1036 words - 4 pagesIntroduction and Summary
Many political studies on civil war have focused on the role that institutions play in ethnically divided societies. While 'constitutional engineers' have claimed that certain rules and institutional arrangements, like proportional representation or decentralization, help divided societies to maintain peace (Lijphart 1977, 1999; Fearon/Laitin 2003; Reynal-Querol 2005), political sociologists have argued that they only reflect the cleavage lines within such societies (Lipset/Rokkan 1967; Collier/Hoeffler 2004). However, most of the researchers' results are neither robust nor replicable across studies (Hegre/Sambanis 2006).
Examining this contradictory role ofVIEW DOCUMENT
1606 words - 6 pagesSociety's Major Institutions.There are five basic institutional areas of a society. The major institutions consist of family, education, economics, religion, and political sectors. These will essentially affect everyone's life by shaping their thoughts and behaviors. Each of these institutions serves its purpose to fulfill society's fundamental needs and specific goals for the overall society. All must coincide or work harmoniously to make a society.The institution of family is the most important and is based on the teachings of values, norms, statuses, and roles. The family is designed to guide sexual activity, socialization, and social relations within a sexual unionVIEW DOCUMENT
1157 words - 5 pages until this point allowed Americans to acquire relative control of their political and economic institutions throughout the years 1607 and 1763.Politically, Americans grew steadily more independent from Britain as the colonies progressed from 1607 to 1763. When the colony of Jamestown was first founded in 1607, settlers relied on the London Company and English government officials. Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, English settlers continued to believe that they were re-creating in North America the practices and institutions of their homes in Britain. However, they inevitably created a very different political landscape in the New World. One of the reasons for this unintentionalVIEW DOCUMENT
561 words - 2 pagesMediterranean politicalinstitutions in places such as Greek and Roman, or otherwise known as Greco-Roman, empires changed greatly from the beginning to the end of the classical period. City-states were a part of Greece while Rome was a republic, but people in both Greece and Rome actively participated in politics. Both Greece and Rome stressed aristocratic rule. Later on, Rome added emphasis on law, and many people that werent from Rome were granted Roman citizenship. Importance was placed on military forces. It wasnt until the fall of Rome that the greatness of Mediterranean politicalinstitutions collapsed.
Greece had a variety of politicalinstitutions. Some places wereVIEW DOCUMENT
2460 words - 10 pagesThe European Renaissance was a period of transition from what was known as the medieval world to what could be called the modern world. Many significant advances in knowledge and thought that greatly affected the framework of society and culture of the modern world marked this time period. Our current cultural, social, and politicalinstitutions here in the United States also have ties to the influences of this time period.Areas of Social ChangeHumanism and EducationThe Renaissance is known for the development and proliferation of the philosophy of humanism. Humanism is essentially based on placing emphasisVIEW DOCUMENT
703 words - 3 pages that of Canada, without a revolutionary war. Throughout the time of hard struggles and confusion, American people changed many of their views and tactics. A lot of political ideas and institutions were improved and fought for.On May 5, 1775 the Second Continental Congress met. There were mixed feelings about what should be done about the continued hostile acts of the British Parliament. Some delegates wanted immediate independence no matter what the cost was. Others were still loyal to King George III and even though they did not like the British taxation without representation, they wanted to avoid an all-out war with England. Finally, they decided to go slowly andVIEW DOCUMENT
591 words - 2 pages her so advanced, was provided by the social, political and economic institutions of colonial America.One of the important benefits that the United States provides today is the social mobility which lets people build up their careers and improve their life status. Moving up the social ladder was an institution of the colonial Americans. They established and supported indentured servitude a system in which the servants who carried out the terms of their indentures received freedom dues in return for their work. TheseVIEW DOCUMENT
1025 words - 4 pagesSince early history, religious institutions that encompass gods, worship centers, and oracles have helped shaped political power in many communities because of the worldview and societal hierarchies they imply. In Chinua Achebe’s book, Things Fall Apart, this is exemplified through its story of the Ibo African village and its encounter with European Christian missionaries. Moreover, Achebe demonstrates how Ibo religious institutions structure Ibo political power through their respected hierarchies that are established by their abilities to affirm their authority, uphold and declare Ibo law, and punish community members who go against their jurisdiction.
The legitimization of politicalVIEW DOCUMENT
984 words - 4 pages time and costs, 5 days and 1.5% of income per capita for U.S. vs. 144 and 35.6% for Venezuela respectively (IFC, 2013). Property rights are another consideration, does the country being considered have strong property rights this is especially relevant for intellectual property. Often emerging companies have expropriated property for political gain (Beyer & Fening, 2012).
Venezuela is a country that has weak institutions that serve as a barrier to entry by a U.S. firm. As mentioned previously Venezuela has a high cost to starting a new business moreover it is a lengthy process. The IFC (2013) ranks Venezuela at 181 among 189 countries on ease of doing business. For protecting investorsVIEW DOCUMENT
846 words - 3 pages and maintenance of international institutions after World War II through the Cold War until today sets standards of behavior, encourages international discussion about ideas, and promotes democratic values, all of which help prevent future war. However the main reason that states join such institutions is for economic benefit in the form of fewer tariff and nontariff barriers to trade. For these reasons institutions link economic and political issues in such a way that states are willing to give up "not just some of their economic sovereignty, but political sovereignty" (Nye, 215) so that peace is a realistic hope.
Post-Cold War international relations focused on preventing a third world warVIEW DOCUMENT
949 words - 4 pages picture when evaluating a complex concept like political development.
An interesting case study is Egypt, specifically the Egyptian revolution of 2011. The grievances of the protesters were diverse, however many fall under the category of politicalinstitutions failing to adapt, and increase in political capacity with rapid modernisation. A generation of relatively well-educated young people, using social media to communicate, demanded changes to the existing political order and long standing practices of politicalinstitutions (e.g. lack of free and fair elections, lack of free speech and corruption). However, rigid institutions were unable to adapt and incorporate these new social actorsVIEW DOCUMENT
1447 words - 6 pages, to understand the relevance and impact institutions have on public policy without defining the terms 'public policy' and 'institutions' would be imprudent. Like so many concepts and ideas in politics, there are many competent definitions, but despite their variations they all agree on certain key aspects. They agree that polices result from decisions made by government and that decisions by governments to do nothing are just as much policy as are decisions to do something. William Jenkins' definition of public policy is as 'a set of interrelated decisions taken by a political actor or group of actors concerning the selection of goals and the means of achieving them within a specifiedVIEW DOCUMENT
1289 words - 5 pages plight to the education of the American public and until the media covers political issues with more detail, the populous will be in the dark.
The idea that these institutions air this particular news programming because of ratings and what people want to see is true. However, it is a common misnomer that the viewer or reader controls media institutions and what they cover. The truth is media institutions control what we think is important by force-feeding the population with information they believe to be pertinent. This information is covered so much that viewers and readers develop an infatuation with the topic. This is why a large majority of Americans are so intrigued withVIEW DOCUMENT
2234 words - 9 pages instability depends on a lack of state legitimacy, Lopez (2009), (c) the financial transfers from central government can cause political instability, Ori Haimanko, et. al. (D) Political instability affects the development and economic inequality, Mark J. Roe, Jordan I Siegel (2011), (e) Political instability affects the redistribution of income, Giorgio Bellettini (1997), (f) Governments can undermine political stability, Yi Feng (1997), (g) political instability Tax evasion causes Sangheon Kim (2008), (h) The dynamics of income depends on political stability and institutions, (i) In South Africa we have examples of political instability and decline of democracy, Jo Beall et. al. (2005), (jVIEW DOCUMENT
1666 words - 7 pagespolitical appeasement produced by resource wealth tend undermine the values of liberal democracy in the developing world.
Special attention must be given to the claim that weak institutions are to blame for this decrease in democracy rather than resource wealth in itself (Lam et al., 2002). I concede that this is partially true, however, weak institutions and the resource curse are by no means mutually exclusive. By definition, undeveloped countries have weak institutions; likewise, countries with weak institutions are generally undeveloped. Since this paper focuses particularly on developing resource rich states, this criticism is not detrimental- but rather complimentary to my argumentVIEW DOCUMENT
2836 words - 11 pages than
structures and procedures, it is all about perception. The perception
of the people includes the values, beliefs and attitudes people have
about their politicalinstitutions and procedures. These values and
beliefs determine the degree of legitimacy to which people attach to
their political system, and give the government the right to exercise
In Britain, the political culture has high trust in the politicalinstitutions, and is non-ideological with very high consensus. It is a
pragmatic culture, any change in the existing politicalinstitutions
is slow, and there is a high respect for tradition in that if
something is ever needed toVIEW DOCUMENT
2393 words - 10 pagesThis growing influence of the mass media and changes in communication has led to the subordination of the power of other influential institutions in society. “This process is referred to as “mediatisation” and as a result of mediatisation institutions in society and society as a whole is shaped by and ultimately dependent on the mass media” (Mazzoleni and Schulz 1999: 247 – 261). This ultimately means a “media logic” has formed. In relation to politics the theory of mediatisation is extremely relevant as it is argued that the media shapes political campaigns and political figures. However others argue that the theory of mediatisation and the media has no influence over politics nor does itVIEW DOCUMENT
1851 words - 7 pages people react towards policy; the number of revolts or riots in the country can also measure it. This affects the democracy in the United Kingdom, however, not enough to be considered the main reason for problems.
Inherited institutions are described as what is inherited from the previous regimes. For the United Kingdom, this is described as imperialism, colonization and even the monarchy. It can be measured in Britain and Northern Ireland by how much influence these institutions still have on the country. These institutions play a large part in the challenge of democracy, but not by themselves. They show through the microscope of political culture.
Political culture can be describedVIEW DOCUMENT
2375 words - 10 pages, the leaders or democratic institutions that govern them?
The question of public tolerance of political corruption has assessed from different approaches. Some scholars, for instance, focus on the direct link between citizens and organization/leaders based on clientelism, nepotism, cronyism, and other informal ways of wealth redistribution (Kurer, O. 1993, Rose –Ackerman 1999 p. 11). Other works approach the problem of tolerance from cultural, religion and even legal system perspectives (.C. C. E. Chang and Chu Y 2006; Johnston M. 1983). These works, nonetheless, show no clear differentiation between tolerance and acceptance. For the purpose of this literature review, however, publicVIEW DOCUMENT
1084 words - 4 pagesinstitutions. Institutions are “Sets of rules, known and shared by the community, that structure political interactions in specific ways” (62). Institutions include both as formally chartered decision-making bodies as well as informal norms and practices that guide behavior such as organizations and treaties. The United Nations is an institution in which states make collective decisions concerning international political actions under a set of known rules. Under the anarchic conditions of international relations, institutions can facilitate cooperation by creating standards of behavior, supplying information, and uphold repeated interactions.
Clear standards of behavior can reduce ambiguityVIEW DOCUMENT
1404 words - 6 pagesThe path of economic development can take many alternate routes and contain frequent detours, however, as each nation develops they must confront the root causes of their poverty and past failures. Economist Daron Acemoglu of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology argues that inclusive political and economic institutions aggregate to form an argument based in historical antecedents of countries throughout the world. Moreover, University of Stanford economist Barry Weingast’s argument relies on the idea of a strong, but never too strong federalist system acting as a catalyst for economic success. While both authors contain numerous historical examples, neither set a precedent that isVIEW DOCUMENT
2009 words - 8 pages
Why Nations Fail by Daron Acemogly and James Robinson stipulates its own answers for questions asked by most who study or engage with development, war and poverty. The central question is – why are some nations strong and others weak? Why are some trapped in perpetual poverty and others thriving in excess? Why do some nations fail while others do not? The authors argue, very basically, that it is “institutions, more precisely the politicalinstitutions that determine economic institutions” (Boldrin, Levine and Modica) that determine whether a nation will succeed or fall apart. They present a variety of important examples and make statements meant to force their audience to really thinkVIEW DOCUMENT
1428 words - 6 pages as rationally as possible given the Dragons are not on the same intellect level.
The Vikings formed a society that’s institutions caused a loss in compassion and was focused on self-interest. Institutions being: “The organizational structure through which political power is exercised” (116). Rousseau believed “that all of society, not just political society, is corrupt” (58). This moral corruption that exists is caused by the formation of institutions that set the basis for a group identity and beliefs, the Vikings. Group identity is, “the degree to which members identify with a group” (56). This identity leads to an estrangement among those who are outsiders. The institutions promote theVIEW DOCUMENT
2899 words - 12 pagesAutonomy, Education, and Societal Legitimacy
I argue that autonomy should be interpreted as an educational concept, dependent on many educative institutions, including but not limited to government. This interpretation will improve the understanding of autonomy in relation to questions about institutional and societal legitimate authority. I aim to make plausible three connected ideas. (1) Respecting individual autonomy, properly understood, is consistent with an interest in institutions in social and political philosophy. Such interest, however, does require a broadening of questions about institutional and societal legitimacy. (2) Individual autonomy can and should be re-conceived as aVIEW DOCUMENT
629 words - 3 pages deterioration in the relationship between the Canadian people and the institutions that govern public life."As the article progresses; though, we see the same shift--from the institutions of government to the actors. Let me read a few excerpts to make that point:Canadian are unhappy with the whole array of institutions ... and the men and women active in them.The people of Canada have lost faith in both the political process and their political leaders.A strong dose of political cynicism characterizes the Canadian public.VIEW DOCUMENT
1112 words - 4 pages conclusions without following the proper investigative mechanism. Additionally Thuli Madonsela emphasised that “…several declarations around the protection of the state institutions and the protection is meant to make sure that there is no political interference.”
Section181 (5) of the Constitution is theoretically ideal for issues of transparency and public awareness regarding the activities of the NPP. Critically, in practice this is seen as a mere formality because the National Assembly does not debate these annual reports in depth and does not provide substantive feedback to the NPP. The NPP is a complaints mechanism with persuasive power in making recommendations and engaging inVIEW DOCUMENT
651 words - 3 pagesInfluence of Colonialism in Africa and Latin America
The institutions of imperialism and colonialism have shaped the face of growth and development of the social, political, and economic forces in Africa. As outlined by Boahen, the extent of the “influence” that these institutions asserted varies and has both positive and negative aspects. Several of these aspects that exists in Africa are mirrored in Latin America, while others differ quite extremely.
An important observation that can be made immediately, is that each positive has a related negative. It is not as if the positive aspects stem from one source while the negatives stem from another, but rather it is as if they bothVIEW DOCUMENT
1048 words - 4 pages people into closer proximity. With people in closer proximity to each other, they exchange ideas. The exchange of ideas helps the social forces because the people will be able to understand what others are thinking. Urbanization brings different cultures into contact with one another.
Politicalinstitutions are affected by consensus by causing them to deal with a larger group of people who want the same thing. The politicalinstitutions must now pay closer attention to the needs of the people because a larger group has a larger voice. High levels of consensus will allow the politicalinstitutions to become more stable because they now know what most of the people want. The politicalVIEW DOCUMENT
1626 words - 7 pagesFor understanding entirely the emergence of modern European states in the fifteen and sixteen centuries it is central to study the trend of representative assemblies to disappear at the same time that centralized monarchies gained power. There is extensive literature on parliament and politicalinstitutions of the period, explaining the decline but also the role they played in the government. This paper describes the issues that determined the development of these institutions using on secondary sources. For the actual answer for the causes of the decline of the parliament is more complex than a swipe of power, the circumstances of the rise of the modern state will have to be examined. ThisVIEW DOCUMENT
841 words - 3 pages How has media influenced public perception of political figures, issues, and institutions? Through agenda setting and framing, media has the power to set the agenda for political discussion by providing public attention to political figures, issues, and institutions. In addition, the media can frame political agendas by influencing public perception and interpretation. (Ginsberg, Lowi & Weir, 1999)
Agenda Setting and Framing
Political Figures and Candidates
In campaigning, media coverage plays a large role for candidates. They use the media to make their name heard and image seen. “Nearly everything a candidate does is geared toward the media, especially television” (Stuckey, 1999, pVIEW DOCUMENT
2309 words - 9 pagesThe concept of Political Parties has been an evolving concept and framework that emerged after the American formation of political parties in the 18th century. Political scientist Edmond Burke, stated in 1770 that political parties are “ a body of men united for promoting, by joint endeavors, some principles which they all agree.” Professor Feigenbaum broadened upon this definition by stating that political parties are institutions that represent diverse yet compatible interests . Both of these definitions led to recognition that political parties develop in a nation parallel to the development of the society and show the nations cleavages and triumphs. Thus, the recent changes to theVIEW DOCUMENT
1791 words - 7 pages the principal of a true democracy. The main emphasis is on the advancement of the nation’s culture rather than political parties. In this type of democracy there is no a political party or political ideology. There is equal representation from all the institutions of the nation’s culture which includes social, economic and religious. The delegates are chosen by merit rather than loyalty, the delegates is the speaker of his or her cultural group he or she represents. Each group’s main objective is the survival of their group and the advancement of the entire nation’s culture. Individualism and collectivism are merged as a single idea and harmony rather than consensus is the goal desirable forVIEW DOCUMENT
1755 words - 7 pages the principal of a true democracy. The main emphasis is on the advancement of the nation’s culture rather than political parties. In this type of democracy there is no a political party or political ideology. There is equal representation from all the institutions of the nation’s culture which includes social, economic and religious. The delegates are chosen by merit rather than loyalty, the delegates is the speaker of his or her cultural group he or she represents. Each group’s main objective is the survival of their group and the advancement of the entire nation’s culture. Individualism and collectivism are merged as a single idea and harmony rather than consensus is the goal desirable forVIEW DOCUMENT
991 words - 4 pages drive research, the collaborations are also aimed eliminating diparities experienced between the content taught to students in higher institutions and the demands of the corporate world.
Th trajectory taken by education policies are determined by government’s perception of the importance of education within a given a given environment. Democratic enviroments promote higher education reforms where institutions are encouraged to engage in developmental discourses freely with little or no interference from the political class. However, in authoritarian environments the political class is always weary of the possibility that higher education can nurture an intelligentsia with ideologoes thatVIEW DOCUMENT
864 words - 3 pagesPolitical theory in it's simplest form is man's belief on not only how politics work, but how they should work. Philosophers throughout history have concerned themselves with politicalinstitutions, laws, and customs; how they are constructed and upheld within a particular society. They've also touched on the various goals and obligations of political action. It is essentially the political philosopher's responsibility to differentiate between what "is" and what "ought to be", within existing politicalinstitutions and potentially more just and benevolent institutions. This distinction of whatVIEW DOCUMENT
1632 words - 7 pagesWhat influence have the rationalist, structuralist and culturalist theoretical approaches had on the study of comparative politics?
Comparative politics is the empirical comparative study of political systems. It involves the classification and comparison of institutions - ‘a rule that has been institutionalised’ (Lane and Ersson, 1999: 23) - in order to determine the nature of political regimes. The study of comparative politics has come to be guided by three major research schools: rational choice theory, culturalist analysis and structuralist approaches; each of which spearhead a distinctive notion over what about institutions affects the nature of the political process. RationalistsVIEW DOCUMENT
1467 words - 6 pages, according to Gibson’s definition, can prove to be very problematic, especially in a political realm. A leader of any sort, in office through election or use of force, who adheres to this sort of government institution, can do little to no good for their country. Such an institution does not have to stem from an individual; “weaker groups could agree to institutions that exclude or punish the interests of groups” with whom they disagree, especially if the opposition wields more economic or political power (Gibson 12). For example, rural Zambians sided with Zimbabwean members of parliament, both of whom were against Zambian president Kenneth Kaunda’s conservation legislation (Gibson 12VIEW DOCUMENT
703 words - 3 pages specifies as the unit of object of both the theoretical and empirical analysis the behavior of persons and social groups rather than events, structures, institutions, or ideologies.It seeks to place theory and research in a frame of reference common to that of social psychology, sociology and cultural anthropology.It stresses the mutual interdependence of theory and research. Theoretical questions need to be stated in operational terms for purposes of empirical research. And, in turn, empirical findings should have a bearing on the development of political theory.It tries to develop rigorous research design and to apply precise methods of analysis to political behaviorVIEW DOCUMENT
1481 words - 6 pages. The situation in the North is deteriorating with low living standards, “akin to those of a sub-Saharan African country,” (Acemoglu & Robinson 71) where private property and markets are not allowed, freedom is certainly not a right, and it has developed a tight and strict economy. On the other side, South Korea has flourished with the help of an anticommunist, Syngman Rhee, as well as with the help from the United Sates. This half of the country has adopted inclusive institutions that included property rights and political involvement. Although they are part of the same country, it is amazing that the North and South differ so much. It demonstrates that “inclusive economic institutions fosterVIEW DOCUMENT
1805 words - 7 pages Sociological Theory
To be able to evaluate Functionalism, Marxism and Interactionism we
must first look at the strengths and weaknesses in each. There are
many variations and interpretations of each of these theories,
therefore for the sake of simplicity only the key ideals will be
Functionalism looks at society as an organized structure of
inter-related institutions; and the various ways these institutions
interact together within a social structure. Examples of these
'institutions' are the family, work, education and religion. The
Functionalist perspective is best understood using an organismic
analogy: 'Societies areVIEW DOCUMENT
2138 words - 9 pages.
This paper will prove how regionalism is a prominent feature of Canadian life, and affects the legislative institutions, especially the Senate, electoral system, and party system as well as the agendas of the political parties the most. This paper will examine the influence of regionalism on Canada’s legislative institutions and agendas of political parties. It will explore the impact of regionalism on the Canadian Senate, electoral system, party system and the agendas of parties. Some will argue that regionalism is not an enduring feature of Canadian life and does not affect any institutions. The Senate effects Canadian life greatly as it is our upper house. It was established toVIEW DOCUMENT
1455 words - 6 pages involvement is not excessive. Therefore, nation-states gradually lose their autonomy passing the duties to supranational governance, which in turn lacks the ability to regulate efficiently the policy-making. Michael Goodhart calls it “disjunctures”, “areas in which states have incomplete or inadequate political control” (2001, pp. 531-532). In addition, such a delegation of powers is often accused of lacking the legitimacy, because “governance functions are carried out by agents or institutions that are not subject to traditional democratic controls” (Goodhart, 2001, p. 532).
Because of this “chaotic, transitional period” (Jensen & Miszlivetz, 2013, p. 62) state institutions and the systemVIEW DOCUMENT
824 words - 3 pages When T.H. Marshall discusses citizenship, he breaks it down into three parts: civil, political, and social. He defines the civil part as “the rights necessary for individual freedom…” (148) and states that “the institutions most directly associated with civil rights are the courts of justice” (148). The political part of citizenship is “the right to participate in the exercise of political power…” (149) and he identifies the important institutions as parliament and bodies of local government. The social aspect of citizenship was the most broad including “the whole range from the right to a modicum of economic welfare and security to the right to share to the full in the social heritage andVIEW DOCUMENT
1197 words - 5 pages state institutions are vested by laws which are allegedly vesting the society from any arbitrary use of power. Finally, what I agree with the authors, is that the political parties are indeed increasingly state-dependent and are even more dependent on public funding since it is a fact that voter-participation is declining, thus they need to exploit any benefits that can be attained to their favour. The oligopolistic notion is sought after by many units within societies, including political parties, but I believe that due to the “control” practiced by the respective institutions in each social sector, it is difficult to promote it (oligopoly) unless these institutions “allow” it to evolve which then would form not only Cartel Parties, but a state-wide cartelisation.
Ashton, Matthew Boyd. An Exploration and Critique of Katz and Mair's Cartel Party Theory
1052 words - 4 pages
Why Nations Fail takes an in depth look into why some countries flourish and become rich powerful nations while other countries are left in or reduced to poverty. Throughout this book review I will discuss major arguments and theories used by the authors and how they directly impact international development, keeping in mind that nations are only as strong as their political and economical systems.
Extractive institutions are used throughout this book to explain that the upper class extracts resources and goods from the lower class. They don’t allow growth or competition, but rather they just exploit the rest of society into doing their labour. It’s used to please a fewVIEW DOCUMENT
1692 words - 7 pages from the legacy of British rule and the Government of India Act 1935 for its constitution, kept the idea of federalism and was also successful in operating its political system within the formal democracy. Except for 18 months between 1975 and 1977 India maintained its democratic institutions. In the five decades since partition, there have been twelve legislative elections and many more state assembly elections. There have been seven peaceful transfers of power between rival political parties at the central (federal) level (Varshney 1998). Since 1967, the party that ruled in New Delhi has not ruled in nearly half of the states (Varshney 1998). A fleeting sample of the morning newspapers willVIEW DOCUMENT
1059 words - 4 pagespolitical-cultural approach to markets. Neil uses the metaphor of "Markets as politics" as the unifying construct which focuses on how social structures are produced to control competition and organize the firm. This potential of price competition is often used to undermine market structures. Therefore, actors try to differentiate their products to form their own specialties to protect themselves from price competition. For this reason, firms often try to cooperate with competitors to share markets, price control, licensing agreements and joint ownership of production facilities, in which the market would be stabilized. Because of this, social institutions are necessary preconditions to theVIEW DOCUMENT
1551 words - 6 pages the necessary resources to attempt to achieve their revolutionary goals*.
Huntington defines revolution as the result of a state in which rapid mobilisation of new groups and social change is taking place while the necessary organisational organs are unable to appease the wants of the people and provide change at a matched pace 430*. The effect of such mass mobilisation and the significant increase in political participation intends to destabilise the current politicalinstitutions within the state. During phases of modernisation, Huntington suggests that such expansion should be matched with similar paced development of politicalinstitutions in terms of their complexity and autonomy inVIEW DOCUMENT
1347 words - 5 pages TRADITIONAL STAGES
In the late eighteen hundreds, Walter Bagehot in the UK, soon followed by Woodrow Wilson in the United States, as well as others, discovered all kinds of informal behavior and organizations with potential power over decisions around the formal structure of political offices and institutions. This introduced a new stage in the development of political science in the 1920s to the 1940s which has come to be called traditional political science (p2).
Methodology in the traditional period paid less attention to theories about how political processes operate and paid more attention to the description and collection of information about political processes. However, a hidden theoryVIEW DOCUMENT
3608 words - 14 pagespolitical stability and the ability of new states to effectively govern citizens through a legitimate political institution. The fundamental challenges that new states face are extensive social change accompanied by rapid modernization; especially when insufficient concern is given for establishing firm politicalinstitutions.The post-colonial states of Asia, Africa, and Latin America are generally complex, heterogeneous societies and therefore rely heavily on a functional political institution. In the preliminary stages of nation-building, social forces play a pivotal role. Social forces include ethnic, religious, economic, and regional groups. Ideally Huntington's political institutionVIEW DOCUMENT