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Before the emergency of the Great War, known today as World War 1 (WWI) had ended, a new crisis which would fully engage pharmacists had already begun to show itself ? the influenza pandemic. Also known as the ?Spanish Flu? (it was called the Spanish Flu because Spain experienced the first major outbreak) or ?La Grippe?, the influenza has been cited as the most devastating epidemic in recorded world history. More people died of influenza in a single year than in four years of the Black Death Bubonic Plague (1347 ? 1351). Casualties were as high...
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Influenza is defined as an acute, commonly epidemic disease, occurring in several forms, caused by numerous rapidly mutating viral strains and characterized by respiratory symptoms and general prostration. Spanish flu was more than just a normal epidemic, it was a pandemic. Epidemics affect many people at the same time in areas where the disease doesn’t normally occur. A pandemic is an epidemic on a national, international, or global scale. The Spanish flu was different from the seasonal flu in one especially frightening way, there was an unusually high death rate among healthy adults aged 15 to 34 and lowered the life expectancy by more than ten years. Such a high death rate has not...
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In today’s times how do we still have the flu? The flu, or influenza, is a very complex virus. We cannot just give you a shot, and you will never get the flu again. Many other diseases can be cured or prevented via vaccination, but not the flu. Why? If the flu cannot be cured then what do flu shots do?
The Flu is not one strain of a virus; instead there are many strains of the Influenza virus. These strains are broken up into categories such as Influenza A, B, C. Influenza A is carried mostly by wild aquatic birds (Influenza). Influenza B usually only infects humans, and Influenza C infects pigs, dogs, and humans (Influenza). Influenza A is the most common category that crosses over....
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Influenza, also known as “the flu,” is a virus that infects the respiratory tract. Although Influenza is not as severe as many viral infections it's almost the worst for viral infections of the respiratory tract. Typically, when someone is infected with influenza they experience fever (usually 100° to 103°F in adults, but even higher in children) and causes a cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, and also headaches, muscle aches, and usually extreme tiredness. There are sometimes other symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea but usually only in rare cases with young children. One other note: The term “Stomach flu” isn’t really caused by the influenza virus.
The average recovery...
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Influenza, also known as "the flu," is a virus that infects the respiratory tract. Although Influenza is not as severe as many viral infections it's almost the worst for viral infections of the respiratory tract. Typically, when someone is infected with influenza they experience fever (usually 100° to 103°F in adults, but even higher in children) and causes a cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, and also headaches, muscle aches, and usually extreme tiredness. There are sometimes other symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea but usually only in rare cases with young children. One other note: The term "Stomach flu" isn't really caused by the influenza virus.The...
3978 words - 16 pages
The avian influenza virus is a type A influenza virus which is normally found in birds. Wild birds are the natural hosts for all known influenza type A viruses. This includes waterfowl, gulls and shorebirds. Ironically wild birds do not normally show symptoms of the influenza virus however when avian influenza type A viruses are passed onto domesticated birds, they are extremely susceptible to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) with a mortality rate of 90% to 100%1. Avian H2, H5, H6, H7, H8, H9 and H10 are the subtypes that are the most likely to be transferred to humans.
The subtypes of the avian influenza type A virus that routinely cause human influenza are H3N2,...
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Considering the esteem our country is currently being held in, it is a time to check our national defense. One has to make sure that our arsenals are full of bombs and that our shelters are stocked with food. One major threat to the United States right now is bio-terrorism. By looking at past epidemic situations, we can see to what capacity this country has been able to help the ailing masses and prevent the infection of others. Because of the many people across America were affected by the 1918 influenza epidemic, it is a comparable event when thinking about the responses to a bio-terrorism incident.The 1918 influenza epidemic is one of the most devastating epidemics in United...
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In 1918-19 approximately 50 million deaths were a detriment of the Spanish H1N1 virus pandemic; a respiratory virus. According to the World Health Organization, the second Influenza A H1N1 pandemic in 2009 spread to more than 200 countries causing more than 18 000 deaths. Before the World Health Organization had announced the official end of the pandemic in August 2010, in July 2009 the World Health Organization sent out a phase 6 warning that H1N1 could soon be a global pandemic. It is important to recognize that the 2 different outbreaks had different A/H1N1strains effecting the world population; this suggests A/H1N1has a high ability for mutation, severely complicating the...
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The epidemic began at around the end of the first World War and was the most devastating epidemic in recorded world history. Some symptoms of the influenza included muscle pains, sore throat, headache, fever, glandular disturbances, eye aberrations, heart action slowing, and depression of all bodily functions and reactions. The flu is highly contagious and spreads around easily whenever an infected person coughs, sneezes or talks. This global disaster was nicknamed the “Spanish Flu,” or “La Grippe.” The nickname of the Spanish Flu came from one of the earliest countries to be hit hard by influenza; eight million people in Spain were killed in the May of 1918. There were also other...
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“I made money rapidly,” Charles Sligh explained, “The demands for flowers frequently were so great that all the florists in this community exhausted their supply daily, and the prices of everything were very high then.”1 Along with florists, funeral directors, and orderlies were also making a killing during World War One. “The undertaker which was half a block away from me had pine boxes on the sidewalk, pilled high. Me and two of my friends would go down there and play on those boxes; it was like playing on the pyramids.”2 Although business was booming for these professions, it was not because of the war. It was the result of an unexpected killer that swept across the world claiming...
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Case Study: "The InFLUence of the Influenza" The patient Terry B. (Case no.19), has acquired the microbial agent Pneumonia Influenza. The patient is a three year old white male with a headache, lethargy and was running a high fever of 39.7 degrees Celsius. He has suffered from a previous illness of infection of the upper respiratory. Due to the fever, he had a systolic of 110 over 75 diastolic; pulse of racy 100. The fever also accounted for abnormal nasal discharge. A viral agent was concluded by the highly irregular hematology. The WBC (white blood count) was at a high for compensation in immunity. A normal WBC is nine-thousand five-hundred, the patient had a total count of twenty-one...
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The influenza pandemic of 1918 had not only altered the lives of thousands, but the habitual lives of family and work as well. The Spanish Influenza collected more lives than all of the casualties of war in the twentieth century combined. After the disease had swept through the nation, towns that once began their days in lazy, comfortable manners had begun to struggle to get through a single day. What started as a mild neglect of a typical fever or case of chills had escalated and grown at an alarmingly rapid rate to be fearsome and tragic.
The influenza spread through the simplest means of a welcoming handshake, a gentle touch, or the lightest kiss. Anna Milani, a survivor of the...
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Why We Still Get the Flu
This winter, media reports of early influenza (flu) deaths in American and British children sparked a panic that is spreading throughout the United States and the world. People are currently rushing to get flu shots to try to prevent this virus, which can be temporarily debilitating and even lead to death (1). With readily available flu vaccination and medication, it is a wonder that the flu is still an extant disease. In fact, in any given year, the flu kills about 15 million people world wide, more people than are killed by AIDS, lung cancer, and heart disease combined (2). With so much modern medical technology, why is it that we are still getting the flu?
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Influenza, Avian Influenza, and the Impacts of Past and Looming Pandemics
Avian influenza is a disease that has been wreaking havoc on human populations since the 16th century. With the recent outbreak in 1997 of a new H5N1 avian flu subtype, the world has begun preparing for a pandemic by looking upon its past affects. In the 20th Century, the world witnessed three pandemics in the years of 1918, 1957, and 1968. In 1918 no vaccine, antibiotic, or clear recognition of the disease was known. Killing over 40 million in less than a year, the H1N1 strain ingrained a deep and lasting fear of the virus throughout the world. Though 1957 and 1968 brought on milder pandemics, they still killed an...
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Flu: The Imminent Pandemic
Influenza is an everyday disease that affects thousands worldwide. Despite its reputation as a mundane sickness, the flu (especially the avian flu) is widely touted by experts as the propagator of the next deadly pandemic. The secret to this virus’ lethality is its antigenic shifting, leading to increased virulence and transmission factors. If one strain of a super flu begins circulating, millions of lives and billions of dollars will be lost. Only by preparing a national and worldwide response to this threat will we be able to combat this imminent pandemic.
Deadlier than the Black Death, more lethal than nuclear warfare -- this is the modus operandi of the...
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Influenza better known as “The Flu” strikes the world every year infecting millions of people throughout different countries. Influenza is a deadly virus is an extremely contagious respiratory illness caused by the influenza viruses. Flu appears most frequently in winter and early spring. The influenza virus attacks the body by spreading through the upper or lower respiratory tract. There have been documented traces of the flu as early as the 12th century. The flu came back on surfaced the Earth in early in the 20th century around World War One in China. Approximately infecting 20% to 40% of the world’s population became ill. This pandemic...
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The most personal life decisions of every person on this planet are involved when deciding the incentives for sacrificing the future for the present. This rings true when looking at the decision to mass-produce a vaccine to help control the epidemics of the early twentieth century. The first record of an influenza pandemic was of an outbreak in 1580, which began in Asia and spread to Europe via Africa. In Rome, over 8,000 people were killed, and several Spanish cities were nearly wiped out. Periodic outbreaks occurred during the 17th and 18th centuries and continued on into the 20th century as well. The most famous and lethal pandemic was that of the so-called
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A few years before 1918, in the height of the First World War, a calamity occurred that stripped the globe of at least 50 million lives. (Taubenberger, 1918) This calamity was not the death toll of the war; albeit, some individuals may argue the globalization associated with the First World War perpetuated the persistence of this calamity. This calamity was referred to the Spanish Flu of 1918, but calling this devastating pestilence the “Spanish Flu” may be a historical inaccuracy, as research and historians suggest that the likelihood of this disease originating in Spain seams greatly improbable. Despite it’s misnomer, the Spanish Flu, or its virus name H1N1, still swept across the...
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In a press release on June 11, 2009, Dr. Margaret Chan, Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO), announced the H1N1 influenza pandemic had been raised to a Phase 6 alert, the highest possible WHO classification (see Appendix A for WHO Alert phase descriptions). The WHO press release signaled the official start of the 2009 Influenza Pandemic (WHO, 2009) and public health officials, governments, emergency management planners and ordinary citizens may have feared that the world was facing a possible catastrophic event.
It was not until September 10, 2010 that the WHO declared the H1N1 influenza pandemic downgraded to the post-pandemic alert phase (WHO, 2010a). However,...
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In the 14th century, the Black plague killed over 1/3rd of the global population. 200 years later, influenza killed another 15 million. Then, in the early 1900’s, the Spanish Flu infected 500 million people in only two years. Pandemics have affected the world since the biblical era. These rampaging viruses have turned once prosperous towns into lonely ghost towns. Civilizations have been reshaped, cultures and politics devolved, and the hope of nations has been shattered. When will the next pandemic hit? What will it be? What can be done, if anything at all? According to most epidemiologists, we are long overdue for the next outbreak.
The black plague was greatly feared and lethal but it...
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The Indians' New South
Europeans came to the colonial Southeast because of the previous success other explorers had in the Caribbean and its surrounding island finding an abundance of gold, silver, and other treasures. What the explorers found in the colonial Southeast was deeply disappointing to them; there was no treasure there. However, rumors and wishful thinking kept the Spanish searching for treasure, even though they were faced with a hostile Indian presence. The continuing presence of the Spanish in the Southeast only contributed to the immigration of other European nations. This, in turn, provided the necessary platform for Europeans to build on to inevitably dominate the...
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Edinburgh Napier UniversityBA (Hon) Financial ServicesCorporate Risk ManagementAssignmentBusiness DescriptionWe are an International Bullion Trading broker firm. We have another branch in Asia another region, which have Shanghai and Macao. Only Hong Kong Branch has 45 staff, every day has average 200 clients using our trading system to trade bullion. And have average 2000 lots of trading volume per day. Our company involved average USD$200million of cash outflow and inflow per day.Since WHO(World Health Organization) named "Bird Flu" to be the severest influenza virus on the next century. An influenza pandemic is a rare but...
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When one brings up the three diseases: Spanish flu, Black Plaque, and AIDS, what comes to mind? Is it the fact that each of them has killed millions? Or, that they each came at different periods of time on earth? I would like to compare the agents of each particular disease and portions of the world that was affected by these pandemics as well. Additionally, I would like to discuss the symptoms, cures, and potential cures for these diseases.
The Black Death started in the fourteenth century. Relative to world population, it was by far the worst plague. Roughly one-third of the earth’s inhabitants died from it. Europe in particular suffered the most, losing sixty percent of its population...
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The 1918 Flu Pandemic
One of the most virulent strains of influenza in history ravaged the world and decimated the populations around the world. Present during World War I, the 1918 strain of pandemic influenza found many opportunities to spread through the war. At the time, science wasn’t advanced enough to study the virus, much less find a cure; medical personnel were helpless when it came to fighting the disease, and so the flu went on to infect millions and kill at a rate 25 times higher than the standard.
For long before the 1918 pandemic, doctors had been trying to isolate the microorganism that causes influenza. In 1892, one man, Dr. Friedrich Johann Pfeiffer, believed...
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NOTES on :EUROPEAN ROOTS OF AMERICAN CULTURE
Begins with my own, (American Studies) and our nation's education.
years of study, led by 20 years of different type of study
Seen only from the inside out
Idea of uniqueness
Mistakes--such as multiculturalism, isolationism, (anecdote about Kyle and map of Euope --more than 25 countries-- in school)
My students always ask: WHY haven't we heard this before?? And why do my foreign students actually make better grades in AM. History than do natives?
Then also the BIAS against Colonial History....
a. how we divide our history...
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Over the past fifteen years H5N1 influenza (also known as Avian Flu or Bird Flu) has become a common topic of speculation and debate worldwide, causing quite a bit of confusion about its possible impacts on our society. At this point in time it is generally recognized by the international medical community that Avian Flu is bound to become a pandemic, most likely within the next ten years. Research on Avian Flu and its effects have led many scholars to make grave predictions of major global turmoil while a small portion of medical scientists remain skeptical, believing we will have enough time to thoroughly prepare for the outbreak. The one thing that nearly all health professionals seem to...
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After being hired by World Health Organization as a travel community health nurse I was assigned to my first assignment to the South Pacific in an island called Kava. Over 50% of the island is under 15 years of age and the languages spoken there are a mixture of Spanish, French and English. The religions on island consist of Christian, Buddhist, Islamic and Indigenous local religion. Economy of the island depends mostly on petroleum, coffee, cocoa, spices, bananas, sugar, tourism, fishing and natural gas. The identified disaster threats of the island are Tidal waves, Hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, fires, volcanic...
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The news of a New World spread like a forest fire throughout Europe and the race for colonies between Portugal and Spain began. Each country started to conquer the ancient civilizations and exploit the continents raw material. This collision deeply affected all of the Atlantic societies. The conquistadors had a powerful effect that began to create a truly new world in Latin America; the New World would never then be the same after 1492.When Columbus waded shore two ecosystems amalgamated and clashed. When the Europeans arrived, they brought diseases that the
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Colonization of the Spanish in the AmericasLeonce Moussavou10/14/14World History 136.06Spanish Colonization in the New WorldThe Spanish established an extensive and elaborate empire in the Americas, covering the entire western coast of South America, all of Central America, the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of the United States, including New Mexico and Florida. This colossal domain...
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How did the development of European colonies in the Americas alter the natural environment? (The Earth and Its Peoples, 474)
The development of European colonies in the Americas drastically and permanently changed not only the environment of the New World, but also those of multiple countries around the globe. Many species of plants, animals, diseases, and races of people were dispersed throughout North and South America. Important Native American crops such as the potato and corn were brought back to the Old World of Europe and significantly changed diets and lifestyles there. This widespread exchange of plants and animals is referred to as the Columbian Exchange, after...
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Infectious Disease and Demise of the Indians in the New World
The European conquest of the New World was not caused by guns, swords, or barbaric type behavior but by the invisible danger- germs. Infectious diseases have played a major role in shaping the conquest of the New World. Vast amounts of people indigenous to the Americas died due to various types of diseases. It is often said that in the centuries after Columbus landed in the New World on 12 October 1492, more native North Americans died each year from infectious diseases brought by the European settlers than were born (Meltzer 38). Disease was the principle reason for the demise of the Indians.
Most infectious diseases...
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The 15th century was a turning point in the world's history, since the ocean, which was previously seen as an obstacle to reach beyond, was turned out to be a medium to unify the continents. The discovery of ocean is mainly referred as the "oceanic revolution" and it put the study of history in a global context, for power relations were no longer limited to national histories. At the time the Ottoman Empire was the leading figure in terms of power, since it was dominant in the Mediterranean which, as Bender states, formed the core of the world's economy. The Europeans, feeling inferior against the power and the wealth of Islamic world, saw the ocean as an alternative way to claim power....
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A Spaniard by the name of Christopher Columbus set sail on a voyage heading west across the Atlantic Ocean to Asia. This 1492 voyage turned out to be a discovery of another continent, America. Columbus thought that he had reached East Indies, but was in fact, in the Caribbean. The native people that inhabited the island were curious to see these new visitors and came out to greet them. The natives or ?Indians? as Columbus called them were friendly and generous people, giving gifts to the European travelers. Soon after the arrival, the Europeans started to take over and take what they pleased. As more Europeans came to the Americas, the population of the Indians declined in great numbers. The...
2351 words - 9 pages
When looking back on history, it is evident to see that humans by nature are warriors. Humans often find themselves fighting mysterious battles against disguised enemies. Throughout history the earth has been afflicted with mysterious diseases, which tend to invisibly cause the preponderance of civilizations to perish. The evolution of infectious diseases has and always will provide challenges for humankind (Hoff, Smith, and Calisher 6-7). Over the course of time, humans gradually developed a preference to live in large urban settings. Urbanization and the cross-cultural interaction of civilizations have both strongly provoked widespread illness, which is known as an epidemic or pandemic...
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A Critical Book ReviewofFlu:The Story of the Great Influenza Pandemic of 1918And the Search for the Virus That Caused ItBy Gina KolataFarrar, Straus and Giroux19 Union Square West, New York 10003ISBN: 0-7838-9019-2*Note*The eBook version( ISBN: B000056WKX )was used for this paper.ForHistory 233Dr. Terry ChapmanMedicine Hat CollegeWinter, 2003Due: Thursday, April 3, 2003 - 8:00 a.m.Although some estimates run as...
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As students of history in the 21st century, we have many comprehensive resources pertaining to the First World War that are readily available for study purposes. The origin of these primary, secondary and fictional sources affect the credibility, perspective and factual information resulting in varying strengths and weaknesses of these sources. These sources include propaganda, photographs, newspapers, journals, books, magazine articles and letters. These compilations allow individuals to better understand the facts, feeling and context of the home front and battlefield of World War One.
Autobiographies, diaries, letters, official records, photographs and poems are examples of primary...
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Argentina belongs to the Americas, and is therefore part of what Europeans used to call the "New World". When the Europeans arrived in Argentina in 1502, the only inhabitants all over the continent were indigenous people, and although the European colonizers only started showing up in South America around the beginning of the sixteenth century, the lives of many if not all the 20 major groups of Argentinean indigenous people were made different, in a way both positively and negatively. Up until about 200 years ago in the early period of the nineteenth century, all of South America was ruled by Spain and Portugal, which is why the languages that are spoken nowadays are Spanish and...
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Imperialism and Progressivism were focusing more on domestic growth with an indirect focus on foreign policy. The US gained more from staying at home and letting a shadow government run a country of great financial interest to the US and their investors than from taking over countries and running them with US personnel; these ideologies would play a role in the decision to hold off on getting into the Great War right away. On the other hand a worldwide market was opening up and China was becoming a big player, subsequently everyone wanted to get a piece of them. The US being the furthest away yet recently having annexed the former Anarchy of Hawaii, was one step closer. Years later the US...
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Even though it is currently possible to predict most natural disasters and minimize their consequences, major social impacts still have been seen over recent decades. In this essay, a natural disaster is defined as a naturally occurring event that exerts adverse effects onto human society, including those caused by geological factors and infectious organisms. It may result in a wide range of aftermaths, however, only the most prominent ones of these will be examined including casualties caused by a disaster, public health crises and economic depression.
Firstly, the most direct and immediate impact of a natural disaster on a society is the loss of human life. In certain types of natural...
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Expansion to the new world was both a blessing and a curse to both Europeans and the natives of the new land. The first motive for exploring the new world to find a easier and faster way to trade with the Asian countries, but soon after two new continents were discovered it sprouted different motives from everyone. Even though everyone had their own ideas and dreams about the new world they were all ended up with a common goal, to find silver and gold and become very wealthy. Every country heard about and expected to find an unlimited amount of riches. What the Europeans weren’t expecting to find was thousands of different civilizations already living in this unexplored “new world”.
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In 1886 during a speech in New York future President Teddy Roosevelt said; “I don't go so far as to think that the only good Indians are dead Indians, but I believe nine out of every ten are, and I shouldn't like to inquire too closely into the case of the tenth.” Though this was over 250 years after Jamestown and almost four decades after the Trail of Tears Teddy Roosevelt’s attitude toward Native Americans in the late 19th Century seems to have changed little from many of those men and women who first colonized America. After hundreds of years of violence, discrimination and forced assimilation the Native American culture remains endangered and continues to suffer from higher rates of...
1622 words - 6 pages
East of the Mississippi
Early European colonists that came to North America found a sparsely inhabited coastline which gave them opportunities to settle and succeed where others had previously failed. Since many of the pilgrims were in search of religious freedom they saw a land their god had prepared for them by wiping out the natives through pestilence and disease. The fact is that the plague of disease that wiped out more than 90% of the original inhabitants of the northern east coast was brought by European fisherman around 1617, who were fond of the cod in the Massachusetts Bay area. These fishermen would come ashore for firewood, freshwater and to kidnap the occasional native to...
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Thesis: What happened after Columbus arrived in Hispaniola (modern day Haiti and Dominican Republic)? So many people still assume that Christopher Columbus was a hero, whether they know if that’s true or not. They think that he was a man that cannot be forgotten. What humans in the 21st century have forgotten is that Columbus was a nasty man. He was very cruel, especially after his arrival at Haiti, on December 5th 1492, with three ships, the Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria (“Taino Conquest” Latin American Studies). Of course, Columbus had always thought he had reached the East Indies in Asia, due to his underestimation of the size of the world’s vast seas. What he didn’t know was that there...
2439 words - 10 pages
Globalization is a term that has been interpreted in various ways; overall it entails the advancing combination of economics, politics, and societies. From the main definition branches numerous dimensions in which the idea of Globalization can be looked through. The health and environmental dimension of globalization is the most relevant to everyday life. This mostly affects citizens of developing or under developed countries. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is rapidly influencing most every underdeveloped country in the world , resulting healthcare becoming a globalized issue. As a society, there is a belief that people should go out and educate other countries about this...
3569 words - 14 pages
On October 12, 1492 a cannon was ordered fired from the Spanish Pinta by the leader of the expedition, Christopher Columbus. The reason, the sighting of land. Little did Columbus know, he had embarked upon something greater than he believed existed. He had found what was called by Europeans, the "New World", a new beginning for mankind. His discovery of thousands of miles of new, free, and untouched land has made his name one of the most widely recognized to this day.What Columbus failed to recognize was that many cultures had existed on this "new land" for untold thousands of years....
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The Exploration of Hernando de Soto
In 1539 Hernando de Soto and five hundred adventurers began on a journey of exploration that would take 4 years and would travel through 10 states in the southeast United States. His goal was to discover a source of wealth, preferably gold, and around his mines establish a settlement. During his travels through La Florida he encountered numerous groups of native peoples, making friends of some and enemies of others. His expedition was not the first in La Florida; however, it was the most extensive. In its aftermath, thousands of Indians would die by disease that the Spaniards brought from the Old World. De Soto would initially be remembered as a great...
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The Colombian Exchange was an extensive exchange between the eastern and western hemispheres as knows as the Old World and New World. The Colombian exchange greatly affects almost every society. It prompted both voluntary and forced migration of millions of human beings. There are both positive and negative effects that you can see from the Colombian Exchange. The Colombian Exchange explorers created contact between Europe and the Americas. The interaction with Native Americans began the exchange of animals, plants, disease, and weapons. The most significant effects that the Colombian Exchange had on the Old World and New World were its changes in agriculture, disease, culture, and its...
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Throughout the ages great thinkers and men with revolutionary ideas have been changing the world of understanding. During the Renaissance men like Vesalius, William Hervey, and Paracelsus revolutionize the understanding of medicine through the use of dissection and constant studying. However these men did not find change easy, the Christian Church was set in their ways and was reluctant to change. People where dying from unknown causes and the church had no answers. The Renaissance was a time for enlightenment and rebirth of new ideas, but the church inability to adapt and adopt the new discoveries and knowledge of medicine left society in the dark ages.
The Church was not all prayers and...
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I believe disease was a key factor if not the primary factor in the depopulation of Native Americans in the Americas. Throughout time, there has always been inequality during the evolution of humanity. Over the course of evolution, different cultures as well as races have progressed more rapidly and at a stronger rate than others have. The depopulation of Native Americans happened because Europeans had better and more efficient supplies as well as immunities to the diseases that they brought over with them.
While the Europeans were traveling to the New World, they often brought domesticated animals with them for sources of food and livestock. When animals and humans are living in close...
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A Review of The Columbian ExchangeBy: Justin HoganThe Columbian Exchange, by Alfred W. Crosby, is an in-depth look at the biological and cultural consequences of Columbus's discovery of the New World. The Columbian Exchange focuses on the negative aspects of the European exploration and exploitation of the Americas and Europe. Alfred W. Crosby focused on the dependence of different foods, the changes in lifestyles, and the effects that the European...