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Role of biology in lifeOur blue planet is the one where life exists. So when we mention "bio" we talk about life on earth. Hence we can say that biology is the study of living organisms. The fact that it is the study of animals and plants makes sense that it would affect a person's daily life. In fact, everything about biology affects our daily life. Biology is a "natural science of organisms, including their structure, function, growth, evolution, distribution"...
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Ivan Pavlov is best known for his experiments and theories regarding classical conditioning and is often referred to as the Father of Classical Conditioning. (Lawry, 1981). Few know, however, that Pavlov initially planned on becoming a priest, like his father. He was born in 1849 in the small Russian town of Ryazan, the eldest son in a poor family. In 1860, at the age of 11, Pavlov finally began his formal education at Ryazan Ecclesiastical High School and, afterwards, entered into the local seminary. Eventually though,...
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The Madeline Hunter ModelCells: The Basic Units of LifeObjectives1.Describe each part of a eukaryotic cell.2.Explain the function of each part of a eukaryotic cell.3.Describe the difference between animal cells and plant cells.Standards CoveredGeorgia Performance Standards (GPS)S7L2. Students will describe the structure and function of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems.National StandardsLS1a.Living systems at all levels of organization demonstrate the complementary nature of...
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In general, a cell can be defined as a stem cell if two basic criteria are met. First, stem cell is capable of self renewal for indefinite period throughout life while maintaining undifferentiated state, i.e., the cell can divide and produce two identical daughter cells and thereby maintains the stem cell pool. Second, stem cell possesses capacity for differentiate into specialised and functional progeny under the right conditions, or given the right signals. It may divide asymmetrically to yield an identical cell and a daughter cell that acquires a particular cell type’s properties, such as morphology, phenotype and functional physiology that classified it belongs to a particular tissue...
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Investigation of Tissues
Tissues are defined as a group of associated, similarly structured
cells that with their ground substance act together in the performance
of a specialised function for the survival of the multicellular
organism. The tissues are classified into four main groups which are
epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous.
(http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia accessed 08 October 2004)
Epithelial tissues form the covering of all body surfaces with the
functions being to provide protective covering, absorption, secretion,
diffusion, sensation and contractility. They are tightly packed
together with little...
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Ludwig von Bertalanffy (1901--1972) is one of the most celebrated biologist of the 20th century. Born in a small village, Atzgersdorf near Vienna on September 19, 1901, Ludwig studied philosophy and history of art at the University of Innsbruck and University of Vienna. (LUDWIG VON Bertalanffy) Studying under the guidance of famous philosophers like Robert Reininger and Moritz Schlick, Ludwig completed his doctorate in 1926 writing a thesis on the German physicist and philosopher Gustav Theodor Fechner. (Ludwig von Bertalanffy (1901--1972)Since early age Ludwig was interested in acquiring...
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Most people take for granted the food that they consume each and every day will be safe and nutritious. When they wake up in the morning they do not have to think about getting enough food to survive the day. In order for the agriculture industry, that produces food and clothing for everyone, to keep up with our growing population it needs to utilize new technology. Agriculture has to find ways to produce more crops while many fertile acres of land are lost to development. Many people who like to eat the food produced would like to do away with genetic engineering; this would lead to lack of food and increased starvation around the world.
Genetic engineering is...
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Part I.PhotosynthesisAerobic Cellular RespirationBalanced Equation: FullReactantsCarbon Dioxide, Water, EnergyOxygen & GlucoseProductsOxygen and GlucoseWater, Carbon Dioxide and EnergyReaction: Endergonic or Exergonic?EndergonicExergonicEnergy source usedLightEnergy (ATP)Reaction: Cell organelles involvedChloroplasts; found mostly in the mesophyll (palisade layer)MitochondriaRole of ATPCreated in the light reaction so that it can be used in the dark reaction. It is used immediately in the dark reaction.The covalent bonds between atoms store energy then are sent out to the other cells in...
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A contingent of those against the dog labs at the university protested last month, waving signs that read, "Kill? Heal? What's It Gonna Be?" and "The U Kills Dogs." A fairly recent article in the Washington Post ("A Terminal Learning Environment"; Nov. 5, 2000) manages to move beyond the emotion and sloganeering used by these protesters to some of the real arguments of those in opposition; that the dog labs are "cruel, unnecessary and a waste of money" and that they "should be eliminated."1 However, the arguments used by the Washington Post (and ultimately, those in opposition) are insufficient to justify the termination of the dog labs at university. The claim that the dog labs...
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For the past 20 years, there has a been an on going heated debate on whether experiments on animals for the benefit of medical and scientific research is ethical. Whether it is or isn't, most people believe that some form of cost-benefit test should be performed to determine if the action is right. The costs include: animal pain, distress and death where the benefits include the collection of new knowledge or the development of new medical therapies for humans. Looking into these different aspects of the experimentation, there is a large gap for argument between the different scientists' views. In the next few paragraphs, both sides of the argument will be expressed by the supporters.
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At a glance the skeletal system can seem misleadingly simple but in essence forms a complex component of many of the bodies systems; its functionality being integral to optimal body performance. Thus, the mental and physical state of a person, being determined by the systems making up the organism is also determined by the functionality of bones. I define a person as being constituted of an interdependent physical and mental state; hence bones influence a person's identity. It is worthwhile noting, however, that the skeletal system of an organism is not restricted to playing a role in the organism from which it is derived - components of it can also utilised in another organism. This can...
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Every living thing is made up of cells. Every cell has a nucleus, and in every nucleus has chromosomes. Human beings have 46 chromosomes or 23 chromosome pairs and each chromosome contains hundreds of genes. These genes contain the recipes, for proteins that make up most of the body. Structural proteins form things such as skin, hair, and muscle. These chromosomes are very long compact coils of DNA (DeoxyriboNuclic Acid) that store all the information that the body needs such as how one looks and functions.DNA is a thread formed by two strands, wound together to form a Double Helix. The Double Helix looks like a twisted ladder. The "sides" of this "ladder" are long units called...
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The study of the way people think and behave is called psychology. The field of psychology has a number of sub-disciplines devoted to the study of the different levels and contexts of human thought and behavior. In early psychology, the different perspectives are functionalism, Gestalt, behavioral, psychodynamic, humanistic, physiological, evolutionary, cognitive, and cultural and diversity.The structuralism approach, which according to the textbook is the earliest approach in modern psychology, attempts to identify the basic elements and structure of conscious experience. Wundt believed that the essence of all total adjustments of the organism was a psychophysical process, an...
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Ivan Pavlov and Classical Conditioning
1904 Nobel Prize Winner, Ivan Pavlov was born in Ryazan, Russia on September 14, 1849. Pavlov is best known for his intricate workings with the drooling dog experiment that lead to his further research in conditioning. This experiment, which began in 1889, had an influence on the development of physiologically oriented behaviorist theories of psychology in the early years of the nineteenth century. His work on the physiology of the digestive glands won him the 1904 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine.
Pavlov's first independent work focused on the physiology of the circulation of the blood (Girogian, 1974). He studied the...
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Metabolomics is the ‘omics’ science of metabolism and its definition is in analogy with other part of biological science genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics. The metabolome or study of metabolites covers all the compounds formed in a biological system, from an organelle to a whole organism. Also, metabolome can be explained as the entire set of small molecules (non-polymeric compounds with a molecular weight less than ~1000Da) that are found in general metabolic reactions as byproduct and that are biosynthesized by a vital system like cell, tissue or organism. (Harrigan GG. 2003).
Metabolites are undergone by dynamic changes because they are sensitive to genetic or...
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Tuberculosis infects over 8 million people per year. Nearly 2 million people die each year from complications due to being plagued with the organism that causes tuberculosis1. Tuberculosis is the second most common cause of death worldwide from an infectious agent1. While incidence numbers are slowly declining with regards to tuberculosis, new barriers to effective treatment are presenting themselves. One such challenge is the emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extremely drug-resistant (XDR) forms of the disease. These facts underscore the importance of uncovering new preventative measures and treatments for tuberculosis. This paper will give an overview of the...
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Pharmacokinetic has evolved over the years from being a graphic science to a systematic and is frequently used in the current clinical studies. Scientists are progressively being conscious and willing to collect relevant pharmacokinetic data by using the in vitro studies. In vitro studies will allow the safer and more predictable studies compared and results compare to in vivo studies. Interpretation of toxic side effects of all the medications can be studied via pharmacokinetics in vitro analysis.
Pharmacokinetics describes what the body does to the drug, as opposed to pharmacodynamics which describes what the drug does to the body. Pharmacokinetic information is required to utilize and...
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There has been a scientific and civil debate about whether plastics have any risk in the development and welfare of human beings. With the wide-spread use of plastics in our homes, consumer electronics, and importantly our foods, it is justified to understand more about the potential effects these synthetic materials have on the body. As robust and sturdy as they may seem, the chances of some plastics, or their derivative by-products, entering our system, through contact or ingestion, is common enough to warrant some study to answer these questions. Studies have shown that three organic compounds, bisphenol A, estradiol, and ethinylestradio, can be commonly found in landfill leachates,...
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Gaining Control of the Gene Responsible for Apoptosis
When we gain control of the gene responsible for the phenomenon of apoptosis, we will be in control of aging. We are finding more evidence every day, indicating genetic links to all sorts of factors in the human being. We are just now beginning to scratch the surface of our own genetics. A landmark discover has just been unveiled: In February , the two groups charting the human genome published their results—the entire 3 billion base pair sequence. The only definitive conclusion so far: Humans are far more complicated than we thought. …Eric Lander, director of the Whitehead Center for Genome Research in Cambridge,...
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Water is a vital part for the function of organisms, as it is involved in the “energetics” of molecular interactions and conformational adaption of macromolecules in animal and plant cells, due to its structure, flexibility and several unique properties (Rand, 2004).
In an organism’s cell, various types of water are present. They are known as bound, hydration, vicinal and bulk water. 95% of watery body fluid is composed of bulk water, since they function as “space filling medium”, which supports life and creates an aqueous medium for cellular reactions (Watterson, 1987) .
Water as a “space filling medium”, also aid to assemble molecules, hence they can “achieve a configuration of lower...
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I am a cyborg; today we live in a world of cyborgs. This makes statements such as these much more common. In the past cyborgs were consider freaks of nature and were one in a billion. Recently our society is has become no longer worried with whether you are a cyborg or not but rather what type of cyborg you are. Cyborg technologies have invaded nearly every aspect of our lives, including technologies such as vaccination, insulin pump, artificial organs, etc.
For decades, cyborgs have been exclusively associated with science fiction and fantasy; only in the futuristic genre can the organic and inorganic combine to form a cognitive being. In novels and in other forms of media, scientists...
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The earth's oceans provide an enormous range of resources and affect the quality of life as we know it. The oceans cover approximately 70 percent of the surface of the earth and have a cyclical effect on weather, e.g. temperature, precipitation and air quality. Regardless of your views on global warming, the fact remains that humans have an impact on the marine ecosystems through waste from chemicals and debris polluting this vast renewable resource. Based upon current scientific evidence, emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities are projected to cause significant global climate change during the 21st century. Such climate change will create novel challenges for coastal and...
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2.0 What is a Pathogen?
2.1 Major Categories of pathogens/micro-organism
Fig 2.3 Bacterial Shapes
Fig 2.5 Structure of a virus
3.0 Pathogenic Environment
4.0 What is disease?
4.1 How disease spreads
Pathogens and the spread of disease
“Health depends on the body maintaining its internal harmony.” (The U205 Course Team, 1985)
Health is a momentary condition of ones state of physical and mental well being. This is constantly compromised by the threat of disease. It is often...
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The growth of dwarf peas, Pisum sativum depends on the characteristics of the soil and the seeds. Sterile conditions will have a positive effect on P. sativum below and above ground physiology. The plants’ root length, root width and number of leaves will be positively affected by sterile conditions because the pathogens in soil which out compete the plants for its nutrients will be killed off. Soil and some seeds were sterilized and grown for twenty one days before root length, root width, and number of leaf parameters was tested. From the three parameters, root length was the only one affected by sterile conditions. No changes were observed in the other parameters because more growth time...
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Psychology is the investigation of the mind and how it processes and directs our thoughts, actions and conceptions. However, in 1879 Wilhelm Wundt opened the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig in Germany. Nevertheless, the origins of psychology go all the way back thousands of years starting with the early Greeks. This foundation is closely connected to biology and philosophy; and especially the subfields of physiology which is the study of the roles of living things and epistemology, which is the study of comprehension and how we understand what we have learned. The connection to physiology and epistemology is often viewed as psychology, which is the hybrid offspring...
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Improvement suggestions: history of homeostasis? Further consideration of positive feedback, e.g. in pathological conditions.The Homeostasis ConceptHomeostasis is a system of automatic control mechanisms which maintain the internal environment of an organism despite changes in the external environment (Campbell & Reece, 2005). The internal environment consists of extracellular fluids that bathe every cell of the body, supplying nutrients and receiving wastes (Purves et al., 2001). Regulators (animals which use homeostasis), maintain suitable physical conditions such as body temperature and water potential of cells, and the supply of nutrients e.g. O" and glucose, and...
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New Treatments for CancerCancer is becoming a larger problem every year. More and more people get cancer early in life. Recent statistics show that men have a 1-in-2 lifetime risk to develop a cancer. For women this risk is 1-in-3. The last few decades, cancer has started to reach epidemic proportions. Just ask around: You'll be astonished by the large numbers of people that have gotten cancer (or have already died). Then ask your parents or older people if this also happened in their generation.Not many people know it, but the cancer death rate in 1900 was 64 per 100,000 Americans. In 1950, this figure has risen to 130 and currently, it's at an all time high of 140-150....
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In many ways, any living being is the product of water. The figures are relevant for this assumption: the human body contains 60% water. A newborn has at birth 64% water in his organism while the fetus in the third month of pregnancy has in his tissues, 91% water. As a man ages he starts to dry: around the age of 70, the body contains 46% water. The body is composed of 25% solids and 75% liquid material in which the solvent is water. Furthermore, even the brain tissue is composed of 85% water (Wedro, Conrad Stöppler, 2011). The role of water in ensuring the health of the human body is essential. Without water, humans cannot live. Water metabolism disorders produce signals that indicate a...
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The Gaia Hypothesis
The Gaia Hypothesis is a hypothesis that was developed by James Lovelock and Lynn Margulis in the late 1970's. James Lovelock is a British scientist, an atmospheric chemist, and also an inventor with an education in human physiology. Lynn Margulis was a microbiologist during the 1970's at Boston University. She also originated the theory of the eukaryotic cell arising as a result of endosymbiotic cell capture. This theory is the one that gave her the credibility to advance the Gaia Hypothesis.
Since every hypothesis takes the form of an if/then statement, the Gaia Hypothesis namely is an if/then statement. Summarized the Gaia Hypothesis is "If life regulates...
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Technology thrives today. It is omnipresent, to the point where it has become almost unnoticeable. There is technology in communication, in transport, in design, and in advertising. At a glance, food does not seem to be a place for technology. For centuries, people have gradually mastered the intricate science of breeding to produce the best foods possible. But now, a new and radically different way to modify foods has arisen. It is much faster than traditional breeding, and it promises to create unimaginable species from which humankind can greatly benefit. It is genetic engineering.
Genetic engineering modifies a specific gene or set of genes of an organism to change it...
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University of PhoenixScience 256: People, Science, and the EnvironmentEcosystem Succession Paper31Jan05Ecosystem 2.SuccessionSuccession is a phenomenon of transition in community structure and function which is time related and often occurs in a somewhat predictable manner. Primary succession, (fig 5-4, pg 87) occurs following formation of a new, yet barren habitat for colonization. Such a habitat may be formed by volcanic activity, glacial activity, or strip-mining; it initially lacks soil. A study of Glacier Bay, AL, showed that following retreat of the glacier, the ground was first colonized by mosses and lichens, then dwarf willows, then...
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Helicobacter pylori is a pathogen that thrives in an individual’s stomach. It is spiral in shape and is classified as a unipolar, microaerophilic, gram-negative bacterium. This bacterium was discovered to be the cause of more than eighty percent of all peptic ulcers2. H. Pylori have four to six flagella that help with its motility1. Its flagella also enable it to move into and take up residence in the thick mucus layer of the stomach3. This part of the stomach protects the bacterium from highly acidic contents. H. pylori’s genome was found to be one-third the size of E-coli’s genome2. This indicates that there are possibly many specializations or variation involved with H. pylori.
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This paper seeks to show the inter-relationship of bio- medical professionals such as doctors and nurses in comparison with medical anthropologists and try to show their relevancy in the healthcare system and their collaboration in inter-professionalism. Medical anthropology is an advancing sub-discipline of anthropology. Medical anthropology is intended to provide a framework, which should enable students to identify and analyze social, cultural, behavioural and environmental factors in relation to health and disease/illness in any given society. Medical anthropologists are not medics or professional doctors but they are usually found within the health care system since they provide an...
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The following paper outlines the use of the Linnaeus system of classification as applied in the field of biology and evolution. The aim of the paper is to highlight how living things are related to other in the ecosystem (Pierce, 2007). It takes us through the evolutionary system highlighting all the important features of life development amongst all the living things.
Classification is the process of categorizing all the living creatures into group hierarchies citing their characteristic features. Classification is based on the work of Carl Linnaeus. During the 18th century, Linnaeus devised a biological method of classifying living things (plants and animals)...
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How to Make a Human Revision1.Getting Pregnant (or not?)Humans are multicellular organismsCell theory:Cell Theory refers to the idea that cells are the basic unit of structure in every living thing. new cells are formed from other existing cells and the cell is a fundamental unit of structure, physiology, and organization in all living organisms.Modern Cell TheoryThe generally accepted parts of modern cell theory include:1.The cell is the fundamental unit of structure and function in living things.2.All cells come from pre-existing cells by division.3.Energy flow (metabolism and biochemistry) occurs within cells.4.Cells contain hereditary...
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Television messages can be defined a psychological stimulus (A. Lang, 2000). Within this perspective, mediated messages are assumed to be environmental stimuli that posses survival relevance in the forms of valence and arousal in its content (A. Lang & Friestad, 1993; Wang & A. Lang, 2006). Therefore, mediated messages automatically activate the human motivational systems. Through activating the human motivational system, mediated messages influence human’s ongoing emotional experience (A. Lang, 2006a).
Television messages are composed of two streams of variously redundant information, one audio and one video (A. Lang, 2000). These streams of information are continuous, and both the audio...
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Anti-technologists and political extremists misinform, and over exaggerate statements that genetic engineering is not part of the natural order of things. The moral question of genetic engineering can be answered by studying human evolution and the idea of survival of the fittest. The question of safety can be answered by looking at the current precautions of the industry. The concept that society needs to understand is that with the right amount of time and money genetic engineering will help reduce disease and save countless lives.Many people do not realize that genetic engineering plays a role in many lives through out the world. Genetic engineering includes artificial...
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History of PsychologyIn this essay I am looking at where Psychology as a discipline has come from and what affects these early ideas have had on psychology today, Psychology as a whole has stemmed from a number of different areas of study from Physics to Biology. But the first Psychological foundations are rooted in philosophy, which to this day propels psychological inquiry in areas such as language acquisition, consciousness, and even vision among many others.While the great philosophical distinction between the mind and body in...
1493 words - 6 pages
When discussing the term stress, it is important to take in to account that it can be defined in many diverse ways. Within the fields of psychology including biology, stress is regarded as an unpleasant emotional or physical threat, to which the human organism is exposed to, consequently leading to a breakdown or severe distress including that of the body and mind.Acknowledging that there are various ways in defining stress; hence why it is important to discriminate between stress; when it is being described as a cause - referring to the condition that threatens an individual's physical or psychological state and stress relating to the effect in which it produces distress to the...
1641 words - 7 pages
The Future of Human Evolution
Evolution, the science of how populations of living organisms change over
time in response to their environment, is the central unifying theme in biology
today. Evolution was first explored in its semi-modern form in Charles Darwin 's
1859 book, Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection. In this book, Darwin
laid out a strong argument for evolution. He postulated that all species have a
common ancestor from which they are descended. As populations of species moved
into new habitats and new parts of the world, they faced different environmental
conditions. Over time, these populations accumulated modifications, or
adaptations, that allowed...
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Over the years research has revealed that the use of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and proteins can be monitored through the progress of evolution. This monitoring can be achieved by the use of evolutionary tape measures. In order to get a better understanding of how this process will work the team will take a look at the main concepts of this process. The team will also delve into the importance of each concept and how these concepts can be applied in an industry. The team will also discuss these concepts and how they affect real-life by providing examples and the important role these concepts play. Finally the team will look at the relationship of the real-life examples and compare them...
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decent paper thorough paperAlexander R.Prof. KohnDarwinism and Evolution12-6-96The Future of EvolutionEvolution, the science of how populations of living organisms change over time in response to their environment, is the central unifying theme in biology today. Evolution was first explored in its semi-modern form in Charles Darwin 's 1859 book, Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection. In this book, Darwin laid out a strong argument for evolution. He postulated that all species have a common ancestor from which they are descended....
1881 words - 8 pages
This is a business project for the servicescape design of a Chinese restaurant.The University of Luton plans to build an atrium over the car park in front of "B" block, where will house a number of eating facilities including this Chinese restaurant. A few factors about the management of a restaurant should be considered firstly before making actual decisions about the servicescape design.The Multi-Cultural BackgroundBeing aware of the multi-cultural background in Luton, it is essential to cognize...
2123 words - 8 pages
Analyzing the possible effects of climate change still remains a major enigma for both ecologists and environmentalists alike. It is known that extreme hot weather anomalies are becoming more and more prevalent as shown by temperature outliers greater than 3σ now occur in almost 10% of the world’s surface as compared to less than 1% during 1951-1981 (Hansen et al. 2012). Since 1880 the combined land and ocean temperature has increased by about 0.85°C. Additionally the concentrations of CO2, CH4, and N2O in the atmosphere have increased by 40%, 150%, and 20% respectively since the pre-industrial era. The total radiance forcing for 2011 relative to 1750 is 2.29. This positive...
1722 words - 7 pages
Heredity and Sex
When analyzing the major accomplishments of the 20th century it is imperative to include the achievements in biology, which have revolutionized our understanding of life’s process and of disease. Already in the second half of the 19th century implications to future progress in the biological world were being made. Darwin had outlined the evolution in animal species, Mendel had discovered some basic rules for inheritance, and Weissman and other embryologists were beginning to decipher how an organism develops. (Britannica, 1) However there was one key element missing, how all these advances were correlated? The important information that unified these three fields...
1355 words - 5 pages
Cells need to be able to transport very small molecules at quick rates. It is also often necessary to have consistent molecule concentration though out a cell. As a cell expands, volume becomes so great that passive means of transport such as osmosis become inadequate. Even active means, including ion "pumps" in the cell membrane, are not able to take molecules over long distances. Cells can overcome this problem, but only to a certain degree. A neuron, you may know, has a long extension known as an axon. Neurons have developed two different means of active transportation in order to bring molecules from the cell body to the ends of the axons. In cell culture most non-neoplastic cells...
2041 words - 8 pages
- -INTRODUCTIONWhat is Bioluminescence?The current paper main focus is on bioluminescent Fungi but the basic features of bioluminescence discussed are common to all bioluminescent organisms. Bioluminescence is simply light created by living organisms. Probably the most commonly known example of bioluminescence by North Americans is the firefly, which lights its abdomen during its mating season to communicate with potential mates. This bioluminescent ability occurs in 25 different phyla many of which are totally unrelated and diverse with the phylum Fungi included in this list (an illustration of a bioluminescent fungi is displayed in figure 1). One of the features of...
2142 words - 9 pages
Biotechnology can be defined as a “collection of tools for modifying tree physiology and genetics to aid breeding, propagation and research” (Burdon and Libby 2006). These tools include the use of tissue culture, genetic engineering (genetic modification) and the use of genetic markers for marker assisted breeding (Harry and Strauss 2010).
Tissue culture is the process of growing plants in a cultured medium under controlled conditions from small plant parts. The plants produced in this manner are then transferred to the greenhouse and then grow. The advantages of tissue culture are:
• This technology produces exact copies of the organism that contains the desirable trait.
• Plants will...
1893 words - 8 pages
Stress is a common yet often misunderstood, word in modern society. Psychologists have recently begun exploring the reasons why stress manifests differently, depending on the relationship between the person and the environment. The physiological and psychological affects stress can induce and the affects of environmental stressors, such as light, wind, and temperature are important concepts for psychologists to be aware of. To understand how environmental stressors affect people, one must first understand the concept of stress.Concept of stressThe concept of stress is one, which...
2136 words - 9 pages
A neuropsychologist is a professional in the field of psychology
that focuses on the interrelationships between neurological
processes and behavior. They work as a team with neurologists,
neurosurgeons, and primary care physicians. Neuropsychologists
extensively study the anatomy, pathology, and physiology of the
nervous system (http://www.tbidoc.com/Appel2.html). Clinical
neuropsychologists then apply this knowledge to the assessment,
diagnosis, treatment, and/or rehabilitation of patients across
the lifespan with medical, neurodevelopmental, neurological and
psychiatric conditions, as well as other cognitive and learning