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Discuss the importance of PLA as a political institution in China since 1978 (25m)The PLA arguably plays an importance role in defining China, being one of the three political institutions that rule China- namely the PLA, Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and the Chinese state. This tripartite relationship surely means that no sector is redundant and every institution has its own roles and has a certain significant value. In this question, we will address if the PLA is of great significance to China- which I believe is true to a certain extent...
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Political fallacies are a prominent aspect of the Canadian political landscape, from John A. Macdonald?s railway scandal, to the recent significant underestimation of the gun registry cost. In each case the initial policy framework attempts to combine personal political ambitions with political policy, a mixture which proves to be insoluble to public approval. In the 1960?s, Canada was introduced to a new type of political leader, a person who was not afraid to mix emotion with policy, who preferred indecision as opposed to compromise . Pierre Elliot Trudeau, Canada?s most popular Prime Minister, left a...
3608 words - 14 pages
Among the many political and social changes that took place ensuing World War II the colonial states declared their independence. As Samuel Huntington describes in "Political Order in Changing Societies" these communities faced many hardships and are still undergoing the difficulties associated with gaining independence. Tension becomes increasingly severe with the topics of ethnicity, language, region, tradition, and religion. Turmoil regarding these issues ultimately undermines...
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1.Executive SummaryCurrently there are three major professional institutions within the UK which represent the interests of professional engineers, the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE), the Institution of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE) and the Institution of Incorporated Engineers (IIE). Each of these institutions represent the professional interests of engineers, both nationally and to a lesser...
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Slavery was like an addiction that the south could not break. Although it provided economic benefits to both the north and the south, the addiction or “curse” bound the people to the downfalls of slavery as well. Slavery created an oligarchy of which a small aristocracy of slave-owners would dominate political, economic, and social affairs of both blacks and whites. The institutions negative impact on the South, and even the entire nation would eventually lead to a great tragedy: the civil war.
Although the institution of slavery oppressed enslaved individuals, the effects were felt beyond the large slave population. Often, “the whites of the [southern] region were also touched by an...
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The purpose of this letter is to apply for admission to the International Relations program of the [INSERT UNIVERSITY HERE] for the Fall 2011 session. I had begun my undergraduate degree at Virginia Commonwealth University in 2005 pursuing a Bachelor of Science degree. During these times, I had taken courses focusing on various subjects. After having completed 100 credits, I gained admission to the VCU Dental School but I had decided to leave the dental school to pursue my true passion in international politics. My first encounter with politics happened in 2005 when I took part in a rally for Kuwaiti women’s right to vote in the parliamentary elections. I have always believed strongly...
1191 words - 5 pages
International institutions, such as the IMF, the World Bank, and the GATT/WTO, have shaped the global political economy for decades and continue to do so now. For this paper, I will be assessing, from the realist perspective, how the role of the World Bank in the global political economy has changed over the past four decades. The main objective is to indicate that throughout the past four decades, the United States has had a distinct influence, using its hegemonic power, on the World Bank and it’s role in the global political economy. From the origin of the World Bank, we can see that the United States, to an extent, has influenced and continues to influence the decisions made within the...
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This essay will look at the role of the institution of the National Public Protector (NPP) as enshrined in Chapter 9 of the South African Constitution with respect to constitutional democracy. Additionally, an analysis of the powers, duties and it’s (the NPP) institutional relationship with the other chapter 9 institutions.
The protection for constitutional democracy is borne out of answering a question dating back to the Roman Empire: “Quis custodiet ipsos custodies?” which translated means “who protects the rights and interests of the individual against possible abuse by persons in public office?” During party negotiations for a new constitution it was recognized that parties would have to...
945 words - 4 pages
In the eighteenth century, Muscovy was transformed into a partially westernized and secularized Russian state as a result of the rapid and aggressively implemented reforms of Peter the Great (1694-1725). Yet Peter I’s aspirations to bring Europe into Russia became problematic at the end of his reign, when his efforts eventually culminated in an absolutist autocracy and an entrenchment of serfdom into Russian life. Paradoxically, it was precisely these two institutions that were beginning to be criticized and indeed threatened by developments in Europe towards the outset of the eighteenth century. As the eighteenth century progressed,...
903 words - 4 pages
Although Lincoln personally believed slavery to be an unfair and immoral institution, he claimed that he "was not, nor ever have been, in favor of bringing about in any way the social and political equality of white and black races," because he believed that keeping the Union together was more important than his personal beliefs. However, as the Civil War progressed, Lincoln was forced to re-evaluate his position on slavery and was enabled him to put forth what he had always personally wished for in the Emancipation Proclamation.Before entering presidency, Lincoln had established...
2376 words - 10 pages
What factors allow a political figure to rise and become one of the most influential figures in history? Abraham Lincoln has gone down as one of the most prominent presidents in the American History. From his inauguration in 1861 to his assassination in 1865, Lincoln was faced one of the most troublesome times in the History of America, having to deal with an institution of slavery that was destroying the American Union and leading the country to its demise through a civil war that resulted in thousands of casualties. As President, he would do the near impossible, and would end the bloodshed between the ideological different north and south to a once again unite America under one union,...
1007 words - 4 pages
ONE FLEW OVER THE CUCKOO’S NEST
One of the main themes throughout the novel One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest is ‘societal repression over the individual’. The book is written by Ken Kesey and based around patients’ lives within a mental institution. Kesey uses the novel to voice his opinion concerning the oppressive nature of control those who enforce the control. Such a repressive feeling is amplified by the setting of the institution, the patients and Kesey’s tone throughout the novel.
The setting of One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest is a mental institution, in the countryside of Oregon during the 1960’s. At this time young Americans began to challenge conformity and live their lives...
802 words - 3 pages
The Confederate IdeologyThe Confederate ideology was the founded on their cultural lifestyle and the importance of the slavery system in their economy. Once they designed their Constitution their ideology was chiseled into stone, they would defend their, "peculiar institution," at all costs."Racial slavery was the most distinctive feature of southern life." Before the war slavery was being established in the South and people lives and welfare depended on the slave system to function properly. This system became the cornerstone of the South's social, economical and political life. Socially, southern "belles," lived in nice plantations and were used to the nice things that a...
708 words - 3 pages
The Arguments for and against Gay MarriageWhen asked if he would support an amendment to the U.S. constitution to ban gay marriage, President Bush said "Marriage is a sacred institution between a man and a woman. If activist judges insist on redefining marriage by court order, the only alternative will be the constitutional process."(qtd. in USA Today). As Helen of Troy was the face that launched a thousand ships, this quote launched a...
2836 words - 11 pages
The Difference Between France and Britain
Scholars from Aristotle onward have proposed that the characteristics
of society directly affect the nature of government. If we apply this
to Britain and France, we shall see that this proposal is definitely
true. The difference between the British and French cultures becomes
obvious when an assessment looks at their political systems, and each
of the 6 structures, and the full range of the political culture's
influence on each structure is understood.
Political socialization is the learning of your political culture; it
is the process of acquiring the values and beliefs of the political
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The public life of political servants is characterized by other duties and obligations than private life. Conflicts can even arise between a person's public and private duties. The central point of this paper is to examine whether this difference of duties can be regarded as an effect of different forms of obligation. Can we speak of a particular form of political obligation in the same way in which Kant distinguishes between ethical and legal obligation, the former pertaining to intentions and the latter to external aspects of the action? Could political obligation be distinguished from both of them, for example by its relation towards ends? The first section develops the thesis that if...
1447 words - 6 pages
This essay is concerned with the impact of institutions of the state on the policy process. Key influences in the Neo-Institutional approach to the study of policy have been the importation of ideas from organisational sociology and a growing recognition of the need to employ historical analysis to trace the evolution of policy over time. I intend, in this essay to examine Neo-Institutionalist theory, and discuss it's relevance with reference to the institutions of Parliament and the Cabinet. Two points though that should be noted are that institutions are seen as central to one of the main policy theories, and that they are seen as 'makers and shapers' of policy.Attempting though,...
600 words - 2 pages
Joel Newbury State/local Government October 30, 2001 The Last Hurrah Edwin O'Conner's Novel the Last Hurrah epitomizes governmental corruption within communities and political structures. The Last Hurrah not only demonstrates the support for this type of institution, corrupt government, but also it's importance within the community itself. The story also addresses prejudice and the theme of ethnic stereotyping through his character development. Today's societies, as well as the period The Last Hurrah discussed, shows governmental corruption as main way cities were represented....
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How the EU represents supra-nationalism which is having authority and jurisdiction above national governments? What institution in the EU represents this trend?
European Union is one the world’s most dramatic examples of economic and political integration. A total of 27 states are compromising their national sovereignty by transferring many areas of their decision-making and authority to a supranational organization. We cannot call the European Union a nation-state because it lacks core responsibility, legal rights and cannot use coercion or punish those who disobey its law, directives and regulations. However, its operation and authority over some economic, political and legislative...
1319 words - 5 pages
Voting is a political liberty of many law-abiding citizens of the United States of America. In terms of voter turnout and voting behaviors, there are two rival schools of thought. This research will examine what factors cause youth voting to be lower than that of older voters. The first school of thought, which can be referred to as conventional wisdom argues that persons under the age of thirty are least likely of all age groups to vote because they feel indifferent in regards to political practices. This causes them to turn out in drastically lower numbers than any other group. The second school of thought suggests that youth voters are not necessarily uninterested with the political...
652 words - 3 pages
Informal and Incidental Learning
Formal learning is a recognized process of study reworded with certificate or a form of special recognition by specific institution. Formal learning is based in the classroom, usually the institution sponsors this type of learning and it has structured forms.
Informal learning includes incidental learning, different locations than classroom such as work place institution, and not highly structured. The learners control their own study progress and they deicide how much they want to learn. Informal learning is usually intentional such as self-directed learning, networking, coaching, and mentoring. Informal learning can happen incidentally and...
772 words - 3 pages
With Davenport University being an independent, degree-granting, school of business, they have been criticized for quite some time about their style of education. Davenport was ahead of their time in the vocational education department and always has been. When Davenport College made the change to Davenport University in the year 2000, change was perceived as a good thing. The school was steady with new enrollments and the "average student" was no longer average. People were enrolling straight out of high-school, and some enrolled...
2495 words - 10 pages
1.1 What is the International Monetary Fund (IMF)?
“The International Monetary Fund is an organisation that provides short-term credit to 186 member nations. The International Monetary Fund works to maintain orderly payments arrangements between countries and to promote growth of the world economy without inflation. It supports free trade in goods and services. To stabilize its members’ economies, the IMF provides policy advice and short-term loans when a member nation encounters financial difficulty.”
World Book, Inc
1.2 The history of the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
The International Monetary Fund was designed during World War II by men whose
worldview had been...
1467 words - 6 pages
In his book Politicians and Poachers, Charles Gibson analyzes the origins and effects of governmental “institutions” on Zambian wildlife policy. Keeping in mind his definition of what an institution is- it’s origins, what it does, and what it represents- one can apply his analysis to the nature of tourism. When so much of the tourist industry relies on what is seen as “authentic” and how it is determined, it is important to focus on how various institutions shape Western and local thought.
Charles Gibson puts forth a definition of “institutions”, on which he bases his argument about Zambian wildlife policy. He says that, essentially, they are the result of “voluntary exchanges between...
1514 words - 6 pages
The Power of The Judiciary
When the founding fathers of our country, and by that I mean the
Federalists, were creating the system of government for America, they knew that
a separation of power would be necessary to protect the American people from the
evils of a monarchy or dictatorship. In doing this, they created the three
branches of government; Legislative, Executive, and Judiciary. The plan was to
have the Legislative make the laws, Executive enforce the laws, and the
Judiciary interpret the laws, and it was Madison's system of "Checks and
Balances" that would keep the three in check. No one branch would be able to
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Society's Major Institutions.There are five basic institutional areas of a society. The major institutions consist of family, education, economics, religion, and political sectors. These will essentially affect everyone's life by shaping their thoughts and behaviors. Each of these institutions serves its purpose to fulfill society's fundamental needs and specific goals for the overall society. All must coincide or work harmoniously to make a society.The institution of family is the most important and is based on the teachings of values, norms, statuses, and roles. The family is designed to guide sexual activity, socialization, and social relations within a sexual union...
1653 words - 7 pages
Albert LairsonPS 1Professor MitchellTHE POWER OF THE JUDICIARYWhen the founding fathers of our country, and by that I mean the Federalists, were creating the system of government for America, they knew that a separation of power would be necessary to protect the American people from the evils of a monarchy or dictatorship. In doing this, they created the three branches of government; Legislative, Executive, and Judiciary. The plan was to have the Legislative make the laws, Executive enforce the laws, and the Judiciary interpret the laws, and it was Madison's system of '
1767 words - 7 pages
THE INSTITUTION AND IBy Jacob Anderson'Paranoia is an illness I contracted in institutions. It is not the reason for my sentences to reform school and prison. It is the effect, not the cause.' Jack Henry Abbott's famous words are the basis for this article. It is why we ask sometimes if institutions really do stand to achieve rehabilitation? Or do they just neglect their visitors?The purpose of an institution is to restore a person to normal life. An institution is any place of change; a hospital, rehabilitation clinic, prison or any place established for the promotion of a particular object. A recurring problem and effect of modern day prison...
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Etymology of Court
In this report, I have attempted to display a general understanding of how the word court arrived in the English language and suggest reasons for its evolution. Much of the challenge has been determining what of the information I could present. Length restrictions and the condition set out, to use The Norton Anthology of English Literature as the only source to show the synchronic use of the word, have forced me to take a more narrow approach. Since court is a polysemic word I decided that rather then dwelling on the changes in all of its senses, I would attempt to acknowledge why this occurred. The latter part of the essay is spent discussing how court has branched its...
2491 words - 10 pages
Every day, all over the world, billions of people strive to embody the legacies of two of histories most influential men; Jesus Christ and the Prophet Muhammad. The death of these prominent religious leaders was devastating to their respective groups of followers, leaving them in the dark and in dire need of leadership, resulting in the formation of two very similar yet profoundly different institutions known as the Church and the Caliphate, respectively. Without divine leadership, and as each grew almost exponentially in size, both religions suffered from division and widespread disunity among the ever-increasing...
1749 words - 7 pages
Educational Reform in the Islamic Seminary of Najaf
Preface: Preliminary Discussions
Chapter 1: The Islamic Seminary with regards to the Shi'ite School of
Chapter 2: Origin of the Educational Curriculum in the Islamic
Chapter 3: The Methodical Nature of Education in the Islamic Seminary
Chapter 4: Beginnings of Modern Religious Reform
Chapter 5: Educational Reform Undertaken in the Islamic Seminary until
The Importance of the Discussion:
The discussion at hand treats one of the more sensitive subjects in
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Chapters Twenty-Seven and Twenty-Nine of the fifth edition of the ASHE reader on Organization and Governance in Higher Education by Christopher Brown, examines the functioning and administrative practices of colleges and universities, as well as, distinguishes between organizational and administrative theory of postsecondary education. Both chapters provide a number of strategic approaches for administrators who are seeking guidance on issues facing higher education in relation to leadership and governance. This journal reflection will compare and contrast these chapters, as well discuss the impact of organizational culture and governance at Northern Virginia Community College...
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America is a society that founded basic human rights through injustice which was widely known as the American paradox. Even though it is stated in the Declaration of Independence that, "All men are created equal," decades ago and often times today, it only applied to what was believed to be the superior race, and that only meant certain groups of people. This American paradox connected directly to racism which included prejudice, discrimination, and institutional inequality defined by sociologists Michael Omi and Howard Winant. America is an unequal society destroyed by individual racial discrimination that led to institutional racial discrimination which led to systemic racial...
696 words - 3 pages
The concept of representation in a political state that
embraces a democratic system is determined by its capability to include
a plurality of views when creating legislation. Election systems in a
democratic government should, thus, aid and enforce
the proportional representation of most politically active members of
the state. As depicted by the International Institute
for Democracy and Election Assistance (IDEA), “The purpose of an
election is to translate the freely expressed political will
of the people into a workable representative institution […] a
government (i) must accurately represent the population and
(ii) must be able to govern effectively.”(IDEA) These premises of a...
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Imagine Sex, Lies, Politics, Grand Juries, and Conspiracies. No this is not a script of the soap opera "Day of out Lives". It is a typical day in the 7th year of President William Jefferson Clinton term in office. The impeachment trial was a major issue in the households of many Americans and the world in 1998-1999. It griped the most powerful man in the free world against his own congress in a battle over whether he was going to keep his own job. And after a long 400 day trial between the Republican Majority and the Democratic Minority. They concluded that they didn't have enough votes to impeach president Clinton. So...
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[To improve your grade, use some examples of how each field used its power and how it affected the people.]When looking at the Mycenaean age, historians still cannot explain the transformation from Greek war-oriented kingdoms to the polis. There is no history or recollection to explain how or exactly why the Greek polis came into being. One thing for sure, though, is what the Greek polis did for its people. The Greek polis was stabilized by a political structure that can still be seen today.The overwhelming characteristic of the city-state was its small size; this allowed for a certain...
1239 words - 5 pages
Justice that is absolutely impartial is a cornerstone of democracy. Judges are the highest officials of the judiciary, as independent arbitrators they are relied upon to perform their judicial duties according to the law and Constitutional principles, autonomously of social, political and ideological concerns.In democratic nations, as that of Australia, it is not appropriate for judges to reflect their society in the performance of their judicial role. Ultimately it is the detachment of the judge which enables the litigation process to fairly administer justice.First of all it is important to point out that judicial independence as the third arm of government, separate from...
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Berlin traces the evolution of black society from the first arrivals in the early seventeenth century through the American Revolution, reintegrates slaves into the history of the American working class, and reveals the diverse forms that slavery and freedom assumed before cotton was the mainstay of the slave economy. You witness the transformation that occurred as the first generations of Creole slaves, free blacks, and indentured whites gave way to the plantation generations, whose exhausting labor was the sole engine of their society and whose physical and linguistic seclusion sustained African...
1326 words - 5 pages
It is unknown exactly when Islam is thought to have spread to the Indonesian archipelago. According to Andaya and Yoneo (1999), there is evidence of the existence of Islam around the eleventh century in the Java regions of Indonesia. Islam was also introduced by Muslim traders who came through established maritime trader routes via Northern Sumatra (Andaya and Yoneo 1999: 175). With the introduction of Islam, came the common practice of establishing Islamic schools to impart the teachings of Islam and to maintain an Islamic culture and identity (Suparto 2004). In the Arab world and Pakistan, such schools are known as madrasa (Turmudi 2006). In Indonesia, it is known as pesantren or Dayah....
1694 words - 7 pages
The political philosophy of Hezbollah, an Islamic militant group and political party is mainly influenced by the external factors. Hezbullah (Party of God) was established in 1982 in first war of Lebanon. “It arose out of an anti-Israel Shia Muslim rebel movement and was funded by Iran and trained by Iran’s Quds Force. Hezbollah has been based in Southern Lebanon since its creation and is now led by Hasan Nasrullah.” (Alagha, The Shift in Hezbollah's Idealogy, 2006). Hezbollah entered the political arena of Lebanese in 1992 for the purpose of taking control of Lebanon and to make the people and world believe that it was not an organization of terrorists instead it was a legitimate political...
2393 words - 10 pages
This growing influence of the mass media and changes in communication has led to the subordination of the power of other influential institutions in society. “This process is referred to as “mediatisation” and as a result of mediatisation institutions in society and society as a whole is shaped by and ultimately dependent on the mass media” (Mazzoleni and Schulz 1999: 247 – 261). This ultimately means a “media logic” has formed. In relation to politics the theory of mediatisation is extremely relevant as it is argued that the media shapes political campaigns and political figures. However others argue that the theory of mediatisation and the media has no influence over politics nor does it...
1396 words - 6 pages
I find the topic of divorce not to be as dichotomous as some might see. I acknowledge the requisites required to define, and those existent to allow the reprehensible in the institution of marriage, as un-debated. There are many factors and premises that the pros or cons of marriage could be argued on, so I will have to pick one. I will argue against taking the action of divorce as anything but a last resort as detrimental to solving some of the few underlying tensions that contribute to its dilemma. For this reason, I will lend my sincerity to argue that divorce in modern days is even more detrimental than that of arguments that would support for divorce as a means of dissolving these...
968 words - 4 pages
Public relations as defined by Merriam-Webster dictionary (2011) is “the business of inducing the public to have understanding for and goodwill toward a person, firm, or institution.” The use of public relations by government leaders is not a new management skill. In the United States public relation by government leaders is as old as the country itself. From the times of George Washington and Thomas Jefferson, there have been public relations issues and political agendas that have been presented to the United States citizens. Early revolutionary public relation issue had to deal with the formation of the United States as a sovereign country and the banishment of the King of Great...
875 words - 4 pages
Breanna PenaflorAP U.S. History P1Ms.Lee12 January 2014In the nineteenth century, the North and the South were of opposite lifestyles as well as economy. The North was undergoing social and economic changes due to industrialization, known as the Antebellum period. Yet the South still clung to their agricultural based economy of king cotton and the labor of slaves, thus it essentially remained the same. Due to this, Congress was continuously addressing controversial matters and providing solutions that could not satisfy the North or the South. These attempts for compromise, that fell short, were those of the
912 words - 4 pages
Slavery allowed the American economy to flourish for over 300 years. It allowed many Southern states to grow at a furious pace without significantly diversifying their economy. The South relied on the harvesting of cash crops such as tobacco and cotton, which were very labor intensive. Without much cheap labor, slaves were relied on to harvest the crops; this provided enormous value to farmers and plantation owners in the region. However, the institution of slavery was challenged in the 18th century by decades of Enlightenment thought, newfound religious ideals, and larger abolitionist groups. After the American Revolution many states would ban the practice of slavery completely and only...
790 words - 3 pages
The American Revolution caused changes in America other than the formation of an independent nation. Not only was there great change in political structure, aspects of social culture, especially slavery, were influenced by the revolution as well. The ideology of the revolution caused a positive step forward by emancipating slaves in both the North and the South. However, a technological breakthrough not only halted the social progression that could have resulted in the South, but even reversed it. This Revolutionary Era began with the circulation of ideas about protecting the rights of man by...
772 words - 3 pages
War has been defined as a period of fighting, where there are open acts of warfare and hostility present. It is a destructive, vicious, violent and senseless process, where in most cases many people lose there lives defending their country or fighting against another. Despite this, it has been present numerous times in the past century. World War I and II, the Korean War, Vietnams War, Desert Storm and the Gulf War are just some examples. It is therefore strange that something as destructive and violent as war could be defended through several...
882 words - 4 pages
Functionalism and Marxism are traced back to theories adopted by sociologists in the nineteenth century. Marxism came from the German philosopher Karl Marx (1818-1883), whereas Functionalism was originally derived by Auguste Compte (1798-1857). It was then developed further by Emile Durkheim (1858-1917).Functionalist theories portray society as a structured system, which have a set of interconnected parts (or units) which together form a whole. These units are the institutions within society such as the family, religion and education. These institutions are essential for maintaining that society...
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Drafted nearly a century ago, the Emancipation Proclamation is one of the most revolutionary documents in United States history. During the 19th century, the United States was one of the few countries in the world still involved in the institution of slavery. Because this document began the movement to banish slavery, it became an embodiment of the anti-slavery faction. The Emancipation Proclamation also gave the North advantages over the South, one mainly being African American soldiers fighting along side the Union Army. The significance of this document extends beyond simply...