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Spiritual assessments are being integrated by many health institutions such as hospitals, home health care, long term facilities, and behavioral health settings. In each of these areas comes a point in a patient’s health journey which they may call on other entities for support. Facilitating these needs for patients enhances the outlook on medical treatments. According to Hodge (2013), "Administering a spiritual assessment, as part of a larger bio-psycho-social-spiritual assessment, provides a more holistic understanding of clients' realities, which in turn provides the basis for subsequent practice decisions (p. 223)." Spiritual assessment tools are beneficial for health care workers to
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mastering the art of spiritual transcendence. Is this spiritual transcendence a possibility? My assessment thereof is in the affirmative as a result of my own personal spiritual experiences.Our spirit is the only one capable of receiving inspiration and establishing lines of communication with the spiritual realm. The "clean" spirit or soul, after the body's physical death enters this realm to be with God, Allah or whatever one desires to call him/it, which is a spiritual collective society of souls or spirits; a government, the Ultimate Purity consisting of Pure Intelligence, Pure Logic, the Supreme Spirit.Let us hope that man will eventually progress intellectually and evolve to a point
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the patient is still a child or disoriented or even unconscious the secondary source of data are the patient’s health archives or family members. (Roper, Logan, Tierany, 1996. p52).Assessing should preferably be carried out initially in the patient’s stay in the health service, but in reality it is not often likely to gather extensive information within the first few hours of the patient’s admission to the hospital. (Roper, Logan, Tierany, 1996 p53)
There are two types of nursing assessment; Data base assessment and a focus assessment. During data bases assessment, one gathers information regarding the patient’s physical, emotional, social and spiritual health. This data is obtained during
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delivery of morally and ethically sound care. An awareness of institutional racism and its impact on the patient population will heighten awareness of the diverse populations served (Cully, (2001), Journal of Advanced Nursing and Levine, (2002), American Outlook). This is one example of the thoughtfulness provoked by the assessment tool and a way to implement the information.
The spiritual needs of the patient can have far reaching impact on the care of the patient. Spiritual and religious are not synonymous. An Agnostic’s strong spiritual beliefs may rival that of a Pentecostal Deacon with regard to the importance of the need to support those beliefs in the course of the healing process
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Spiritual health is the capacity and ability to seek, experience, and express meaning and purpose in our lives often through love, hope, gratitude, forgiveness, peace, and community in order to enjoy a sense of the Sacred (as you understand it). Spiritual health provides the sense that life is meaningful and has a purpose and is defined by the ethics, morals and values that guide you and give meaning and direction to your life.
Certain spiritual practices can help us care for our spiritual health. Our spiritual health needs attention and intention just as much as our physical and social and mental health. There are varieties of spiritual practices geared towards different strengths
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first priority of care and are required to maintain positive health and well-being (Pearson, 2013). Examples of physiological needs include oxygen, adequate intake of fluids and nutrition, maintaining correct body temperature, shelter, sex, and regular elimination of waste (McLeod, 2007; Pearson, 2013). For a nurse to meet these needs and demonstrate they care for their patients, performance of physical tasks is required. Examples of physical tasks to be undertaken by a nurse may include making general observations or vital signs, performing pain assessment and hygiene (Thomas, 2011). Although meeting the basic physiological needs of a patient promotes an improvement in a patient’s health
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(Hagedorn & Moorhead, 2011). The first consideration being whether you can work at all with clients who have spiritual/religious concerns. Counselors may have concerns about religion/spirituality, maybe the relevancy of religion/spirituality is not seen in the client’s presenting issues or maybe as a result of past experience or personal belief. Next, is the assessment of client’s spectrum of spiritual concerns. Some client’s concerns are specific to their current spiritual practices and beliefs. For example, “How can God allow me to experience so much pain?” Lastly, another consideration is whether counselor should disclose their religious/spiritual beliefs to client. This decision should be
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DISCUSS HOW THE FIVE PHASES OF NURSING PROCESS MAY BE USED TO PROVIDE EFFECTIVE NURSING CARE
The nursing process is “An organised, systematic and deliberate approach to nursing with the aim of improving standards in nursing care” (Rush S, Fergy S & Weels D, 1996).The five steps of the nursing process are assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation and evaluating. It was developed by Ida Jean in Florida, USA in 1958 and it was transferred to the UK by 1970.The ‘process ‘is neither a ‘model ‘nor a ‘philosophy’ as it is sometimes defined but merely a method of reasonable discerning and it needs to be used with a clear nursing model. This is foundation for
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swallowed by the devil (1 Peter 5:8). Victory
Over the devil was already promised to the believers, but it does not mean that this victory
And unconditional in all circumstances. Because our enemies are the spirits of the ways of
the flesh and will not be a lot of beneficial social change a community. This is a general
or course an assessment, in other words it is possible both methods used by him as an early
Success. The law is a spiritual battle spirit be dealt with spirits is the ruling spirits over
Community that we want to save must be defeated first, before mentally and physically
In battle, you cannot take a neutral stance and we have to know and be sure that
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Most often the common assessment approach to assess spirituality is verbally based. The Social Worker will ask many questions to get a sense of how the Native client sees spirituality. Limb & Hodge, (2007) say this direct verbal communication can be problematic for Native American clients who, culturally, are used to more non direct and nonverbal communication. Assessing the spirituality of the Native American client in a different way would be very important in the assessment process.
The first tool I found that could be used to assess spirituality would be an eco-map. The eco-map can be tailored to explore the spiritual dimensions of an
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, consideration on the patient’s healing process should always be respected and accommodated. In the health care setting, health care providers often encounter individuals with different religious belief, culture and nationality. These beliefs sometimes might be the same as that of the healthcare provider and at times, it might differ. Yet, it the responsibility of the provider to address and help patients on issues regarding their physical, emotional and spiritual needs, thus provides a compassionate, respectful and loving care to the patients in such a way that their ill-health can be eased or even become bearable for them (Suzanne, 2008). The healthcare providers should always promote the
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). Exploring the meaning behind a painful event or coming to terms with an existential crisis are both a part of the spirituality field. Lukoff asserts that the spiritual dimensions of life reflect some of the most significant cultural aspects framing human experience. Belief system and values tend to be incorporated within a continuum of the cultural and spiritual backdrop. (Lukoff, 13) According to Stanard, treating various medical and psychological conditions may require that the assessment of one's spirituality be considered. They suggest that the impact of spirituality has resurged and is becoming a salient and dynamic force in counseling and psychology. Thus, spirituality and religion are
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In the early 1970’s, Betty Neuman created a holistically based, open-system theory to aid nurses in organizing the voluminous information needed to deal with complex client situations (Meleis, 2007, p.307). One component of the Neuman Systems Model is spirituality, which is described as being related to beliefs and influences that are spiritual. It should be noted that this was absent in her initial conceptualization and was developed later (Meleis, 2007, p.307). While utilizing the Neuman framework for client assessment, religion is often applied as a spiritual factor. Using this theory as basis one might conclude that religion and spirituality are synonymous in concept. This begs the
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givers and support her. Mrs. J is still smoking and wants to go back home. The spiritual belief variables are: Mrs. J still believes in God, prays for her family and church members and pastors still visit.
After completing the history data, assessment, and physical examination: the case manager was able to identify Mrs. J stressors and variables. The case manager in collaboration with the family, nursing staff, and other multidisciplinary staff implemented a discharge plan of care for the client. Melesis (2007) noted that, “the nurse’s work begins with a careful assessment of the client and plans for the appropriate intervention by focusing on the needs, resources, the problems, or
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intimidate the patient through unconscious behaviours or inconsideration comments. Therefore, nurses must use empathy, compassion, be understanding, be non-judgemental and they must be active listeners to develop a rapport and build trust with the patient (Usher, Foster & Luck 2009). Once all of the assessments listed below have been completed Sarah will be referred to a specialist for a full assessment and diagnosis.The biopsychosocial model of assessment provides a comprehensive evaluation of the patient. It allows information regarding the biological, psychological, sociological, developmental, spiritual and cultural aspects of the patient to be collected (Barling 2009). This assessment
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, teaching-learning, environment, and human needs. Watson also created the Caritas Process consists of ten different ways of giving care:
1. Practice loving kindness with self and others.
2. Instill faith and hope and honor others.
3. Be sensitive to self and others by nurturing individual beliefs and practices.
4. Develop helping – trusting- caring relationships.
5. Promote and accept positive and negative feelings as you authentically listen.
6. Use creative scientific problem-solving methods for caring decision making.
7. Share teaching and learning that addresses the individual needs and comprehension styles.
8. Create a healing environment for the physical and spiritual self, which
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care through therapeutic; (source) . this can be demonstrated holistically through strategies such as understanding the nature of a chronic illness with appropriate means of care and guiding a client through behavioral, developmental, emotional , spiritual changes. Another role of the psychiatric nurse is to carry out effective assessment, diagnosis and monitoring (source pg 152). With understanding and with comprehensive assessment strategies, the nurse is able to collect data from the combined biological, psychological, and social data and meet holistic needs of a client.
In a biophyscholical assessment, the understanding nature of a chronic illness is meeting the patient
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persist and impact the child’s physical, emotional and spiritual development as well as their social relationships making them isolated (Arnold et al., 1999).
Overtime, because of this growing national concern, On June 4, 1997, amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) became law (P.L. 105-17). These amendments introduced several new concepts which are specifically important to children’s education particularly those whose behaviors violate school codes of conduct or are outside the concept of socially acceptable behavioral norms: (a) positive behavioral support (PBS) and (b) functional behavioral assessment (FBA) ( “Public law”, 1999) . Functional Behavioral
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Personal Principles and Values
A personal principle that I must live by is to never limit your potential, and spiritual guidance will direct you in the right path. Another personal principle is to also learn and grow. People will make mistakes, but you have to learn from them to make smarter decision. I don’t believe that anyone should set limit for themselves. I believe that persistence is the best way to attain what you want out of life. The Nike slogan, “Just Do It” installs a deep value. The reward of one’s hard work is enticing on the outside, but it takes commitment within to reach success. There will be obstacles when you’re striving for success. How a person handles their obstacle
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The nursing process is “An organised, systematic and deliberate approach to nursing with the aim of improving standards in nursing care” (Rush S, Fergy S &Weels D, 1996).The five steps of the nursing process are assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation and evaluating. It was developed by Ida Jean in Florida, USA in 1958 and it was transferred to the UK by 1970.The ‘process ‘is neither a ‘model ‘nor a ‘philosophy’ as it is sometimes defined but merely a method of reasonable discerning and it needs to be used with a clear nursing model. This is foundation for integrating the development into our model for ideal nursing. Throughout the process the patient’s
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and content of the lesson or to go for more flexibility is a decision which does not just depend on the experience and security of the teacher but has to do with the fundamental beliefs about how people learn.Fleming: Starting Drama Teaching (1994, p.49)It is important that with our planning we bear the assessment and tracking of progress/assessment in mind so that we constantly have a focus for our drama lessons. We have also discussed briefly the need to apply our teaching to 'multi-sensory' learners through right-brain and left-brain learning, visual, auditory and kinaesthetic students. As an extension to this, Special Educational Needs should also be taken into account. However, this
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of Henderson’s theory are mostly physiological, or having to do with the normal functioning of the individual. The tenth and fourteenth consist of the mental features of learning and communication. The eleventh component encompasses the spiritual and moral needs of the individual, and the twelfth and thirteenth are geared towards occupation and recreational needs (Vandemark, 2006). Together, the theory's definition and 14 basic needs provide a logical and clear guide for nurses to reach the attainable goal of providing stability and gaining independence for the patient. While the theory itself is relatively simple, the organization allows generality and can be applied to the health of all
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Social work has a crucial part to play within mental health services and mental health outcomes for individuals, families and communities. Across multidisciplinary organizations, social workers may provide new opportunities to meet people’s needs and to build new responses, transforming the lives of people with mental health conditions.
This fictional case study will explore the key elements of social work assessment, will formulate an intervention plan and articulate principles of ethical practice. This case study will also aim to identify practice challenges and strategies for such challenges.
The presenting client is a 10-year-old boy of Somali
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; demographic information; data for patient physical status, including pain scale, assessment of physical activity and respiratory discomfort existed; cognitive/emotional status, including general mental status, assessment of inactiveness of short- and long-term memory, and effectiveness of verbal and nonverbal communication; psychological/emotional status, including assessment of mood, sources of anxiety, effectiveness of coping skill, anticipated grieving; social status with focus on recognizing important to the patient life people that may be included in treatment process as helpers; assessment of spiritual needs that should shape the sensitivity to various traditions and ritual aids as well as
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assessment, I fear that I may do poorly in them or do not have enough time.
Ways I can improve my Emotional Health are I could try breathing deeply, calming down, distract myself from anger or negative feelings, believe in myself and be more optimistic so that I can express my emotions without feeling silly while letting them know I a calm and respectful way. I could look forward to finishing the task, rewarding myself, being positive and relax because I am an extreme worrier. I believe that I can improve my Emotional health and I will start right away.
My Spiritual Health:
Spiritual Health is the sense of purpose and meaning in your life. It is living honestly with positive morals, values and
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many teachers to only teach to the tests. This practice can hinder a student’s overall learning potential. With the stakes getting higher and higher for teachers, this practice will only continue to increase. The sad reality is that it fosters an atmosphere that is boring and lacks creativeness. Teachers have such pressure to get their students ready for these exams that they neglect to teach students skills that go beyond the tests.
Standardized tests can be one part of a comprehensive assessment system. However, they offer just a small piece of the picture. Better methods of evaluating student needs and progress already exist. Careful observation and documentation of student work and
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another. But then not faith understood as a clone of reason, a container of propositional content; but rather, faith as trust. Trust does not contain, but reaches out and holds on. It is more like an anchor rope than like a treasure chest. If reason is to be successful in giving us the final word on what we may know and do, it needs to convince the world that reality is not spiritual. But if the spiritual will not go away, the redevelopment of religion as the ritual practice of trust may again be accepted in our world.
Further, if the spiritual truly resists denial, we need to deal with the spirituality which went out the window for rationally enlightened people. Spirituality is related
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patient to have female family members have mammogram testing. A BSN would likely do more critical thinking and evidence based practice, which reduces medication errors, and is familiar with new technology and research as well as pain assessment and management. They would also be more involved in spiritual and pastoral family counseling, health education, and collaborating with hospice care. Furthering ones education provides nurses additional training in peer guidance, critical thinking and management. This also opens the door for motivated nurses to later earn advanced degrees and certifications specific fields of nursing (Pennington, Berg & Jarrett, 2013).
Nurses have a direct effect on
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patient (Hamilton and Price, 2007). The
assessment interview also enables the nurse to gather the necessary data. It
provides information as the starting point for the establishment of a therapeutic
relationship built between the nurse and the patient (Crumbie, 2006). The
assessment will identify the type of treatment and service needed through mental,
physical and environmental procedures, it is vital to consider the cultural and spiritual
needs of the patient (Smith and Field, 2011). Castledine (2004) informs us that all
health care professionals should carry out an assessment routinely as it is the most
important stage in knowing the health of a patient.
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journeys, and their family. At this moment, I realized that I was sharing in this wife’s burden of her husband’s unexpected death. And, based on Watson’s Theory of Caring, I was applying a holistic approach to nursing by helping the wife deal with her spiritual needs. This experience touched me in a way I had never personally dealt with death before. And it was this experience that made me realize my own acceptance of death and how I truly feel in regards to death and dying.
Death has been one of the hardest self-reflective parts of nursing I have ever had to deal with, and often felt I failed at. I truly didn't even begin to develop my own spiritual beliefs of death until I was faced
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the ostomy care, the nurse should establish a relationship with the patient and their family. A comprehensive assessment should be performed that focuses on all aspects of the patient’s wellness; physical, psychosocial, cultural and spiritual. The nurse informs the patient about dietary needs, bathing/showering, and returning to work (Cronin, 2005). In doing so, the nurse gains the patient’s trust and confidence helping ease them throughout the intervention process. The assessment allows the nurse to fully recognize the patient not as another client needing a procedure but as a person who is going to have questions, concerns, and needs (WOCN, 2010).
Once the nurse and patient establish a
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The courts rely on forensic psychologist to determine the possibility of recidivism of a sex offender. Forensic psychologist must then rely on the assessment and test of those individuals. It is of the utmost importance that forensic psychologists have valid and reliably assessment and testing measures in order to determine, the probability of recidivism among sex offenders. The psychological constructs, such as cognitive and emotional functioning, of these individuals, must be determined by psychometrics. One of the tools used by most forensic psychologist today is the STATIC- 99; within the construct of this paper STATIC- 99 will be examined. To conclude if the STATIC- 99 is a
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there are frameworks for social workers such as theories to help them intervene with service users. Wilkins (2010) says that person centred approach lacks direction for most service users. Tudor and Worral (2006) also state that the theory lacks application of knowledge and can be quite rigid.
As a social work student I will commence with explaining how I would apply this theory in placement when working with an older person who has dementia. Firstly I would view the service user holistically and take into consideration their spiritual, emotional, physical, social, cultural and psychological aspects. Most importantly, an assessment will be carried out to help gather information to help
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Grace being deemed to be a vulnerable adult and she has been placed on an Adults with Incapacity Act 2000 declaration. In order for Grace to be treated with a person-centred holistic care approach, I will work with Grace to develop a scrap book containing pictures and stories about her life. The aims of the activity are; to engage Grace in a mentally stimulating activity which provides for all of her dimensions of health and needs which are; Physical, psychological, social, societal, emotional and spiritual. (WHO, 2011)
The care approach used by the care home is a person-centred care plan, this allows for all dimensions of health to be met. In order to meet Graces physiological health care
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comprehensive assessment of the Listo family. Nursing theories, including the structure-function theory, helped to analyze the data collected. A systematic approach through use of the nursing process was implemented in order to devise a nursing care plan for the identified needs of the Listo family. This exercise required the author to spend a substantial amount of time getting to know a family and learning the intricate details of how to interview and observe a family for the purposes of health-care analysis.ReferencesFriedman, M., Bowden, V., and Jones, E. (2003). Family nursing: research, theory, and practice. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Gilliss, C. L., Rose, D. B., Hallburg, J. C
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The first adaptive mode is physiologic-physical. In this mode, an individual’s physiological needs consists of oxygenation, elimination, activity & rest, and protection (Roy, 2009). These needs are regulated by fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance, and neurologic-endocrine functioning and can be monitored through laboratory testing (Roy, 2009). Within groups, physical needs consist of operational resources (Roy, 2009). These include participants, capacities, physical facilities, and fiscal resources (Roy, 2009).
Self-concept – Group Identity
The second adaptive mode is self-concept – group identity. In this mode, the need for self-concept consists of psychic and spiritual
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to continue sexual activity with her partner. These expressions from the patient in comparison to self-esteem needs, according to Maslow’s Hierarchy, led one to determine that the patient is in an active phase of the self-esteem needs classification.
As nurses, the goal is to treat the patient holistically, so that the patient may not only receive physical care, but also care for their spiritual and emotional issues. In order to ensure that holistic care is provided, the nurse would not only treat diagnoses that cause physical pain, but also problems that can cause emotional, spiritual, and psychosocial trauma. After the implementation of the stated interventions, the patient made
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Introduction and Background
Interlink Counseling Services, (ICS) will be the focus of the proposed needs assessment analyses. ICS has several facets to their overall non-profit service to the veteran community. Addressed here will be who they are in depth, whom they serve and for the purpose of this writing, why does ICS have a client retention problem? Is it real or perceived? If it proves to be a real documented problem/gap then what exactly should be the steps in remedying the gap in terms of the needed training and the content for the proposed training program? In other words, what new skill set can be implemented that will enhance in its overall job performance? This
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Introduction and Background
Interlink Counseling Services, (ICS) will be the focus of the proposed needs assessment analyses. ICS has several facets to their overall non-profit service to the veteran community. Addressed here will be who they are in depth, whom they serve and for the purpose of this writing, why does ICS have a client retention problem? Is it real or perceived? If it proves to be a real documented problem/gap then what exactly should be the steps in remedying the gap in terms of the needed training and the content of the proposed training program? In other words, what new skill set can be implemented that will enhance its overall job performance? This writing will
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I was not that surprised on the happiness evaluation score I received. I do not think of myself as a very up front spiritual person, but I do believe everyone has a purpose and can make a difference. Religiosity and subjective well-being is modest, but a number of surveys suggest that people with heartfelt religious convictions are more likely to be happy than people who characterize themselves as nonreligious (Weiten, Dunn, Hammer, 2012, pg 20). Whether it is a large impact or small impact. Everyone can make a difference it is up to them what kind of difference it will be positive or negative. To see the scored be in the middle was right on for me, and exactly what I expected to see
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when the patient is unable to provide the amount of self-care needed to sustain wellness. The goal of the model is to enable the patient to meet their self-care needs. Therefore, Orem's model does recognize the patients' right to assessment and management of pain.Orem defines three nursing systems of the nurse-patient interaction: the wholly compensatory system, the partly compensatory system, and supportive-educative system. In the wholly compensatory system, the nurse acts for the patient when patients are unable to act for themselves. The partly compensatory system occurs when the nurses and the patient work together to perform care measures. And when the patient is completing all the
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and think about their thoughts and feelings. The experience gained in this can then be used to deal with other situations in a professional manner.The Nursing process is a framework used by the health care professionals. The framework is made up of four components. Assessment of the patient on admittance to hospital, considering all of the patients individual needs in order to identify any problems. Planning: at this stage the nurse and if necessary carers, relatives and the patient discuss achievable goals and how these can be met. Implementing: This is the direct care needed for the patient, what is to be done for the patient, when and by whom. This gives the patient a clear understanding
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” to God.
d) What is your God relationship to health?
B.U. states his God relationship regarding health is that God understand what he needs to be healthy without communication. The client says that when he is very ill, sad, or worried about a family member he will “pray” to God for strength and help. The client also says that in regard to his health that God will have other people help lead him in the right direction.
Weber, J., & Kelly, J. (2014). Health assessment in nursing (5th ed.) Philadelphia, PA:
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
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has to be set and be prepared to help the patient.
5. Expressing positive and negative feelings
Being able and willing to express feelings helps create a relationship, as in above carative factor as well as giving more opportunities to intervene and change. All feelings should be respected and attended.
6. Creative problem-solving caring process
7. Transpersonal teaching–learning
8. Supportive, protective, and corrective mental, physical, societal, and spiritual environment
9. Human needs assistance
10. Existential–phenomenological–spiritual forces.
Transpersonal caring relationship. According to Watson (1999), “A transpersonal caring relationship connotes a special kind of
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verbal clues i.e. sad facial expressions, a slumped posture, lack of attention to personal appearance. (See appendix I non-verbal skills and verbal skills)In order to help Vera with her depression whilst she is in hospital the nurses have to assess her needs and continually reassess her. It is essential in the formulation of giving her the appropriate care whilst she is in need of help. The information usually required in the assessment of a depressed patient is biographical details; height, weight and changes in weight, a full set of observations. Any changes in appetite or alterations in Sleep pattern. You also need to find out if they have suffered any Libido loss. Ask the patient to
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provides care for multicultural populations. Some of these variables are religion, race, language, food, family, education, lifestyle and socioeconomic status. Ignoring cultural diversity when caring the patients can bring devastating consequences to the patients. Knowledge about individualized cultural care assessment is very essential to provide safe, high quality, culturally competent care. Awareness of one’s own cultural values and beliefs and understanding of other’s cultural values and beliefs are the basic step to become culturally competent.
In the given scenario, providing care for an Iranian, Muslim, no English speaking patient who is 79 year old is a challenge for
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Nurses are challenged everyday due to cultural diversities. Heritage assessment helps nurses to understands and respect the role cultural competent in health ad illness. Heritage assessment tool use to assess the different cultural beliefs, their health maintenance, protection and restoration and to provide adequate and individualized care. Cultural assessments direct the nurse in providing culturally quality care to people form diverse cultures. The understanding of the concept of culture and its vitality in health is very important to nurses that provide care to diverse populations. Cultures, family and community have impact on how people take health information, how they exercise their
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. Others suggest that it is not very helpful to 'fragment' people in this way, preferring to see individuals more holistically as 'whole beings' such as Rogers' unitary field model (Rogers 1983) whereas others break the body down to its need, whether they be physiological or spiritual, like Roper, Logan and Tierney's (RLT) Activities of living model (Roper et al 1996). A model can also help to determine the kinds of intervention best suited to the patient's needs and can contribute to the decision of which members of the MDT should intervene.Personalised care plans are a key part of a number of the national service frameworks which set out good practice standards across the major disease
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patient assessment, the nurse looks at patient “…physiological data, but also psychological, sociocultural, spiritual, economic, and life-style factors” (American Nurses Association, 2009, “Assessment”, para. 2) to determine patient need. Once a potential health need is assessed the nurse uses critical nursing judgment to create a nursing diagnosis of the patient need. Next the nurse, through the process of planning, sets outcomes and goals to help the patient. The nurse than implements a plan and evaluates the patient response to her set outcomes and goals to see if they have met the patient need.
Orlando’s nursing process discipline theory mirrors today’s nursing process. For example, a
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, Initials. (2010). Nursing's social policy statement. Silver Spring, Maryland: American Nurses Publishing.
Andrews, M.M., & Boyle, J.S. (2008). Transcultural concepts in nursing care. Philladelphia, PA: Lippincot, Williams,and Wilkins.
Guido, G.W. (2010). Legal and ethical issues in nursing. Boston, MA: Pearson.
Keuhnert, P. Maine Department of Health and Human Services, Maine Bureau of Health. (2000). Health status and needs assessment of native americans in maine: final report Augusta, Maine: Maine Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://www.maine.gov/dhhs/boh/phdata/Non%20DHP%20Pdf%20Doc/Health_Status_Needs_Assessment_Native_Americans_2000.pdf