997 words - 4 pages
Should College Athletes be Paid?
! There are many fans of college sports in the United States. Many are die hard
fans of their team and would do anything to help their team out. One huge debate
between fans of college sports is whether or not college athletes should be paid to play
their sports. There are many different opinions out there, and very strong points for all of
them. Ask any fan of college sports, and they will have a very strong opinion whether it
is supporting them getting paid or not. College athletes should not get paid for many
reasons, such as lack of competition, payment issues, which sports will be paid, and...
1540 words - 6 pages
In today’s society, one of the big controversies with sports is, should student athletes be be paid a salary? Some people believe that they should be paid and others would completely disagree. Even though they technically are being paid, they really are not. The only type of way the athletes would be paid is through financial aid or if they have a job. Only their education is being paid by the school. Although some people believe that they should be paid, it would not be a good idea at all. So college athletes should not be paid at all because they are basically being paid to study and play a sport.
Colleges make a plethora of money off of the sports teams and the players do not see...
1543 words - 6 pages
There is currently a major issue in today’s college athletics. Universities and the NCAA make billions of dollars while some student-athletes go hungry. There is a huge debate over whether or not student-athletes should be paid as employees of their respective colleges. Personally, I don’t believe players should receive full-time salaries, but Universities and the NCAA should be required to increase the value of the scholarships that they award to student-athletes. By requiring that colleges provide athletes with an additional $2,000 per semester as part of their scholarship you can greatly increase the well-being (welfare) of the students.
Some people argue about the poor financial...
1600 words - 6 pages
Should College Athletes be Paid?
Most American people like sports. College Sports have been growing up every year and universities and athletes are more competitive every year. The NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) was founded in 1906 to protect young people from the dangerous and exploitive athletics practices of the time and continues to implement that principle with increased emphasis on both athletics and academic excellence (NCAA 2012). The NCAA make and apply the rules in college sports. One of the most pressing issues in Today’s sport world is if College athletes should be paid. Sports such as baseball, football and basketball generate giant amounts of revenue every...
2423 words - 10 pages
Today there are over 450,000 college athletes and the National College Athletics Association (NCAA) faces a difficult decision on whether or not college athletes should be paid. Many people believe that they should and many believe they should not. There are several benefits that college’s athletes receive for being a student athlete. Why should they receive even more benefits than their scholarship and numerous perks?
Today, most college athletes receive a scholarship to pay for a portion or sometimes all of one’s college tuition. So, what does a scholarship cover? According to an article written by Tyson Hartnett, “A $25,000 scholarship covers the basics, university fees, tuition,...
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College athletics is a billion dollar industry and has been for a long time. Due to the increasing ratings of college athletics, this figure will continue to rise. It’s simple: bigger, faster, stronger athletes will generate more money. College Universities generate so much revenue during the year that it is only fair to the players that they get a cut. College athletes should get paid based on the university’s revenue, apparel sales, and lack of spending money.
I believe that college sports should be considered a profession. Athletes deserve to be paid for their work. College athletics are a critical part of America’s culture and economy. At the present time, student-athletes are...
758 words - 3 pages
Should College Athletes be Paid?
Over the past century college athletics have grown more popular than most professional sports. Most of its popularity is due to a large student body in addition to its Alumni, but nonetheless it has surpassed professional sports from its monetary success to its fan support. College athletics are also a very important commodity to Universities around the nation. Next to student's tuition, that's where the majority of the money comes from. No one is more responsible for bringing in that money more than the coach and his/her players. In this notion, one would think that such important people should be paid for a job well done. But this isn't the case....
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A running back slips through the line, breaks a couple tackles, and scampers down the sideline for a large gain. The point guard pulls up for a deep jump shot over his defender and nails it as the shot clock expires. Both of these descriptions can be used to describe either a college athlete or professional athlete. Both are participating in a sporting event in which fans will pack into the stadium or arena. Money is flowing into both the college and professional organization. This is where the similarities end.
In the professional leagues such as the NBA or NFL, athletes make millions of dollars off of lucrative contracts and an abundance of endorsements. They can make as much money as...
2573 words - 10 pages
College athletics are becoming more and more like the professional leagues except for one big issue, money. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) makes billions every year off these student athletes. March Madness is one of the biggest money makers for the NCAA, in 2010 the NCAA signed a 14 year deal worth almost $11 billion with CBS and Turner Sports that would give them the rights to shows the games (USA Today, 2010). Football and basketball bring in the most money at universities, so why not pay the athletes? Especially when the universities, NCAA, and coaches are all getting paid. With all the revenue that football and basketball bring to a university, I believe that...
1202 words - 5 pages
College sports are big business. For many universities, the athletic program serves as a cash-generating machine. Exploited athletes generate millions of dollars for the NCAA and their schools, and never see a dime. In terms of profit, if all ties with the university were eliminated, an athletic program acting as its own separate entity could compete with some fortune 500 companies. So, why do the vital pieces of the machine, the players, fail to receive any compensation for their performance? The answer lies in the money-hungry NCAA and their practice of hoarding all the revenue. College athletes should receive payment for their play to make their college experience more...
2005 words - 8 pages
A question that has been rising to the surface lately is “should college athletes be paid a salary?” One cannot get on the internet now a day and not see some kind of college sport headline. The world of college sports has been changed greatly the past decade due to college athletes. These athletes make insurmountable amounts of money and an unbelievable amount of recognition for the universities. The athletes that provide and make a ton of revenue for the colleges also spend a huge amount of their time practicing and staying committed to sports, and have to maintain good grades in school which requires quite a bit of overtime. Because college athletes generate massive amounts of...
1582 words - 6 pages
Over time the landscape of college sports in the United States have changed drastically. Since it was created in 1906, the format of the “IAAUS” has been drastically altered five times. Not to mention the seemingly constant realignment of teams, placing teams like Memphis in the “Big East” even though they are not located in the east. (Smith, Ronald) The people who are most affected by the atrocities preformed by the NCAA are the players. Every higher up in the NCAA, from the coaches to the president of the NCAA get paid boatloads of money. These people coaches, athletic directors, athletic trainers, everyone involved are getting paid hundreds of thousands of dollars and at the big time...
1337 words - 5 pages
Last September, the NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) cut a deal with CBS for a fourteen year, eleven billion dollar contract to broadcast the infamous March Madness basketball tournament. The NCAA also agreed to include sixty-eight teams instead of the previous sixty-five. Currently, there’s talk again between the NCAA and CBS of expanding the tournament to ninety-six teams- all because of money. Of the eleven billion dollars the NCAA will rake in over the coming years, the players actually playing in the games will not get a single cent profit. According to Martin Manley, a prestigious statistical sports analyst, if each player from the 346 Division I schools split the...
1033 words - 4 pages
There has been a great deal of discussion lately regarding the topic of whether or not college athletes should be paid, and it is a problem that is worthy of discussion. Student athletes dedicate their lives to their schools while the schools are retaining all of the money. Even though their college education is being paid for, it is not fair. The performance of student athletes determines the amount of fan support each school receives. If games are won, fans will support, and revenue will come in. Without the athletes, college athletics would be nonexistent.
Student athletes invest numerous hours into sports. According to Steve Wieberg, Division I football players spend an average...
1997 words - 8 pages
The proposal of payment toNCAA student-athletes has begun major conversations and arguments nationwide with people expressing their take on it. “This tension has been going on for years. It has gotten greater now because the magnitude of dollars has gotten really large” (NCAA). I am a student athlete at Nicholls State University and at first thought, I thought it would be a good idea to be able to be paid as a student-athlete.After much research however; I have come to many conclusions why the payment of athletes should not take place at the collegiate level.The payment of athletes is only for athletes at the professional level. They are experts at what they do whether it is Major League...
1137 words - 5 pages
Should College Athletes Get Paid? Many collegiate athletes put as much if not more time into their sport as they do in their school work. There is has been an ongoing argument about this for a while and there are many for and against it. The People that are for paying the athletes say that the athletes create millions of dollars for the school and should see some sort of compensation for the time and effort that they put into the sport that drives that money. The people that are against paying the athletes say that the scholarships that the...
1615 words - 6 pages
College athletics have been incredibly profitable businesses for many years. With the advent of televised sporting events, the profit margin has increased exponentially. The Texas Longhorns’ football program alone grosses 104 million dollars annually (forbes.com). So, where is all that money going? Most of it goes right back to the school. The athletes who practice for endless hours and devote their lives to the sports get nothing but the satisfaction of winning. So, should Division One college athletes be paid? Division One athletes should be paid because they generate a significant amount of revenue for the school.
For basketball players at the University of Kentucky, their day starts...
1464 words - 6 pages
College athletes juggle busy academic and practice schedules all throughout their stressful weeks, so why shouldn't they be compensated for their time dedicated to sports? NCAA rules strictly prohibits players from being paid for all the hard work they do to protect “amateurism”, but are you really an amateur putting in over 40 hours a week between practice and other activities? Although students earn a college scholarship, that doesn’t cover living expenses, and access to a degree at the end of their career, players should be paid because schools, coaching staffs and major corporations are profiting off their free labor.
The NCAA prides itself as an organization dedicated to safeguarding...
561 words - 2 pages
In the sports industry, many conflicts and decisions develop. One major issue over sports is whether to pay college athletes or not. Some people feel paying college athletes would be a great change, while others believe it will lead to an increase in problems and corruption. There are reasonable arguments for both views on this matter.There are many sensible reasons as to why college athletes should be paid. These athletes are only seeing what everybody else is getting. College sports bring in cash trough ticket sales, merchandise, fees for playoff appearances. When items such as jerseys with...
2345 words - 9 pages
Every year, it seems that we're hearing more and more about NCAA athletes being punished for intentionally making a profit from their athletic careers. The NCAA and colleges are doing their best to stand by the principles on which the NCAA was founded. Since the National Collegiate Athletic Association, more commonly known as the NCAA, was founded as a non-profit organization in 1906(....), much has changed, but one thing that has not changed is the Association's goal, that goal being to protect players from being exploited and ensure their right to fair treatment.(....) In order for the NCAA to uphold their guidelines, universities cannot not pay their athletes. The NCAA and college...
2055 words - 8 pages
For about a decade, the debate between whether collegiate athletes should be paid while playing has been contemplated. Now, the focus has moved from all sports to two specific areas, football and men’s basketball. Sprouting from many court cases filed against the NCAA to some ugly sandals dealing with the athletes themselves. In the 2010 – 2011 time frame, this controversy really sparked up chatter; eventually leading the current pled for sport reformation. Our student athletes are the ones who are at the expense here stuck in between this large argument. Over the past 10 years, there has been minor things done for either side and the players themselves have started taking things into their...
786 words - 3 pages
Should College Athletes Get Paid to Play
Forget about the game-winning touchdown, forget about the cheerleader girlfriend, and forget the pageantry. What about the hard earned money college athletes will never see and earned? In the world of college sports its win or go home, and to the winners go the spoils.
Most successful college sports teams rake in millions of dollars in revenue. Steve Spurrier, the coach for the Florida Gators signed a six year contract where he would make a little over 2.5 million dollars a year not including certain benefits like a free car for his wife. So with the institutions and coaches getting rich off their player who is to say that the...
1787 words - 7 pages
College athletes should be paid! College athletes are often considered to be some of the luckiest students in the world. Most of them receiving all inclusive scholarships that cover all the costs of their education. They are also in a position to make a reputation for themselves in the sporting world preparing them for the next step. The ongoing debate whether student athletes should be paid has been going on for years. These athletes bring in millions of dollars for their respective schools and receive zero in return. Many will argue that they do receive payment, but in reality it is just not true. Costs associated with getting a college education will be discussed, information pertaining...
983 words - 4 pages
College Athletes Deserve To Be Paid
College athletics are some of the biggest and most popular events in the country today. There are many people that make significant amounts of money from college athletics.
However, the athletes themselves do not make any money from playing. If college athletes were paid it would solve a lot of the problems that the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) faces every year as well as improve play and make college athletics stronger.
Throughout the past few years, the NCAA, which was previously viewed as the top basketball organization other than the NBA, has taken a backseat to the professional leagues of...
986 words - 4 pages
Student Athletes Should Not Be Paid
In the world of college athletics there are endless topics discussed daily and most pertain to money. An issue that falls under this category includes the heated debate involving whether or not student athletes should receive money. Many people say student athletes should receive compensation according to their specific needs because they spend so much time earning their scholarship and have no time to work. On the other hand, the stronger argument is student athletes should not be able to acquire additional funds in order to help aid them through college. An athlete knows what he or she is involving themselves in before any money issue is even...
1789 words - 7 pages
"The best argument against paying players is that it diminishes the value of an education" (qtd. in Zimbalist). State University has breached its academic standard by allocating unnecessary expenditures to athletically advanced students. Student athletes should not be paid at State University, because it focuses on an extracurricular activity as a means of profit, praises athletic ability over merit/ scholastics, promotes a bridge between players and regular students, and creates hierarchy between universities.
Student athletes should not be paid more than any other student at State University, because it implies that the focus of this university is that an extracurricular activity as a...
1393 words - 6 pages
College Athletes Should be Compensated
Eddie is a poor boy growing up in a bad neighborhood. He's not too much different from any other boy, except for one thing. He is the most physically gifted athlete that the world has ever seen. His father is in jail and his mother has to work two jobs. Just because there was no way to go to college and impress the pros, the world missed out on watching the greatest athlete that may have ever walked the earth.
Everyday, people like Eddie are forced to drop out of school early because of financial trouble. It is also true that a large percentage of student-athlete recruits are from the low middle to lower class families. If more of these...
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The argument whether a student-athlete should be paid to play or not be paid is one that spans the ages. College sports are considered to be of amateur status by the NCAA. Therefore they believe student-athletes should not receive a pay check to participate in a sport. However on the other end of the spectrum, many critics believe that student-athletes should receive pay for play because not only are they participating in a sport, they are entertaining the spectators. They believe that if performers in the entertainment industry are paid, why not pay the college-athletes.
Are student-athletes considered student-athletes or employees? The NCAA stands firm by the rules that...
1526 words - 6 pages
College athletes now-a-days are getting paid to play like its a job. Although, do they deserve the pay they get or even the pay at all? College athletes do not deserve to be paid because the point of college is to get an education, not a “camp” before the pros.
It has been statistically proven that out of all the Division 1 sports teams, only 45% of them are actually allowed to graduate. Colleges need to focus on the “athletic-students” now. They need to get the “athletic-students”, who are only in college for the sports, to become “student-athletes”, who are students that are good at sports but have school as the number one priority. Although, most people are only looking at the...
1517 words - 6 pages
College athletes have become the foundation of many colleges and universities. The landscape of college sports is changing daily. Without college athletes, certain colleges and universities would not be recognized. This being said, this writer believes that athletes deserve to be paid. Paying football and basketball players will not ruin college sports or cost them to become “subcontractors.” Indeed, the way big-time college sports are going, paying the players may be the only way to save them (Nocera “Let’s Start Paying College Athletes”).The NCAA for instance is taking advantage of college athletes that sign to a certain college or university. The NCAA produces nearly eleven billion in...
1266 words - 5 pages
College Athletes Should Remain Student Athletes
If someone plays a college sport he or she is part of the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Meaning that athlete is a student-athlete and an amateur competitor. To remain eligible to compete, all athletes in the NCAA are not allowed to tryout, practice, or compete with a professional team or any professional players. Also cannot have a contract with a professional team. In addition, cannot receive any benefits from an agent or a potential agent. This means no contact with a sports agent. The most important rule that has to be followed, and the one that is under the most scrutiny is a student athlete cannot receive a salary for...
1035 words - 4 pages
Many college athletes miss classes because of practice, competition and from exhaustion.
For those reasons, supporters argue for exemption of athletes from class attendance policies.
Others argue that college athletes are given scholarships to attend college to play sports. On the
contrary, the focus of colleges is educating students. The question is, should colleges athletes
be exempt from the class attendance requirements? The answer is no and here is why. First, the
education of athletes takes priority over recreational activities. Second, it is unfair for athletes to
receive preferential treatment. Third, exempting athletes from the policies does not allow them to
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Kelsey OlsenMrs. WatkinsComposition I 17452September 7, 2014Why Teachers Should Be Paid MoreI will be using the short story "The Sanctuary of School" to support why I think teachers should be paid more. Teachers are a huge part of a child's life, next to their parents of course. They start shaping a child's behavior and brain from about age 5 to the age of 18 (even longer if the child goes to college). Teachers teach right from wrong, how to socialize, how to read and write, and how to just be an overall better person. First I will discuss how underappreciated a teacher is, next I will talk about the sad truth; how much teachers actually make, and...
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Divine MiracleEnglishOutline10/27/2014Topic: The History of BasketballIntroduction:Hook: Line up, first five players on the court, tip off of the ball and games begins. The crowd goes crazy all the excitement builds up your adrenaline while running down the court.Thesis:1. How it influenced teenage African American's lifestyle and how it boarding to a different race.2. The rules of the game and why they are important3. The communication between the teammates, inter-self and coaches4. The principal of basketball to an individual's...
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Should creatine be allowed in college athletics? College athletics are becoming increasingly popular and competitive as every day goes by. As the competitiveness grows, so does the popularity of creatine. There are facts and examples why creatine should not be allowed, unless it is taken to moderation. Creatine is a natural substance that is created by our body. It also forms a compound that is stored in the muscles that help provide energy during brief, intense exertion (drugs and herbs). It is created in the liver, kidneys and pancreas, also created naturally by eating meat and fish. Once the body's creatine supply is gone, carbohydrates are then used in its place....
1409 words - 6 pages
The Electoral College Should Be Revised
As citizens of the United State of America, one of our most important rights is that of which to vote. By voting, the general population has a say in who its leaders are. Votes for local, state, and even federal representatives directly reflect who the constituents want in office. However, America’s highest office is not elected by a vote of the people. Instead we use a confusing and outdated system called the Electoral College. Our president is not elected by the people, but by 538 electors who can legally vote for whomever they choose. Several times in our nations history an elector has voted against the people’s will. Three presidents have been...
1850 words - 7 pages
My father once told me that he was best friends with a young man named Timothy during all their years in high school. One day during my father’s senior year, Timothy became gravely ill and he was hospitalized. Later, after doing blood tests on Timothy, he was diagnosed with AIDS and was given 3 months to live. When the student body was questioning where he had been, my father announced what had happened to Timothy. The students quickly misconceived that he was actively engaged in homosexual activities. Since my father was his best friend, it was a misconception that he too was gay. After Timothy had passed away, the doctor performed an autopsy and they had concluded that during an earlier...
1120 words - 4 pages
Alcohol In CollegeAlcohol is a huge problem on most college campus's. Twenty one may be the legal drinking age, but some how minors find a way to get a hold of alcohol. People as young as fifteen are able to get their hands on an alcoholic beverage. Alcohol is said to be the chosen drug among college students. College students have a tendency to drink more then the general population. It is said that college students spend approximately $4.2 billion annually an alcohol. This money is spent on 430 gallons of alcoholic beverages, and 4 million cans of beer. The type of college, geographical...
1339 words - 5 pages
Service learning is the name for forcing college students to do volunteer work as part of their college careers. The hope is that this volunteer work will give students a better sense of civic duty, and thus, be a worthy addition to college curriculums. However, this idea relies on the faulty premise that if one is forced to volunteer that one will derive the same benefits as someone who does it out of their own desire to help. Mandatory service learning will not have the desired effect, and should not be forced upon students.
It is perhaps intuitive to think that by making students help others there will be a net positive; there could be no downside to volunteering time and effort to...
2518 words - 10 pages
Every 4 years, our country makes an incredibly important decision. We vote for the person who will represent the US in all domestic and international affairs; The President. Currently, we have many troops in Iraq fighting to help them establish a democracy. We are giving the citizens a right to vote, a privilege that many people claim we are lucky to have. In actuality, how democratic is our system overall? What many people don't realize or care to face, is we don't directly vote for our president. In 2000, the majority of us voted for a President who in the end was not determined the winner. There are many...
1226 words - 5 pages
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On January 8th No. 1 Ohio State will meet No. 2 Florida in the Bowl Champion Series National championship in Scottsdale Arizona but would that be the case if these two teams would have had to play Michigan, Oklahoma, LSU or even Wake Forest? These would be six of the eight teams (including Ohio State and Florida) who would play in a NCAA playoff instead of the BCS. Playoff games are the procedure that Division II and III teams follow to determine the best team. College football is something that I love and hate to see controversy every year; I would like to see the best eight teams compete at the end of the season in a single...
2241 words - 9 pages
Crime is any act that violates the law. Many times professional athletes become involved in crime and it seems that they are above the law. The athlete’s notoriety makes it seem that professional athletes are committing crimes more than average people, whether they are felonies or misdemeanors. Should athletes be allowed back into their respective leagues after they commit such crimes?
Many people believe that professional athletes are “above the law”. In reality, they are human beings like you and me who, no matter what the circumstances, can and will be charged like an average person. The offense of the crime can certainly come into play on whether or not a professional athlete who...
651 words - 3 pages
Should NHL players be able to participate in the Olympics? There are many upsides to this, but just as many downsides also. By the player taking place in the events would they get hurt or cause damage to property?Last Olympic season marks the first time that all NHL players were aloud to partake in the games. The NHL had hoped hockey would be one of the biggest stories of the Olympics. They got their wish. The American team breezed through the other teams. They reached the final game, but unfortunately they lost. Contrast that to the picture left behind by the U.S. men's hockey team, which...
3432 words - 14 pages
This legal research paper is premised on Elisia J.P. Gatmen’s discussions in her paper, Academic Exploitation: The Adverse Impact of College Athletics on the Educational success of minority student-athletes from a legal aspect. The point of this paper is to convey how being a minority athlete can be a double edged sword. To provide some basis on this issue, I will first synthesize and write about the articles I have read that communicate the perceptions of minorities in sports, then explain the exploitation issues with the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) with minorities in athletics, and finally tie in the legal aspect of this issues with some...
892 words - 4 pages
Have you ever wondered where America would be right now if Albert Gore had won the 2000 presidential election, as determined by the popular vote? In the 2000 election, Gore won the popular majority of votes cast for the president in the United States, but because of a system called The Electoral College, George Bush was given the White House. The Electoral College is a system of voting based upon population of individual states: each state is given a number of electors that is equal to the number of house and senate representatives serving that state in Washington D.C. Whichever candidate wins the majority in a specific state receives the number of electors assigned to that state. The...
713 words - 3 pages
There is no such thing as 'free education fully financed by the government'. A zero-tuition college education simply means that instead of the students bearing the cost of attaining their degrees the taxpayers bear it. Students and parents misperceive the price of education, considering it to be free, even though it comes out of their pockets in taxes.And why should low-income taxpayers finance the education of wealthier students? Proponents of state-financed education argue that absence of government help would put higher education out of reach of poor students. But I tend to disagree in that there are no 'poor college students'. College-caliber students possess great wealth in...
828 words - 3 pages
Affirmative action is one of the most recent and popular civil rights policies that is affecting today's society. Affirmative action is an attempt by the United States to amend a long history of racial and sexual discrimination. But these days it seems to incite, not ease, the nation's internal divisions. Affirmative action can be described as nothing more than a lower educational standard for minorities. It has become quite clear that affirmative action is unfair and discriminatory for a number of reasons. One very recent and heated debate is that of using race as a consideration in college admission. Although...
1025 words - 4 pages
College life brings many thoughts to mind friendships, football , pizza, late nights, parties, fraternities, sororities, as well as racial discrimination, binge drinking, hazing and dying. The latter part of this list may not come naturally to most people, but they are frightening realities of the Greek system. Parents send their children to college assuming they will be in a safe, educational environment while enjoying all the benefits campus life has to offer, including fraternities and sororities. They do not expect a phone call in the early hours of the morning notifying them of their child's death. Since March of 2000, over 60 people have died in events associated with...
1331 words - 5 pages
Every Incoming College Freshman Should and Must Be Educated On and Vaccinated For Bacterial MeningitisImagine a college student rising out of bed one Saturday morning suffering from what seems to be a headache. Unconcerned, this student begins the day as any other, hoping a few aspirin will soon alleviate the unbearable pain. By the next day, it becomes obvious that the intense throbbing is stubbornly refusing to subside. Finally taking a friend's advice this student sees a doctor hoping that it is nothing too serious. Within a few days hospital physicians insist this student have loved ones come right away because the condition is becoming more critical by the hour. This college...
897 words - 4 pages
Educational FundingArgumentative on the Dispersal of Federal Educational Funds American founding father Benjamin Franklin states, "If a man empties his purse into his head, no one can take it away from him. An investment in knowledge pays the best interest." Influenced heavily by the ideals of the founding fathers, the United States continues in the pursuit of knowledge, and strives to provide a means to create an intelligent society. Since the birth of the American public school system in the late nineteenth century,...