1958 words - 8 pages
Though the drug lithium is used for a number of disorders ranging
from acute depression to eating and personality disorders (Paykel,
1992), it's primary use is for bipolar disorder, also known as
manic depression. Patients with bipolar disorder "between two
poles: depression and its opposite, mania" (Kalat,2004), often
with periods of normal behavior in between (Jamison,1993). In
addition, the patient is also prone to "mixed episodes" in which
symptoms of both mania and depression are present. Intensity of
these episodes can range from mild to dangerous, as in the case of
a manic depressive mother who severed the arms of her 10 month old
1901 words - 8 pages
The American culture today presents a rift between many different lifestyles: to the rest of the planet, we’re known as the fattest country in the world, the creator of fast food and drive-throughs, and as a nation constantly seeking indulgence. Within the United States however, we see a growing trend in fitness and overall health consciousness (although we still have a long way to go). We celebrate the shredded bodies we see on places like Instagram and MTV, and marketing companies have taken notice. The experts tout supplements, pills, and powders as the elixir to a muscular, strong physique. Anyone who regularly lifts weights at the gym will easily notice the protein-shaker bottles,...
852 words - 3 pages
Human Cloning and Congress
Recent months have seen news of biotech advances all along the front: cloned cats, artificial wombs, nascent human-animal hybrids, genetic selection of embryos for implantation, fetal-tissue manipulation--and on, and on, nearly every day bringing some news item about the technology that is redefining what it means to be human. The question is, do we want this redefinition? And this essay attempts to answer this pressing question.
Like a giant jigsaw puzzle as each piece is put in place, the picture of the brave new world of eugenic biotechnology is coming clear, and it is an ugly and frightening picture of designed descendants, commodified body...
1084 words - 4 pages
For centuries, man has been genetically modifying everything from food to dogs by using a process called selective breeding. This process takes the best of what you have and makes more of it, or mixes the best of one with the best of another to see what happens. Even though this process is relatively refined, it is still subject to trial and error. Today’s cloning technology allows scientists to identify the genetic quality that they want to reproduce and insert it directly into a plant or animal, effectively eliminating the trial and error phase of selective breeding. Regulating cloning, or worse, banning it altogether, would limit the progress of scientific advancement...
2309 words - 9 pages
A Marxist Reading of Coriolanus
One popular dissecting instrument of any Shakespearean character is the modern tool of psychoanalysis. Many of Shakespeare's great tragic heroes-Macbeth, Hamlet, King Lear, and Othello, to name a few-have all been understood by this method of plying back and interpreting the layers of motivation and desire that constitute every individual. Add to this list Shakespeare's Roman warrior Coriolanus. His strong maternal ties coupled with his aggressive and intractable nature have been ideal fodder for modern psychoanalytic interpretation. This interpretation, however, falls within a larger, political context. For despite the fact that Coriolanus is a...
2880 words - 12 pages
DeVere or Shakespeare?
Abstract: The debate over the legitimacy of the authorship of Shakespearean works has been disputed for centuries. While many scholars have held beliefs that Shakespeare's works have been written by figures such as Christopher Marlowe, Francis Bacon, William Stanley, and others, the most heated debate today is between William Shakespeare and Edward DeVere, the Earl of Oxford. Each side of this debate has many followers, the Stratfordians, or those who claim Shakespeare to be the true author, and the Oxfordians who believe that true credit should go to DeVere. My paper, far from being a complete analysis of the possibilities of Shakespearean authorship,...
1827 words - 7 pages
The Character of Lena Lingard in My Antonia
Lena Lingard is the best example of a non-domestic central character which appears amidst the domesticity of My Ántonia. Often the sections which feature Lena instead of Ántonia are seen as confusing divergences from the plot line of a novel that purports to be about the woman named in the title. However, since Lena appears in the novel almost as often as Ántonia, and more often than any other character except Jim, she is a central character. Lena is a working woman who refuses to accept the constraints society places upon her. Even when society predicts that by becoming a dressmaker instead of marrying she will fail and become a...
1168 words - 5 pages
Coppola's Adaptation of Bram Stoker's Dracula
The legendary creature Dracula has mesmerized readers and viewers for nearly a century. In Bram Stoker's masterpiece, Dracula, the infamous monster affects each reader in a different way. Some find the greatest fear to be the sacrilegious nature of his bloodsucking attacks, while others find themselves most afraid of Dracula's shadow-like omnipresent nature. The fascination with Dracula has assimilated into all parts of society. Dracula can now be seen selling breakfast cereals, making appearances on Sesame Street, and on the silver screen. Countless film adaptations of Stoker's original novel have been undertaken by the some of the...
1453 words - 6 pages
Coppola's Interpretation of Dracula as a Love Story
The protagonist and story of Bram Stoker's novel Dracula have been widely interpreted and adapted in films throughout many years. Despite almost a century of time since the initial publication, Dracula has maintained its ability to frighten and mesmerize readers. Francis Ford Coppola's Bram Stoker's Dracula; however, utilizes the erotic romance of the original novel in order to depict a tragic love story. The film accurately follows the general plot of the novel, yet presents the characters in a unique manner that provides for a different appreciation of the characters.
Francis Ford Coppola's adaptation of Stoker's...
1185 words - 5 pages
Little Freedom of Expression
Freedom of expression, like the air we breathe, is a luxury that most people in western civilization take for granted. I know I certainly took it for granted when I was in the twelfth grade, and that presumption almost got me expelled. In Cornwall, Ontario this last December the idea of freedom of speech did more than get a young man expelled. He was forced to spend the better part of a month, including Christmas, New Year's Eve, and his sixteenth birthday in jail. Finally there is the case of the former mayor of Mukingo in Ruhengeri Prefecture, Juvenal Kejelijeli, who is desperately fighting deportation to face charges for his "freedom of expression,"...
1585 words - 6 pages
The Psychology of the Serpent in D.H. Lawrence's 'Snake'
Less than 17% of the world's snakes are poisonous and less than half of these are dangerous to man. The risk of death as a result of snakebite is, in fact, lower than the risk of being struck by lightning (Pinney 138). Nonetheless, cross-culturally and throughout the world, the snake is an object of fascination, fear, and respect for humankind. The serpent is a source of symbolic speculation, as it appears in myth, dream, literature, and religion. In nature or otherwise, "it is impossible to approach the creature innocently" (Morgenson 3). As D.H. Lawrence's poem, "Snake", suggests, the snake's invoked power in not a result...
2254 words - 9 pages
The Subtle Truth of Jane Eyre
The role of a woman in Victorian England was an unenviable one. Social demands and personal desires were often at cross-purposes. This predicament was nothing new in the 19th century, yet it was this period that would see the waters begin to stir in anticipation of the cascading changes about to shake the very foundation of an empire on the brink of global colonization and industrialization. The question of what role women would play in this transformation came to the forefront.
Charlotte Brontë's female bildungsroman, Jane Eyre, attempts to spotlight many of the issues of the "woman question" facing this period and to draw a balance...
659 words - 3 pages
An Analysis of Communism
Different forms of government have existed through the ages, including capitalism, monarchy, socialism, dictatorship, and theocracy. Communism is a government that developed in the early nineteen hundreds. The theory of communism is to create a government under which all people are equal. Communism hasn't achieved its goal to make all people equal.
The leaders of communist nations have shown an insatiable desire for power. They take what the workers produce and give back only what is necessary (Orwell 10). Purges took place in communist governments under the leadership of dictators such as Joseph Stalin and Mao Zedong. Under Stalin's rule...
839 words - 3 pages
The Death of Communism
The United States longest and bloodiest war was the Vietnam War, which was fought from 1959 until 1975.(Communist Manifesto 1) In this war 57,685 Americans were killed, and their were over 2 million Vietnamese deaths.(Communist Manifesto 3) One of the main causes of the war was a commonly held American belief called the Domino Theory. This theory stated that if the U.S. allowed one country to fall to communism, those around it would fall, and then those around it, eventually taking over the whole world. However, the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 allows to approach communism in a new light.
The Communist Manifesto has three sections. The first is an...
544 words - 2 pages
A Clockwork Orange is Not Obscene
Anthony Burgess' A Clockwork Orange describes a horrific world in an apathetic society has allowed its youth to run wild. The novel describes the senseless violence perpetrated by teens, who rape women and terrorize the elderly. The second part of the novel describes how the protagonist, Alex, is "cured" by being drugged and then forced to watch movies of atrocities. The novel warns against both senseless violence and senseless goodness - of the danger of not being allowed to choose between good and evil.
Though attacked as obscene in Orem, Utah in 1973, the book does not meet the legal definition of obscenity. While it contains...
974 words - 4 pages
Shedding Fear in Invisible Man
Invisible Man, by Ralph Ellison explores the issues of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness through the protagonist; Invisible Man. Invisible Man is not giving a name. Ellison explores how unalienable rights cannot be obtained without freedom from the obstacles in life - especially from one's own fears.
Several major characters affect the protagonist. One of the major characters is Dr. Bledsoe, who is the president of the school. Dr. Bledsoe had a major effect on the main character, because the Protagonist idolizes him. "He was every thing that I hope to be," (Ellison 99), but the Dr. Bledsoe degrades him when we says "Why, the...
672 words - 3 pages
There are many types of dreams and many interpretations of those dreams. Dreams of power... of glory... of the past and the present... but none are as vivid as those that are found in Ralph Ellison's novel, Invisible Man.
The dreams start occurring in the very beginning of Invisible Man. In the infamous "Reefer Dream", IM talks about a dream he had after he used narcotics. In this bizarre dream, IM hears a speech on "the blackness of black", is assaulted by the son of a former slave, and is run over by a speeding machine. All of this occurs while listening to "What Did I Do To Be So Black and Blue?"(pgs 9-12). This is one of the most significant dreams in the book.
3325 words - 13 pages
Comparing Power and Freedom in Invisible Man and Notes From Underground
The quest for power is an endless one for humanity. Countless tales of greed, strife, and triumph stem from this common ambition. Similarly, men universally seek freedom, a privilege entitling an individual to make independent decisions and express personal opinion. Exploration of the connection between these two abstract concepts remains a topic of interest, especially in the works of Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man and Fyodor Dostoevsky's Notes From Underground. Two distinct definitions of "power" exist: one deals with societally defined power, generally represented by wealth, leadership, and authority...
2177 words - 9 pages
The Significance of Mr. Norton and Fate in Invisible Man
In his novel Invisible Man, Ralph Ellison has developed the invisible man by using the actions of other characters. Through his prophecy, Mr. Norton has secured the destiny of the narrator, himself, and all persons in the novel. Mr. Norton forebodes that the narrator will determine his fate, but Mr. Norton doesn't realize that the fate determined is universal: that every being is invisible and without this knowledge, people are blinded by their own invisibility. The narrator is able to come to terms with this self-realization at the end of the end of the novel, and by doing so, he has become an individual and a free man of...
1988 words - 8 pages
The Misunderstood Message of Aime Cesaire's A Tempest
A Tempest, by Aime Cesaire, has been the center of controversy for over twenty years now. The argument is not concerning whether the play has substance, or whether its themes are too racy; the criticism is about its parallel to another work. The work in question is that of The Tempest by William Shakespeare. Cesaire has been bluntly accused of mirroring, misrepresenting, and misinterpreting Shakespeare's last play. I challenge these critics to research Cesaire and his works, rather than pick apart this most insightful play. It is pertinent to understand a few key ideas when examining A Tempest because Cesaire was not...
3530 words - 14 pages
Comparing the Leadership Abilities of Odysseus in Odyssey and Aeneas in Aeneid
These two heroes have embarked from the same destination but on very different journeys. Whilst they are both Iliadic heroes at the start of their stories, they develop and adapt their manner towards the characteristics required of them to succeed. Before we judge them, it is necessary to determine our definition of a successful leader. A hero from the Iliad must be "a speaker of words and one who is accomplished in action", according to the horseman Phoinix (Iliad.9.413). A leader must have these primary qualities then, as he must lead by example, but to create the ideal we must add to this. The leader...
3356 words - 13 pages
Compare and Contrast the Divine Machinery of the Odyssey and the Aeneid
The Aeneid is a poem of Fate, which acts as an ever-present determinant, and as such Aeneas is entirely in the hands of destiny. The unerring and inexorable passage of fate, assisted by the Gods' intervention, is impossible to prevent and its path does create many victims along the way, who are expendable for Rome to be created. In the Aeneid, mortals suffer, no matter what they do or how good a life they lead and they are unable to rely on the Gods for assistance. However, the Odyssey is a poem of morality, where the good are exulted and the bad are punished ("The blessed gods don't like wicked acts. Justice...
3196 words - 13 pages
Books 9-12 are a tale of a journey in which the protagonist does not remain the same throughout. He changes due to the places he has been, people he has met and things he has done. These four books are almost entirely spoken by Odysseus and thus we are able to receive a first hand report.
At the start his wanderings, Odysseus leaves Troy with his Ithacan fleet and in a short time they come to Ismarus, the city of the Cicones. Odysseus states simply that he "sacked this place" and there they took "vast plunder". Here we see the hero of the Iliad doing what a hero does. At the end of this book, Odysseus declares his identity to Polyphemus, in which he describes...
2262 words - 9 pages
Sympathy for Oedipus in the Oedipus Tyrannus
The aim of tragedy is to evoke fear and pity, according to Aristotle, who cited the Oedipus Tyrannus as the definitive tragic play. Thus pity must be produced from the play at some point. However, this does not necessarily mean that Oedipus must be pitied. We feel great sympathy ('pathos') for Jocasta's suicide and the fate of Oedipus' daughters. Oedipus could evoke fear in us, not pity. He is a King of an accursed city willing to use desperate methods, even torture to extract truth from the Shepherd. His scorning of Jocasta just before her death creates little pity for him, as does his rebuke of the old, blind Tiresias. But with this...
1918 words - 8 pages
The Feminist Subtext of A Midsummer Night's Dream
Shakespeare's works have persistently influenced humanity for the past four hundred years. Quotations from his plays are used in many other works of literature and some common phrases have even become integrated into the English language. Most high schoolers have been unsuccessful in avoidance of him and college students are rarely afforded the luxury of choice when it comes to studying the bard. Many aspects of Shakespeare's works have been researched but one of the most popular topics since the 1960s has been the portrayal of women in Shakespeare's tragedies, comedies, histories and sonnets.
In order to accurately describe the...
1686 words - 7 pages
Death and Love in The Merchant of Venice
Everyone loves a martyr. He's that guy who not only suffered but died for his cause, his passion, his love. Bassanio may not be the most worthy cause to die for, but in Act IV of Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice, Antonio is resigned to do so. In his final words before Shylock is set to extract his pound of flesh, Antonio has abandoned efforts to prevent his punishment and assures Bassanio that the deed must be done for the benefit of all. Despite the grisly and morbid nature of the procedure, Antonio has many reasons to die under such circumstances.
This is the only way out. Antonio devotedly loves a man who cannot return...
1285 words - 5 pages
Glorification of Masculinity in The Lost World
The male ego and the fulfillment of a man's own image of himself can be strong motivating forces behind his actions and behaviors. Society has created parameters used to define a "real" man; failing to live up to these specifications threatens one's masculinity and standing amongst one's peers. These expectations and requirements for manhood are constantly reinforced by society. The prevailing stereotype of the classic "Marlboro Man" along with movie heroes such as James Bond, Indiana Jones, and John Wayne give the impression of the adventurous ladies' man who laughs in the face of danger and can do no wrong. Arthur Conan Doyle's tale...
3529 words - 14 pages
Ethnicity, Invisibility, and Self-Creation in Invisible Man
A community may be said to possess a genuine ethnic culture when it adheres to and closely observes a tradition rich with its own folklore, music, and idiom. In Ellison's Invisible Man, the concern with ethnic identity is strong and becomes increasingly urgent in the face of a "foreign" dominant culture. Ethnicity, as a means of self-affirmation is a possible stay against eclipse, invisibility. Ellison convincingly depicts the persistence of a vibrant African-American tradition. But the struggle against obscuration leads to a greater triumph. His characters achieve a sense of wholeness, as ethnic life is seen to complement...
1602 words - 6 pages
Many people believe that eating disorders are a product of the twentieth century, brought on by teenage girls aspiring to be supermodels like Cindy Crawford. Although such pressures are precipitating factors to many eating disorders, doctors diagnosed patients with anorexia as early as 1689 (Spignesi 7). One early example of anorexia is present in the novel Jane Eyre. Written in the mid-nineteenth century by Charlotte Brontë, this book describes a young girl whose personality bears striking similarities with that of a diagnosed anorexic. The life of the main character, Jane, has also been shown to share innumerable similarities with Brontë's own life. Biographical information from...
1485 words - 6 pages
Narration and Conversation in Jane Eyre
Throughout her life, Jane Eyre, the heroine of the novel by Charlotte Bronte, relies heavily on language and story-telling to communicate her thoughts and emotions. Not only are good story-telling skills important to Jane Eyre as a the narrator, but they are also important to Jane Eyre as a character in her own novel. From the beginning of the novel, we learn of Jane's love of books -- "each picture told a story" (40) -- and of her talent for telling her own stories. As the narrator, she makes sure the reader is fully aware of her thoughts, emotions, and the constraints put upon her as her life unfolds before us.
In the opening...
912 words - 4 pages
Journey to Independence in Huckleberry Finn
In the novel, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, the main character, Huck, struggles to develop his own set of beliefs and values despite the very powerful social structure of his environment. The people he encounters and the situations he experiences while traveling down the Mississippi River help him become an independent thinker in the very conformist society of 19th century Missouri.
Huck is a free spirit who finds socially acceptable actions to be restrictive and unbearable. This is demonstrated after Huck and his best friend Tom Sawyer find a large amount of money. The Widow Douglas adopts Huck. With Widow Douglas,...
899 words - 4 pages
Condemnation of a Patriarchal Society in The Yellow Wallpaper
Charlotte Perkins Gilman was crafty. Taken at face value, her short work, The Yellow Wallpaper, is simply the diary of a woman going through a mental breakdown. The wallpaper itself is the arbitrary object on which a troubled mind is obsessively fixated. The fact that Gilman herself suffered from a nervous breakdown makes this interpretation seem quite viable. This explanation is, however, dead wrong.
The wallpaper is not merely the object upon which she obsesses. The madness that overtakes the narrator is not rooted in any nervous disorder that her husband diagnoses. The wallpaper is actually meant to...
1240 words - 5 pages
The Power of Dillard's A Field of Silence
In her essay, Annie Dillard wrote: "There was only silence. It was the silence of matter caught in the act and embarrassed. There were no cells moving, and yet there were cells. I could see the shape of the land, how it lay holding silence"(396)1. The story in which she talked about the silence of the land was published in 1982, and today, almost two decades having gone by, A Field of Silence, is still able to relate to its readers.
A Field of Silence is a story about one of Dillard's religious experiences. It may be considered boring and confusing to most people, but I found it to be quite interesting. I have to admit though, I...
634 words - 3 pages
The Taming of the Shrew: Katherina - the Woman Formerly Known as Shrew
The Katherina that gives the final speech in The Taming of the Shrew is quite a departure from the Katherina we were introduced to in Act I. This new Kate is modest, quiet and obedient. All of these qualities were not present until Act V. Such a profound personality change prompts the questions how this happened and what purpose do her changes serve?
The answer to the first question, how did this happen, is simple to answer: Petruchio has tamed her. His taming tactics are comparable to that of a military officer and a patient mentor: He is ruthless and unwilling to bend the rules in order to make...
2066 words - 8 pages
Of Mice and Men and Steinbeck’s Life
"If an author does not have at least one great popular success, he or she may well be ignored by the media, but if he or she is constantly popular, then the critics become suspicious of the writer's serious intentions" (Benson Introduction). What do critics from the literary world have to say about Steinbeck's writings? Critics have much to say, both positive and negative. What link exists between Steinbeck and his writings? Perhaps the most noteworthy biographical link between Steinbeck and his writings is that he was born and came to maturity in the Salinas Valley. In this area of California, bounded on the north and south by the Pajaro and...
2037 words - 8 pages
Aristotle and Aquinas
Among political theorists, the debate over the rule of law has been quite intense. From the earliest days of political philosophy through to the enlightenment, there have been varying views on what the rule of law should be. Two thinkers in particular - Aristotle and St. Thomas Aquinas - are perhaps the most influential. On the surface, they both advocate the rule of law as playing a crucial role in society. But upon deeper analysis, one finds that Aristotle's views sharply contrast with those of Aquinas. This essay shall attempt to elucidate the disagreement between Aristotle and Aquinas, by first outlining Aristotle's arguments for and against the...
1729 words - 7 pages
European Perceptions of Africa
Living in the dawn of the 21st century, the idea of economic development permeates third world politics. Perhaps no single issue has raised so much hope, or so much scepticism, as the idea of development. Historically, attempts at economic development have resulted in varying degrees of success and failure. Nowhere has this been more apparent as in Africa. By the 20th century, Africa began to play an increasingly important role in the European economy. In the 1920's, Europe promoted Laissez-Faire policies in Africa, but gradually shifted towards protectionism and Neo-Mercantilism in the 1930's, and finally to disengagement in the 1950's. The...
2246 words - 9 pages
Locke, Aristotle and Aquinas
In the tomes of history, many philosophers have outlined their visions of a perfect society. Until recently however, few have ventured into the waters of religious tolerance. One such philosopher was John Locke. Writing in the late 17th century, Locke advocated a complete separation between church and state. He argued for an unprecedented tolerance of people of all faiths. Although Locke's views became widely popular throughout Europe and the Americas, they did not meet with unanimous approval. Many earlier philosophers disagreed with Locke. Two such philosophers were Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas. Aquinas disagreed in three key respects: ...
2218 words - 9 pages
Language, Action and Time in Waiting for Godot
Twenty-two hundred years before the emergence of the Theater of the Absurd, the Greek philosopher Artistotle stumbled upon one of the themes developed in Samuel Beckett's play Waiting for Godot; that is, that Thought (Dianoia) is expressed through Diction and that Thought (Theoria) is in itself a form of Action (Energeia). Intellectual action is thus measured equally in comparison to physical action. Over the centuries, theories regarding thought, action and language have evolved considerably, but certain underlying themes in Beckett's unconventional work can trace their origins back to Aristotle's original concepts concerning drama,...
3930 words - 16 pages
On the surface, Great Expectations appears to be simply the story of Pip from his early childhood to his early adulthood, and a recollection of the events and people that Pip encounters throughout his life. In other words, it is a well written story of a young man's life growing up in England in the early nineteenth century. At first glance, it may appear this way, an interesting narrative of youth, love, success and failure, all of which are the makings of an entertaining novel. However, Great Expectations is much more. Pip's story is not simply a recollection of the events of his past. The recollection of his past is important in that it is essential in his development throughout...
1697 words - 7 pages
The English Bildungsroman
The novel has a strong tradition in English literature. In Great Britain, it can trace its roots back to Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe in 1719 (Kroll 23). Since then, the British novel has grown in popularity. It was especially popular in Victorian England. The type of novel that was particularly popular in Victorian England was the novel of youth. Many authors of the time were producing works focused on the journey from childhood to adulthood: Charlotte Bronte wrote Jane Eyre, George Eliot wrote The Mill on the Floss, and Charles Dickens wrote David Copperfield and Great Expectations. All of these novels trace the growth of a child. In this respect,...
1185 words - 5 pages
Irony of War Exposed in Dulce et Decorum, Regeneration, and Quiet on the Western Front
Many of the young officers who fought in the Great War enlisted in the army with glowing enthusiasm, believing that war was played in fancy uniforms with shiny swords. They considered war as a noble task, an exuberant journey filled with honor and glory. Yet, after a short period on the front, they discovered that they had been disillusioned by the war: fighting earned them nothing but hopelessness, death and terror. They had lost their lives to the lost cause of war, which also killed their innocence and youth. They were no longer boys but callous men. Wilfred Owen's poem "Dulce et Decorum Est",...
3054 words - 12 pages
Message of Hope in East of Eden, Cannery Row, and The Grapes of Wrath
When I look at Caleb Trask, I see a man from the book East of Eden to admire. Although he was a man with many faults and shortcomings, and a man with an unnatural sense of cruelty, he was also a man who had a deep longing to be perfect and pleasing to his family, a man who craved his father's attention, and a man with a better heart than any other character in the book. When I look at Mack I see a man with more soul and more kindness than any other person on Cannery Row. He isn't ashamed of his poverty or life as a bum, and he embraces who he is, for all of the good and bad. He goes to exhaustive lengths to...
1442 words - 6 pages
The Ontological Argument
The Ontological Argument, put forth by Saint Anselm in his Proslogium, attempts to prove the existence of God simply by the fact that we have a particular concept of God - that God is "that than which nothing greater can be conceived." Saint Anselm presents a convincing argument that many people view as the work of a genius. It is also quite often considered a failure because, in William L. Rowe's words, "In granting that Anselm's God is a possible thing we are in fact granting that Anselm's God actually exists." In other words, it "assumes the point it is supposed to prove", primarily because is assumes that existence is a great-making quality, and...
1470 words - 6 pages
Do I have free will, or is every action I make predetermined? This question has concerned me for a long while. It has been the topic of many family dinner conversations, a topic of research, and a question in many prayers. I believe that this question concerns many people, since finding an answer has been the source of much literature, thinking, and religion. I have, after much thought, arrived at the conclusion of Soft Determinism - the Principle of Universal Causality, that for everything that exists or happens there is a cause, is true, but this principle is compatible with the Condition of Free Action. By Condition of Free Action I mean that a person is in control...
1243 words - 5 pages
In Defense of Hylas and Support of Locke
I wish to defend and support John Locke's "The Causal Theory of Perception" because it is a logical argument with many useful applications. Primarily, this argument allows us to make more objective judgments about the world we perceive - it allows us to more accurately see reality by telling us how to separate the object itself from our own opinions or qualitative value judgments about the object. However, just the fact that a particular theory is useful does not mean that the theory itself is correct, even though that might be the motive for trying to prove its correctness. Therefore, I must also address George Berkeley's argument, put...
2219 words - 9 pages
Descartes’ Special Causal Principle
In his Meditations, Rene Descartes attempts to uncover certain truths about existence. In his Third Meditation, he establishes his "special causal principle" (SCP). Descartes uses this principle to explore the origin of ideas, and to prove the existence of God. I agree that there is much logic to be found in the SCP, but I disagree with Descartes method of proving God's existence, and in this essay I will explain why. I will begin by explaining the SCP, and will then demonstrate how Descartes applies this principle to prove that God exists. I will then present my critique of the SCP, and expose the flaws in both of Descartes proofs with...
1720 words - 7 pages
History is ripe with stories of great men. Hundreds of politicians, philosophers, performers, and writers have left a unique stamp on humanity. But only a select few can be said to have "changed history." The legendary Athenian, Socrates, was one such figure. Socrates ushered in an era of philosophical inquiry that still lingers to this day. In Book Seven of Plato's The Republic, Socrates outlines his perfect regime. According to Socrates, an enlightened "Philosopher-King" must rule such a regime. Now suppose this Republic actually came into being, and Socrates was asked to rule it as a Philosopher King. Would he? Answering this begs three important questions: Is...
1493 words - 6 pages
French and British Colonialism and Imperialism in Africa
Africa is home to countless cultures that all have their own unique ideas and customs. During the past couple of centuries, these cultures were threatened to the point where they almost ceased to exist. The Berlin Conference was a very important occurrence in Africa and Europe's history. It legitimized what the European powers, mainly France and Britain, had been doing for the past hundred years, without the approval of any African country. During the late nineteenth century, France and Britain began imperialistic ventures into Africa, which eventually led Leopold II to conquer the Congo. It was Leopold's II presence in Africa...
1612 words - 6 pages
Effect of European Imperialism on African Women
What effect did the European imperialism in Africa have on the women of both continents? And was this effect advantageous or injurious to the women themselves? Judging by the extremely limited amount of information available on the subject, one could conclude probably a very minimal one. However, upon further investigation, one can see that this effect, although ignored by historians, was very profound and real to the women who lived in Africa in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The majority of the information obtained is about the impact of imperialism on the women of Africa, which is to be expected in today's...