancer, a disease that arises when cell division goes awry.)The researchers focused their drug search on one target, a silencing protein called Sir2. While the protein has been studied extensively in yeast, it has been found in
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In many ways, any living being is the product of water. The figures are relevant for this assumption: the human body contains 60% water. A newborn has at birth 64% water in his organism while the fetus in the third month of pregnancy has in his tissues, 91% water. As a man ages he starts to dry: around the age of 70, the body contains 46% water. The body is composed of 25% solids and 75% liquid material in which the solvent is water. Furthermore, even the brain tissue is composed of 85% water (Wedro, Conrad Stöppler, 2011). The role of water in ensuring the health of the human body is essential. Without water, humans cannot live. Water metabolism disorders produce signals that indicate a
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Improvement suggestions: history of homeostasis? Further consideration of positive feedback, e.g. in pathological conditions.The Homeostasis ConceptHomeostasis is a system of automatic control mechanisms which maintain the internal environment of an organism despite changes in the external environment (Campbell & Reece, 2005). The internal environment consists of extracellular fluids that bathe every cell of the body, supplying nutrients and receiving wastes (Purves et al., 2001). Regulators (animals which use homeostasis), maintain suitable physical conditions such as body temperature and water potential of cells, and the supply of nutrients e.g. O" and glucose, and removal of wastes
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of climate warming. In tropical mangrove forest for example, ectotherms are exposed to changeable physic-chemical factors where abiotic factors such as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, light, tidal cycles and stability are differed following the fluctuations of tidal.
Due to such changes especially factor such as temperature, changing their behavioural or adjusting their physiology might be appropriate in combating thermal stress (Warburton 1973; McMahon 1990). Generally, there are two ways in surviving thermal stress which are through behavioural and physiological but in extreme thermal stress, organisms may incorporated behavioural, physiological or both type of adaptation
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Technology thrives today. It is omnipresent, to the point where it has become almost unnoticeable. There is technology in communication, in transport, in design, and in advertising. At a glance, food does not seem to be a place for technology. For centuries, people have gradually mastered the intricate science of breeding to produce the best foods possible. But now, a new and radically different way to modify foods has arisen. It is much faster than traditional breeding, and it promises to create unimaginable species from which humankind can greatly benefit. It is genetic engineering.
Genetic engineering modifies a specific gene or set of genes of an organism to change it
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The Gaia Hypothesis
The Gaia Hypothesis is a hypothesis that was developed by James Lovelock and Lynn Margulis in the late 1970's. James Lovelock is a British scientist, an atmospheric chemist, and also an inventor with an education in human physiology. Lynn Margulis was a microbiologist during the 1970's at Boston University. She also originated the theory of the eukaryotic cell arising as a result of endosymbiotic cell capture. This theory is the one that gave her the credibility to advance the Gaia Hypothesis.
Since every hypothesis takes the form of an if/then statement, the Gaia Hypothesis namely is an if/then statement. Summarized the Gaia Hypothesis is "If life regulates
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in any clinical setting.
In many scientific disciplines researches try to explain their objects by reducing them to become principles, however in anthropology ,the approach is to understand issues in their context meaning that practises ideas are looked at from a wider perspective.
Significance of Human Body to medical anthropologists.
We cannot talk about health, without focusing on the body because ill health presents suffering to the human body and the mind. To the medical anthropologists, the human body is more than just a physical organism; it is also a focus of a set of beliefs about its social and psychological significance about its inner structure referred to as anatomy and
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characterized that this organism produces the enzymes catalase and urease. Both catalase and urease helps with the bacterium’s pathogenicity. Urease enzyme is considered the main virulence factor of H. pylori. It breaks down urea, which then produces ammonia that protects the bacterium from the acid in the stomach3. Ammonia presents as a buffer that neutralizes stomach acid, helping H. pylori to thrive2. As well, catalase enhances its ability to overcome the white blood cells that tries to kill the bacteria1. H. pylori produces two more enzymes right after it colonizes the stomach. Protease and phospholipase are enzymes that act on gastric epithelium to destroy the mucus layer of the
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In 2013, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to James Rothman, Randy Schekman, and Thomas Sudhof for their pioneering research in cell signaling pathways. Together, they were able to solve many questions that we had about how this precise cell-‐to-‐ cell regulation is carried out. With their works, many scientists across the world can apply their discoveries in various ways.
Due to our profound genomic studies, we have been able to sequence many genomes