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Our society is slowly but drastically, devolving. We let the media take total control over every aspect of us, how we dress, who we talk to, what we eat, even how we think. Everyone thinks they are their own person but no one ever stops to think of why they do what they do. The media has never had as much control as they do now. As we go on reading our newspapers and our magazines, no one stops to think of what we're reading, how many things don't add up or make sense. We just accept it to be the truth. We have lost all the intelligence we once had striven for, now we simple look up to television to educate our children. Have you seen what it's brought us? Homicides, suicides,...
2317 words - 9 pages
The media is a powerful force in contemporary society, which determines our actions and identities. With reference to relevant sociological theory and evidence, discuss media effects.Society relies a great deal on technology for news, entertainment and education. Mass media is seen as one of the greatest influential factors on the opinions and viewpoints of society in the modern world. Media includes a range of sources, for example, Magazines; Internet; Television; Books and Radio. All of these sources are what contribute to the beliefs of what society believe life and culture to be, which is sometimes heightened to unrealistic standards. Although media...
1299 words - 5 pages
Greek gods, the basis of Greek culture and religion, are the center of Greeks’ superstitions and ways to worship. These relate to the god’s origin and their deeds in their myths. Gods can either show jealousy, courage, or kindness to mortals and other gods, so Greeks label the gods based on their qualities. In most circumstances, the Greeks decide whether to worship or despise a god only by whom or what they rule over. For example, Greeks show reluctance in worshipping Hades, the Lord of the Underworld. Greeks hold celebrations and festivities to earn favor from the gods. Greek gods can either have a positive or a negative impact on Greek culture. Most people believe that Hades, an important...
683 words - 3 pages
The Influence of Society on Gender
The term gender can be defined as the characteristics by which people determine if their classification is to be male or female. Gender role expectations are things that a society deems normal and acceptable behavior, attitudes, and desires for a person. The question as to weather or not society influences the gender of a person or if it is an innate tendency. This age old nature versus nurture question has been answered by science many times for many years. I came across an article in the Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine published in 1997. The article told of how a child if born male but with rudimentary development of his sex organs...
2795 words - 11 pages
Musical Influence on a Violent Society
The event in Littleton, Colorado, 5 years ago was a shocking wake up call to our society. Because of Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold’s fanaticism with artists such as Marilyn Manson, music was labeled as the culprit for negatively influencing the youth of America. Music is a tool of expression that an artist uses to vent their frustrations and to reveal their emotions. However, these artists do not see the moral boundary that they have crossed with their emotionally disturbing lyrics and dark melodies. To grab the attention of teenagers, musicians often produce music videos with a vivid portrayal of the song’s message. The heavy influence it has on...
2032 words - 8 pages
Influence of Rock Music on SocietyThroughout history major social transformations have taken place that have changed, in very fundamental ways, how people perceive themselves and the world around them. With each social reformation, cultural forms and institutions also change as well as their meanings. For Example, the development of recording and electronic communication within United States capitalism spurred the unique coming together of disparate music traditions in twentieth century United States society.# The development of these technologies allowed music to reach beyond regional boundaries, which led to...
1453 words - 6 pages
Advertising is designed to foster a desire to purchase goods and services, yet it is much deeper than that—advertising is a system of effective manipulation that twists the mentalities of those subjected to it. It shapes people’s views of the world and warps their connections to each other. Therefore, advertising not only shapes their personal values but also distorts them until their principles no longer come from within them. Thus, in my opinion, advertising, unless deeply rooted in high ethical standards, destroys any concept of community, common morality or deep bonding.
Advertisements thrust products and services at consumers that they deem necessary in order to be loved, beautiful,...
997 words - 4 pages
The Black Panthers Influence on Reform and Society Oswaldo Ortiz Introduction to Sociology In a time when blacks were considered the inferior species, a civil rights movement was forming. The pieces were falling into place as the masses came out to fight for the cause to live freely and equally to their white counterparts. Each day a new gathering was held in order to secure the future of all people. Many of the gatherings helped to spark the creation of activists groups. Already, the NAACP, CORE (Congress of Racial Equality), NUL (National Urban League), and SCLC (Southern...
854 words - 3 pages
The influence of media on society in the 21st century is undeniable. Of all the types of media, music and books stand out as two of the main strands that influences people the most. They are both invaluable resources of knowledge and entertainment that can be accessed by all age groups. However, the most important aspect of music and books that has made them so prominent to the 21st century audience is that it offers a wide range of genres and styles. Consequently, Music and books have become the principal method of entertainment in the lives of many, as it bestows upon people the opportunity to free themselves from reality, and exist in their own fantasy worlds. By comparing and contrasting...
1763 words - 7 pages
Throughout History, there have been many different groups or events that are still widely known today. Groups of people such as the Indians or Vikings are popular groups which are referenced constantly in today’s society. However, none of these groups is more known or referenced than the Japanese Samurai. Originating in 646 AD, these Japanese warriors developed from a loose organization of farmers to the dominant social class in Feudal Japan. Along with their dominant military and political standing, the samurai brought with them a unique code or moral belief that became the core of Samurai culture. Because of this, the Samurai and their principles still affect modern day...
2092 words - 8 pages
Mass Media and Its Influence Negative Influence on American Society
“It is the power that shapes and molds the mind of virtually every citizen, young or old, rich or poor, simple or sophisticated” (Sweet Liberty, 2000, 1). The media is a part of everyday life in America. News and events outside of one’s home or neighborhood are brought to their area via the newspaper, magazines, radio, television, and the internet. As the quote above mentions mass media, and its components, are very powerful and are capable of influencing one’s mind, as well as their behavior. The images and stories introduced to children and young adults make it difficult for these viewers to...
671 words - 3 pages
According to the PBS Empires series, Classical Greece, and particularly Athens, was the crucible of civilization. As the inventors of democracy, rationalist philosophy, and other institutions valuable to the West, the documentary impresses the importance of Athenian influence upon modern society. It also attempts to analogize the feuds among the Greek city states and the Peloponnesian War to the internal conflicts in Western society.
Greek civilization originated with Minoans on Crete, which was then followed by the Mycenaens, the heroic peoples of the Trojan War. After their fall, Greece fell into a period of decline, “the Dark Ages,” until the reemergence of classical culture around...
2674 words - 11 pages
The Influence of Mythology on Literature and Society
Edith Hamilton is the author of the book Mythology. This book is about the Mythology of the Romans and Greeks through her eyes and the way she interprets it. In the beginning of the book Hamilton writes an introduction to Classical Mythology and how, and why it came about. She starts off by writing that Greek and Roman Mythology is meant to show us how people felt about the human race and about where they came from many years ago. She points out that Mythology describes the Earth when it was young and people cared for the Earth more than today. This is true, because in today?s world not many people are caring about the Earth and...
1146 words - 5 pages
The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Its Influence on Society
The German political philosopher and revolutionary, Karl Marx is best known for his radical concepts of society. His socialist views are best seen in his work Communist Manifesto. As one of the most influential thinkers of all times, he was able to convey revolutionary ideas in a manner that all could understand. Due to its comprehendible nature and usefulness to the people of his time this document was widely popular among commoners of the Nineteenth Century. In fact some historians refer to the Manifesto as the first systematic statement about modern socialism the world has ever seen. Powerful language...
1588 words - 6 pages
Influence of Religion on Society during the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries
The undeniable power, force, and influence of religion stand out throughout history. However, according to J. Michael Allen and James B. Allen in World History from 1500, in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, religion was exceptionally important, because it had a great influence on everything from government to social order and family relationships (16). Hundreds of years may separate these two time periods and the modern world, but the same positive effects of religion such as unity, security, and a social order are still basic ideals in today’s world. This is also true for the negative effects...
1243 words - 5 pages
A Canadian InfluencePierre Elliot Trudeau was a great influence on Canadian history, and helped maintain strong bonds with the French society in Canada creating a strong bond between the French and the English, while promoting Canadian unity and independence.Pierre Trudeau was first elected Canada's Prime Minister in 1968. He remained in power over the following 16 years, except for a Leading Canada until 1979 and again from 1980 to 1984, the influence of Trudeau's policies and actions is still strong. From the Official Languages Act in 1969, to the October Crisis in 1970, the 1980 referendum and the patriation of the Constitution in 1982, Trudeau dominated Canada's...
755 words - 3 pages
People never leave or even look outside the bubbles they create to meet their own immediate gratification. This is how we are taught to live by the media. We are hollow and empty beings who suck in everything from the media to try to create what we call a "life".This quote, to me, perfectly identifies the society we have set up for ourselves. We have brought ourselves up to only want immediate gratification. All we know about life is what the media is; what we see on TV, in magazines and on the big screen is all we know. Therefore, media has become our lives, media is life. We are so caught up in what the media tells us to do, that we have no idea what we're missing out on. We are...
2018 words - 8 pages
We do not fight racism with racism. We fight racism with solidarity. We do not fight exploitative capitalism with black capitalism. We fight capitalism with basic socialism. We do not fight imperialism with more imperialism. We fight imperialism with proletarian internationalism. These principles are very practical, humanistic, necessary and functional to the party. They should be understood by the masses of the people.- Bobby SealeBobby Seale, chairman of the Black Panther party self-defense, made this statement in his 1970 publication Seize the Time. The significance of this statement is that it reveals a few things about the Panther mentality/ideology. It reveals that...
1356 words - 5 pages
Muhammad; now credited as the creator and founder of Islam was born in 570BC in the powerful and holy Arab city of Mecca, and died in 632BC. During his lifetime, Muhammad would be contacted by God through the Angel Gabriel and employed by God to spread his message to the Arab world, this would start a Journey for Muhammad which would result in the change of Arab society forever through the expansion and influence of his religion; Islam. His influence on the society at the time would be the expansion of Islam.The Arab world at the time was one of discontent, lack of stability, and ultimately...
2321 words - 9 pages
It is not easy to do the right thing. Doing the right thing often involves compromising one's self-interest for others who might not appreciate his/her sacrifice. However, such an action is a benevolent virtue that our society tries to encourage by honoring it and making it memorable to everyone. In addition to a plethora of newspaper and magazine companies, our movie industry is also zealous about presenting stories with such a theme. Many commendable virtues are presented on television and in movies. While many believe that movies cause the public to establish new morality values,
1592 words - 6 pages
The vast territories formerly known as New Holland and Van Dieman's Island and since 1900 as The Commonwealth of Australia were erected to the Vicariate Apostolic of New Holland in 1834. John Bede Polding (q. v.), a Benedictine, was vicar Apostolic. He was consecrated bishop in London on 29 June, 1834. Dr. Polding visited Rome in 1841-2, and at his suggestion new sees were erected in Hobart and Adelaide. A few years later Melbourne and Brisbane were also detached from the archdiocese. In New South Wales dioceses were erected at Maitland, Goulburn, Bathurst, Armidale, Lismore, and Wilcannia; these form at present...
723 words - 3 pages
The mineral diamonds have had one of the largest influences on human society. Diamonds creates mind pictures of wealth, expensive jewelry, and many different suppositions. A diamond is much more then the glittering, dazzling, costly appearance it presents, they have changed the economy, fashion, and industry of humans of the past and for years to come.The characteristic of diamonds relies on many different factors such as where it's found, and how it is made. Diamonds are a crystallized carbon that produces deep in earth surface. Under the surface they experience high heat and pressure by which they are formed. The diamond is the hardest of all known
705 words - 3 pages
Shin splints, or in other words Medial Tibial Pain Syndrome, are one of the most misdiagnosed running conditions. To sum up the definition of Shin Splints, it is an overworking of the tibia and its muscles. Many times, this condition is a result from improper conditioning or running on very hard surfaces, such as concrete, and bad running shoes. This movement causes the soleus muscle to pull very hard on the backside of the tibia causing the muscle to form very small...
1813 words - 7 pages
Policing relies on the public trust, police legitimacy and accountability, which can be destroyed by unjustifiable police shootings (Squires and Kennninson, 2010). Within this country, there is a recognition that the police do not always adhere to the rule of law (Newburn and Reiner, 2012: 809), which has led to consistent public outrage at the lack of effectiveness and legitimacy the police has maintained. Therefore the deliberate decision to enforce police to attend to the streets unarmed was employed to reassure the public that the police were not to be feared (Waddington and Wright, 2010). Ultimately, concerns derive from the belief that the police are completely ineffective when dealing...
2566 words - 10 pages
One of the police pledges which were put forward was to make sure they kept the public’s confidence in the way the police work and capture offenders. However as time has past the public’s confidences with the police have started to fade as the police begin to show flaws within the way they work. For example the way they treat offenders and victims, the delayed response to reported crime, the exposure of institutional racism and racial attitudes to offenders and victims. These factors were exposed by the media causing the police and government to come under heavy criticism on the way they work, even to this day the police still come under criticism on the way they deal with criminal...
553 words - 2 pages
Public View of Police
Police men and women are there to protect people. Their job is to risk their lives to ensure your personal safety, safety of your property, and the protection of the environment. The public’s opinion of the police force is quite varying because of a variety of factors. Personal experiences with police influence most people’s outlook and opinion towards the entire police force no matter what city, county, or department they have dealt with. Most commonly among teenagers and other young people, a negative image of the police is extremely common, but only because the police stop and prevent the total freedom to “have fun” and go party all...
1789 words - 7 pages
The police are usually charged with the great responsibility of ensuring that citizens are living quality lives that are free of crime and fear. In order to perform this duty effectively, the police need accurate and deeper knowledge of the citizens and issues they encounter in their daily lives. This knowledge will not be easy to come by if the police work independently from the citizens. Over the last several decades, police agencies have been working to gain the respect and the cooperation of the communities they serve. Community Oriented Policing was introduced to bring a closer working relationship between the citizens and the police.
Community Oriented Policing
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This essay will analyse a contemporary Policy document policing in the 21st century: Reconnecting police and the people. It is a document presented by the secretary of state for the Home Department by Command for Her Majesty in July 2010. It will look at how some philosophies of punishment and models of criminal justice are convincing in explaining the methods and tactics used to formulate criminal justice policies as evidence in Policing in the 21st Century: Reconnecting police and the people. Other policy documents will be looked at in other to compare their similarities. Crime control, bureaucratic models the philosophy of deterrence and rehabilitation are...
1652 words - 7 pages
The 'new' police model introduced in 1829 has been seen as revolutionary. Analyse its introduction and form, before commenting on how appropriate it remains now for contemporary society.
Among the enormous quantity of valuable inheritances that England had given to several societies, the police’s establishment in 1829 has a relevant place. Captivating is the fact that the new police model begot significant changes in local society. First, because sparked controversial antagonism, and second, because of its successful develop has remarked an important reference to contemporary security forces. According to Gash, (1968, p. 1) in early nineteenth century England faced a difficult...
2248 words - 9 pages
Introduction:Studies has shown that police are more likely to abuse blacks rather than whites and this is caused by racial profiling. But through the history of police brutality, police brutality was first used after a police officer was described beating a civilian in 1633. Police brutality is the abuse of force and it is usually through physical. But there are other ways to abuse which are verbally and sometimes psychologically and this is done by a federal or state authorities which are the police officers. The history of police brutality has been a cycle and the phrases are actually violence, corruption and improve on what is wrong. These has been a cycle for many years through...
2056 words - 8 pages
INTRODUCTION For as long as policing has existed in America, there has been misconduct and corruption associated with any given policing agency. Police officer malfeasance can range from minor cases of misconduct to the downright criminal acts that are considered to be corruption. It is important to state here that not all police officers are guilty of misconduct and/or corruption, but like everything in our media-based society, the ?bad? cops are of much more interest and therefore are what this paper will focus on.Merriam-Webster online (2005) defines misconduct as ?1: mismanagement especially of governmental or military responsibilities; 2: intentional wrongdoing; specifically:...
1962 words - 8 pages
A growing number of entry-level criminal justice practitioners have college degrees. This paper will explore whether or not law enforcement agencies should require applicants to have a post secondary degree as a condition of employment and will college-educated police officers will be resistant to organizational change.
Post Secondary Degree Requirements for Police Officers
Perceptions of what constitutes a qualified police officer have been crafted as a result of numerous television shows and movies. They are often portrayed as heroic, invincible, and possessors of brute strength. While some of these physical attributes are in fact expected and required of police...
2425 words - 10 pages
Workforce selection practices have become more prominent over the years, particularly with law enforcement recruitments. This enhanced use of process selection allows for more advanced methods of assessing police officers. One reason for this extreme emphasis on selection systems is the elimination of unqualified police recruit applicants, thus ensuring that monetary resources are not wasted on the ill-equipped (Cochrane., Tett., & Vandecreek, 2003). Several factors impact the potential success or failure of police recruits, including tertiary studies; efficient communication skills; previous moral and ethical behaviour and psychological adequacy of recruits. However, just two of the...
1422 words - 6 pages
Effective Communication Case Study AnalysisAll organizations at some point most communicate to its external publics, but effective communication often is truly the best way to have an effective impact on the public. Communication is a process and method that allows us to exchange information, share ideas, and receive feedback and a process of interaction between a company and public. Most companies must interact with the public to increase awareness of a situation. More companies communicate with the public more than other companies. In this paper, I will discuss an organization that regularly communicates with its external publics and examine the effectiveness of its communications...
1516 words - 6 pages
Discouraging Crime by Cracking down on Criminal Behavior: Result is Safer Communities
The frequency of crimes committed in many communities result in a heightened fear for those affected by this criminal behavior. More focus is required on the methods used to deter crime to discourage individuals from committing criminal behavior. Understanding of what is sociably acceptable and what violates cultural standards in a community is important. Then society will be able to find suitable ways to deject criminality through means of appropriate reprimand. Despite laws set to punish those who commit a crime, criminal behavior is still present in communities. Therefore, direct focus on criminal...
3366 words - 13 pages
Government policies reflect choices made among conflicting values and many
different people, groups, and institutions influence policy decisions. Police brutality is influenced by many, such as our American political ideals of civil rights and liberties, the political process in terms of the media and our political institutions, one which the courts.
CIVIL RIGHTS:Whats are out civil rights and liberties relating to the public policy issue of police brutality? Our civil rights and liberties are embedded in our constitution and state religion, freedom of speech, the rights to assemble peacefully and to petition the government, the right to bear arms, freedom of the...
1113 words - 4 pages
Community-oriented policing, also known as COP, combines the traditional aspects of law enforcement with prevention measures, problem solving, community engagement, and community partnerships (Community and Problem-Oriented). The United States law enforcement relied on a professional policing model, which was based on hierarchical structures, efficient response times, standardization, and the use of motorized patrol cars. Community-oriented policing began when critics charged that police and the communities they served were alienated from each other. The key element for community policing is the emphasis on the prevention of crime (Community and Problem-Oriented).
Beginning in the...
1662 words - 7 pages
Law enforcement like much of the economy and society has had to adapt to the rapidly changing Atmosphere of the technological advances. To counter these advances, education has served in the forefront to combating the technological sophistication that is rapidly sweeping the workforce. The need and desire to remain competitive with the technology that we have is a need that can be satisfied with more education. Much like technology, education has benefits elsewhere in the equation of remaining competitive. Education on the higher tiered level provides a professionalism to accompany by the demands placed on students during their scholastic years of study. Activities...
3419 words - 14 pages
In discussing the above quotation I intend to examine what is generally meant by police discretion, what constraints are imposed on that discretion and how effective those constraints actually are upon today's police force. Finally, how such discretion is applied in relation to police powers of stop and search, and how effective any constraints actually are.Police DiscretionDiscretion, defined as "the freedom to decide what should be done in a particular situation" , will inevitably befall the police officer as it befalls any person. The difference for police officers is that they are 'obliged' to conduct themselves in accordance with the law they are charged with...
1926 words - 8 pages
"Relations between the police and minority groups are a continuing problem in many multiracial societies. Surveys consistently document racial differences in perceptions of the police, with minorities more likely than whites to harbor negative views." (Weitzer and Tuch, Race and Perceptions of Police Misconduct, 2004)
A great deal of society views law enforcement officers as heroic and honorable individuals, whose main purpose is to protect and serve the community. For many officers, this description is accurate, however for others; violence and brutality against innocent citizens is part of getting the job done. For years, minorities have fallen victim to police brutality based on...
1131 words - 5 pages
Assignment Three: A Case Study of a Modern Social ProblemCurrently the media has discussed a social problem concerning the lack of management and resources available to the police 111-call centre service. As a result a large number of the community are questioning the inefficiency of call centre staff to serve the community effectively.A report conducted by the Australian Police has commented that qualified staffs' are leaving due to the lack of Management skills. The structures of this service are not carried out efficiently and such functions such as debriefing staff after their shifts and work...
1244 words - 5 pages
The Black Panther Party was first formed in 1966 by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton in Oakland California but effects and calls for Black nationalism soon spread to all corners of the country and which settled within the big cities of America; Chicago and New York in which a large population of minorities were deprived and in which they felt unwanted and uncared for, by their own country and its policies.The Black Panther party pushed their socialist programs and a call for social change within the...
1207 words - 5 pages
Corruption can be defined as "the misuse of entrusted power for personal
benefit". It can also be described as letting personal or family relationships influence
economic decision making, be it by private economic agents or by government officials.
Corruption is always kept secret and therefore individual behavior of corrupt agents is
almost impossible to observe systematically in real life. The objectives of government are
vital to the understanding of the diverse negative effects of corruption on the public
service. Corruption renders governments unable or unwilling to maximize the welfare of
the public. It distorts agents' decisions and limits the contractual...
737 words - 3 pages
Use of Force Ambrose Bierce, a social critic known for his sarcasm and wit, once described the police as "an armed force for protection and participation." In this pithy statement, Bierce identifies three critical elements of the police role. First, by describing the police as "armed," their ability to coerce recalcitrant persons to comply with the law is emphasized. Because police carry weapons, it follows that the force they use may have lethal consequences. The capacity to use coercive, deadly force is so central to understanding police functions, one could say that it characterizes a key element of the police role. Second, the primary purpose of police is...
1613 words - 6 pages
Anatomy of a False Confession
Depending on what study is read, the incidence of false confession is less than 35 per year, up to 600 per year. That is a significant variance in range, but no matter how it is evaluated or what numbers are calculated, the fact remains that false confessions are a reality. Why would an innocent person confess to a crime that she did not commit? Are personal factors, such as age, education, and mental state, the primary reason for a suspect to confess? Are law enforcement officers and their interrogation techniques to blame for eliciting false confessions? Regardless of the stimuli that lead to false confessions, society and the...
2215 words - 9 pages
Is Police Brutality Focused on Any One Group?
Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, & Conflict defines police brutality as the use of excessive or unnecessary force by police against the public. Excessive force is explained to be any behavior or force beyond what is reasonably necessary in order to control a situation. It is a common misnomer that people believe some police use excessive force more often than not. What’s more concerning is most of the time people believe that this excessive force is usually focused upon the African American men, women, and children. This misnomer is typically found to be found in city settings where the population consists of mostly African Americans. The...
2346 words - 9 pages
It is human nature for problems to arise any time one side is told what to do byanother. With regard to police abuse, there will be many officers who feel that their job offighting escalating street crime, gangs, narcotics violations, and otherviolent crimes is difficult enough already, and that worrying about excessivepolicy for abusive behavior will only further decrease their ability tofight crime effectively, efficiently, and safely. Citizens, however, havebeen caught up in this gung-ho attitude, and police are more and more oftencrossing the line of investigation and...
2202 words - 9 pages
Discretion is defined as the authority to make a decision between two or more choices (Pollock, 2010). More specifically, it is defined as “the capacity to identify and to document criminal and noncriminal events” (Boivin & Cordeau, 2011). Every police officer has a great deal of discretion concerning when to use their authority, power, persuasion, or force. Depending on how an officer sees their duty to society will determine an officer’s discretion. Discretion leads to selective enforcement practices and may result in discrimination against certain groups of people or select individuals (Young, 2011). Most police officer discretion is exercised in situations with...
1643 words - 7 pages
Policing in the United States has taken on many different forms and facets in the past 50 years. Although, various modes & models of policing styles continue to be introduced, two main aspects of law enforcement have remained constant, (traditional policing & community oriented- policing). There are so many different facets, trends, and new emerging technologies in the wide world of law enforcement. First, we will outline a brief history of the origins and evolvement of policing. Special attention will be lent to illustrate the effectiveness of the paramilitary style of dress, loyalty, and discipline in relation to the traditional style of policing in America; casting particular...
971 words - 4 pages
Generally, crime and law enforcement television programs have been tremendously popular, with constantly elevated ratings over time. More than a quarter of all prime time shows from the 1960s to the 1990s have centred on subjects of crime or criminal justice, which comprise the biggest single subject matter on television today, across all types of programming (Weigel and Jessor, 1999). Drawing on Carlson's (2001) review of the literature, we observe that these studies have characteristically enclosed five main interconnected areas: knowledge of and information on the system, compliance, rights, police images, and violence and victimization. Every substantive part listed...