1159 words - 5 pages
In business, making good decisions requires the effective use of information. Business Decision Making provides the opportunity of learning a variety of sources and develops techniques in four aspects of information: data gathering, data storage, tools available to create useful information and presenting. Moreover, using appropriate IT software and spreadsheets for data analysis and the preparation of information provides the advantages of using information systems which is currently used at all levels in every organization.
ABC Estate Agent, which is a small estate agent focusing exclusively on sale of residential properties based in Ilford. The firm has 8 staff members and an...
1033 words - 4 pages
Faculty at community colleges shape the selection, design, and implementation of the curriculum and instructional practices. While faculty shape curriculum and instruction, the community college workplace with its culture, attitudes, rules and requirements in turn shapes faculty approaches to curriculum and instruction. Faculty serve as the hub for communication between their colleagues, as well as between students, administrators, and staff. Faculty at community colleges experience a greater focus and emphasis on teaching as their primary responsibility, with little pressure to publish or conduct research. Although committed to their academic disciplines, faculty at community colleges have...
608 words - 2 pages
Research Design and Statistics Concepts WorksheetUniversity of PhoenixJuly18, 2008Murray Pyle�Research Design and Statistics Concepts Worksheet
Application of Concept in Scenario
Reference to Concept in Reading
'We conducted focus groups in our regions, which showed an overwhelming demand for the product' (USA World Bank p. 3)
If UWB and CT do not choose the proper sample it could be a costly decision.
'To infer something about a population, we usually take a...
2113 words - 8 pages
In this paper, a variety of statistical research and decision-making methods will be reviewed based on the University of Phoenix Managing Research Design simulation (2008). CoffeeTime is currently a successful coffee bar chain in North America and Europe. With South Asia's booming economy, CoffeeTime has decided possibly to enter the Indian coffee market. Before a final decision is made on where to place new coffee shops, research had to be done. Team A reviewed this research to identify (i) knowable, unknowable and researchable Data; (ii) limitations of the data, (iii) further data, (iv) further business strategy in India, and (v) research limitations. This paper will show that this...
1459 words - 6 pages
When conducting business presentations, knowing your purpose and knowing your audience are crucial parts of the preparation process, which will allow you to organize your content to build audience rapport during your presentation. Along with those steps, visual aids and multimedia presentations can help your audience to better comprehend and retain the information being presented. And by choosing an effective delivery method, you can better communicate your information and communicate with the audience, which will result in a more credible presentation.
Preparing Effective Oral Presentations
Preparation is critical when giving an effective presentation. You should be an expert on your topic...
1067 words - 4 pages
Information and Accounting FunctionsWhat is the function of contemporary accountants? What is an accounting information system (AIS)?Changes in technology have altered the role of accountants. Traditionally, AIS has had its own set of specific functions and has relied on its own devices, such as journals and ledgers, and its own procedures, double-entry bookkeeping. Accounting developed, maintained, and operated the AIS independently of other business functions. Accountants were narrowly focused on the production and validity of...
960 words - 4 pages
Since the beginning of time research and statistics have exercised a vital role in psychology. In this succinct writing an elaboration of how research and statistics are utilized in psychology is revealed. Furthermore, the how and why of such components are expounded herein and a detailed look at primary and secondary data are exposed.
Research, statistics, primary, and secondary data are imperative in psychological analysis. Implementing each of these variants in psychological research may prove beneficial to the researcher when properly appropriated in psychological exploration. In that regard, this discussion begins by portraying the role that research plays in psychology and gives...
573 words - 2 pages
There are two distinct variables that will be analyzed in this paper. These variables were taken from 20 industries and 140 subindustries in the United States. The first variable to be studied is the Industry group. The industry group variable consists of numbers from 1 to 20 to denote the industry group to which the particular sub industry belongs.
The second variable to be studied is the Number of Production Workers. Along with the Number of Production workers, the number of employees are in units of 1000.Through this paper, Statistical analyses such as methodology, tables, figures, formulas, and results will be presented. In summarizing these variables, descriptive measures...
1024 words - 4 pages
Running head: REGIONAL INTEGRATION� � PAGE \* MERGEFORMAT �1� �� SUMMARIZING AND PRESENTING DATA� � PAGE \* MERGEFORMAT �3� ��
Regional Integration of Mexico PaperKristina HammockMGT/448September 29, 2014Richard Dool�Mexico and the NAFTA Trading BlocIntroductionAccording to Wikipedia (2014), regional integration is the process in which neighboring states enter into an agreement in order to upgrade cooperation through common institutions and rules. Regional integration is an important...
1119 words - 4 pages
Quality Control & Assurance
In identifying the strategic goals of improving student achievement, the school environment, partnership of the community and school staff effectiveness, the “no-child-left-behind” initiative launched by the Ministry of Education (MoE) in Singapore has necessitated the aggregate collection of disparate data from hundreds of primary, secondary and tertiary institutions across the country. The quality of the data obtained from these myriad sources will determine the effectiveness of the initiative and hence demands a rigorous approach by the government of Singapore in collaboration with educational institutions, students, parents, academics and...
1833 words - 7 pages
NotationWhy are Notes valuable?- record most important parts of research materials- provide a permanent, authorative written record that can be referred to- organize research and learning skills- helps summarizing the material Note-making Methods1. Outlining- notepaper, index cards, or a computer can be used- feature only most important informationSteps:- record full bibliographic information from the source (author, title, publisher, volume, page numbers); don't use abbreviations; write neatly- when noting, indicate page reference for the information...
1889 words - 8 pages
Abstract:The aim of all scientific disciplines is to advance knowledge in their field, to provide new or better understanding of certain phenomena, to solve intellectual puzzles or to practical problems. In order to solve both intellectual and practical puzzles, researchers have to choose research approach, to face different details. Therefore in this paper try to explain the two main methods of the research approaches the qualitative and quantitative analysis, comment and discuss the difference between these two methods. The goals to the end of the paper is to carry out choose right data analysis method to solve different research questions by accessing and analyzing.Introduction...
1248 words - 5 pages
Qualitative Design Chart
The type of data collection for a qualitative research study depends on the research design. The qualitative design itself originates out of the disciplines and flow throughout the process of research (Creswell, 2014). Creswell (2014) recommends narrative, phenomenology, ethnography, case study, and grounded theory as common qualitative research methods. These were recommended because of they are popular across the social and health and science research studies. Hays and Woods (2011) asserted that selecting a research tradition congruent with one's research orientation and study purpose, and at the same time, infusing it in all phases of qualitative inquiry, is...
8487 words - 34 pages
Learning a second language and also studying English is one of the most difficult issues in universities. Because universities are the places in which every student should improve himself or herself in his or her field at the world standards. Thus, in order to reach a qualified identity in their fields students should learn to build English language. Also students need to research about lots of subjects in English. While doing this, they have to read in English since most of the sources are written in English just because of this, the university students need to improve their reading abilities.As it is mentioned, reading is a very important skill for students and also they may have...
1854 words - 7 pages
There are lots of areas of study out there but the one field that intrigues peoples and civilizations is the actual study of themselves and how they interact with other human cultures. I don't think that I would have enrolled for this class if it hadn't been for the minor requirement in my business major. Although this class started early in the morning and required a lot from me, I am glad that I took it. I grew up in two cultures simultaneously and the experiences I incurred have made me the person I am today. I think that it is important to familiarize yourself with other cultures not just in business but it will aid in smoother business transactions. In the following paragraphs I will...
2125 words - 9 pages
Investigation of Information Systems
1. Definition of an Information System:
An Information System is a combination of hardware, software, people,
procedures and data that provides data processing capabilities for a
business or organization.
More sophisticated information systems provide the decision makers in
a business (eg. the executives or managers) with on-demand reports and
inquiry capabilities as well as routine periodic reports.
2. Capabilities of Information Systems:
All information systems have four essential capabilities:
i. Input can come from:
a. Source data such...
1071 words - 4 pages
1) The main purpose of descriptive statistics is to A. summarize data in a useful and informative manner B. make inferences about a population C. determine if the data adequately represents the population D. gather or collect data 2) The general process of gathering, organizing, summarizing, analyzing, and interpreting data is called A. statistics B. descriptive statistics C. inferential statistics D. levels of measurement 3) The performance of personal and business investments is measured as a percentage, return on investment. What type of variable is return on investment? A. Qualitative B. Continuous C. Attribute D. Discrete 4) What type of variable is the number of robberies reported...
720 words - 3 pages
I. Crosstabulating VariablesA. In the simplest case, a bivariate (two-variable) distribution, showing the distribution of one variable for each category of another variable; can also be elaborated using three or more variables1. the "body" of the tablea. part between the row and column labels and the row and column totals2. the "cells" of the tablea. defined by combinations of row and column values3. Marginal distributionsa. summary of distributions in the margins of a crosstab that correspond to the frequency distribution of the row variable and of the column variableB. Graphing Association1. efficient tool for summarizing relationships among variablesa. race & regionb....
8161 words - 33 pages
Qualitative research methods can be an important part of a social scientist's research repertoire. When skillfully practiced, qualitative methods can provide a means to develop a context-rich description and understanding of phenomena. Qualitative methods are particularly appropriate when the researcher wants to gain a deeper understanding of a known phenomenon or desires to develop knowledge or theory in a new area. Qualitative research is interactive. The opportunity to speak one-on-one with an individual, interface with a group, or observe behavior in its naturally occurring context can be invaluable in helping develop an understanding of how people experience and interpret events. Its...
2951 words - 12 pages
Chapter 1 IntroductionIn this chapter, background information about the research problem was presented firstly. Then the purpose of this dissertation and research questions was introduced, after which the structure of this thesis was described.Background of the ProblemThe deepening of globalization has forced companies to develop and maintain their competitive advantages to remain their customers' loyalty. The increased competitiveness in the markets highlights the importance of building a long -term relationship with customers...
5987 words - 24 pages
In recent years, the banking industry has experienced tremendous pressure to expand its market share globally. As a result, USA World Bank (UWB) is introducing more effective products and services to its customers. Competition has made selecting a successful product considerably more difficult than previous years; therefore, creating an exceptional and profitable product has become very challenging. UWB is a global organization that must create products to improve profitability and increase its market share. This analysis will identify challenges and opportunities, business goals, and potential problems preventing the successful launch of UWB's strategic goals.Scenario Background...
866 words - 3 pages
Aspects of an Argumentative Essay
The argumentative essay is an essay in which you argue a point -- an essay in which you prove a thesis.
The argumentative essay starts with an introduction. The introduction is the gateway into your paper, and it serves two roles. The introduction should grab your reader's attention and let him or her know what your paper will be about. Your thesis must also let your reader know what your essay will be about. By the time he or she finishes your conclusion, the reader should know what you intend to write about, what you think of that subject, and what specific statement you intend to prove.
The body is where you stop talking about what you're...
1676 words - 7 pages
Transferable Skills in Workplace
As a student, it never too soon to look at the job market in which you will be operating as a job seeker, and at what can help you to maximize the chance of having a profitable job. To be attractive to the employer is that students have to acquire during the school time. Nowadays, there have been many researches on 'employability', which is generally regarded as a broader concept of skills in the workplace. According to the definition given by the Higher Education Academy, employability is:
A set of achievements-skills, understandings and personal attributes - that makes graduates more likely to gain employment and be successful in their chosen...
1236 words - 5 pages
At the recent years Kazakhstani society has identified the increase of levels of alcohol consumption as a major problem, along with corruption, poverty, unemployment, and epidemic illnesses. Current levels of alcohol consumption would seem to be high enough to place Kazakhstan amongst the heaviest spirits-drinking countries in the world, although not high enough for the top place. Many of Kazakhstani social, demographic and health problems are attributable to the misuse of alcohol. According to Davis, this view is shared with some Western analysts who have studied the effects of heavy drinking in Post-Soviet states and have predicted that addiction could become one of the greatest obstacles...
865 words - 3 pages
Summary of Chapter 7General Aviation Marketing and Management Second Edition by Alexander T Wells and Bruce D. ChadbourneChapter 7 SummaryCAV 650Toni R. BurgosMarketing ResearchThrough research, management can reduce uncertainty in decision making. It is an integral part of any management information system that provides a flow of inputs useful in marketing decision. Marketing research is the systematic process of gathering, recording, analyzing, and utilizing relevant information to aid in marketing decision making. -Marketing research has a broad scope including various types of studies, these studies can be grouped into four major categories....
2514 words - 10 pages
Do people really like their jobs? Definitely, everyone knows from the news about dissatisfied workers going on strike or even acting violently toward their supervisors, directors, but overall people are quite satisfied with their jobs. A Conference Board study found that 58.6 percent of Americans were satisfied with their jobs in 1995. By the year 2000, that percentage was down to 50.7.
But in Uzbekistan (the country of Central Asia where I was born), people generally aren’t satisfied with their job. The reason lays in lack of job choices and payment. People do their job without any satisfaction because they have to earn some money to survive.
I think that the main...
2335 words - 9 pages
Do people really like their jobs? Definitely, everyone knows from the news about dissatisfied workers going on strike or even acting violently toward their supervisors, directors, but overall people are quite satisfied with their jobs. According to the surveys percentage of satisfied people averages in the US is about 85 percent. The feelings, reflecting attitudes toward one's job, are known as job satisfaction.Settings, related to the personnel job satisfaction and devotion to the company, are presenting special interest for the theory of organizational behavior and practice of human resource management.A discussion of the job satisfaction problem concentrates attention on...
2046 words - 8 pages
Definition of clinical research and clinical trial
In World Health Organization’s definition, “for the purpose of registration, a clinical trial is any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects on health outcome” (WHO, 2014). National Institute of Health specified the differences between clinical research and clinical trials. “Clinical research is research that directly involves a particular person or group of people, or that uses materials from humans, such as their behavior or samples of their tissue. A clinical trial is one type of clinical research that follows a pre-defined plan...
754 words - 3 pages
Cryptography has a powerful tool used with computers and the computer network security. This paper will explore the threats, the can and cannot do the threats, system design, implementation, state of security, etc. All systems using cryptography for authentication and privacy with the strongest cryptographic can still be vulnerable with upstream and downstream threats. The secure session of the authentication will require the secure user to have authentication and secure computer authentication.
After reading Why Cryptography Is Harder than It Looks, Bruce Schneir explained it very well making it easy to understand why you need to use it.
Cryptography is the essential for the...
823 words - 3 pages
According to Hatch and Cunliffe (2006), there are three major perspectives about the study of organization theory (OT): modern, symbolic interpretive, and postmodern. Each of these perspectives comes with its own assumptions and methodologies. Hatch and Cunliffe provided an introduction text about the concepts and characteristics of the three OT perspectives. Tsoukas and Knudsen also compiled a comprehensive handbook summarizing all facets of the meta-theoretical perspectives. In this post the writer will discuss the basic concepts of three perspectives, present Hatch and Cunliffe’s reasons why a multiple perspectives approach to organization theory is important, and compare Tsoukas and...
4214 words - 17 pages
Jessie Shirley Bernard, was a prominent and "unusually visible" contemporary American sociologist who over her professional lifetime changed from a traditional positivist sociology to a feministically informed viewpoint (Bannister 1991). Privately, Bernard struggled with her Judaic heritage, conflicting pressures for family and career and the demands made by Bernard's husband. All of the battles that Bernard faced throughout her life, were essential in the creation of Bernard's sociological theories.Bernard was born in Minnesota on June 8, 1903 to Roman Jewish parents who had recently immigrated to the...
889 words - 4 pages
Current Trends and Implications: Achieving Organizational Goals Using A Systems Approach ( Information Technology as a part of Your Competitive Strategy)
Introduction to Seminar
Welcome ladies and gentlemen, there are many of you here today from great distances and backgrounds of all sorts. I would like to start off first by thanking you for your time. New technologies everyday are radically changing existing industrys and creating new ones. This seminar focuses on these changes and understanding how they can help you achieve success or failure in the marketplace. Soon you will learn that your time here will give you great insight into current emerging and leading edge information and...
4118 words - 16 pages
Mahfouz's Akhenaten, Dweller in Truth
In the history of literature, perhaps the most explored genre is the historical novel. From the Epic of Gilgamesh to the present day, authors have taken historical facts and interpreted them novelistically. When no facts are available, the author may extrapolate missing parts of the story from two sources -- either through the interpretation of the existing scholarly data or through the author's imagination. These two approaches to 'filling in the gaps' of a historical novel can either appease the historian and displease the literary critic or please the literary critic and upset the historian. Very few novelists can produce a historically accurate...
942 words - 4 pages
Financial forecasting helps managers to foresee events before they take place. A significant concern is that the growth of the company may need supplementary sources of finances because profit may often be insufficient. One should consider anticipated upcoming amounts of receivables, inventory, payables, and other accounts as well as its expected earnings and borrowing necessities when forecasting. Companies use the information as way to invest. By tactically scheduling how successfully to congregate profit goals and make the best use of shareholder wealth companies will continue to grow.The data presented in Riordan's
1139 words - 5 pages
In the general point of view, an accounting cycle refers to certain procedures that must be established by every business unit to provide the data to be reported on the financial statements. The accounting process consists of two interrelated parts: the recording phase and the summarizing phase. Although these phases vary in details depending on the nature of the business, the main purpose is just the same - to be able to provide an accurate report containing the firm's condition and the result of its operation.To clearly illustrate the complete accounting cycle of a finance company, let us take as an example Dann & Berns, Inc. The company is engaged in providing business...
872 words - 3 pages
Find out what is the impact of E-commerce? Introduction ..The enablement of a business vision supported by advanced information technology to improve efficiency and effectiveness within the trading process.Buying and selling data, usually over the internet.E-commerce has been around since the early mid 1990's but now it is difficult to avoid as it springs up all over the internet, on television and in newspapers.E-commerce is dismissed as buying goods over the internet with a credit card.It makes business more efficient and even collaborative.It enables companies to improve the way in which they run their business.Improve relationships with...
978 words - 4 pages
Rewards Pertaining to Nurse Recruitment and RetentionTeam building retreats could be used as a creative retention tool in today competitive market place. This is a way of thinking the staffing for their hard work throughout the year thereby improving team relationships and promoting staff satisfaction and retention. Careful planning should be done because initial team building retreats will set the tone for future retreats. All disciplines of staff should be invited and topics that all staff best relate to should be...
1035 words - 4 pages
What is an ideology?"…the discourse which explains to us the nature of ideology is in many cases both a political foundation of ideologies and a scientific attempt to understand them." Rafael del Águila, Ideología y fascismo, 1982Ideology is one of the slipperier words in our political vocabulary (Wilkinson, 1992, p. 276). As a notion which first appeared in the late eighteenth-century France, the concept of ideology has undergone many transformations in the two centuries since then (Thompson, 1990, p. 2). In this essay I will attempt to answer the following question "What is an ideology?" using ideas generated by...
1507 words - 6 pages
Statistics is the science and practice of developing human knowledge through the use of empirical data expressed in quantitative form. It is based on statistical theory which is a branch of applied mathematics. Within statistical theory, randomness and uncertainty are modelled by probability theory. Because one aim of statistics is to produce the "best" information from available data, some authors consider statistics a branch of decision theory. Statistical practice includes the planning, summarizing, and interpreting of observations, allowing for variability and uncertaintyOriginThe word statistics comes from the modern Latin phrase statisticum collegium (lecture about...
1126 words - 5 pages
In an age when information is increasingly transmitted through electronic formats, maintaining the accuracy of information is crucial. Whether this information is as simple as a book loaned by a library or as important as a banking account number, maintaining consistency during information transmission is critical to preventing monetary or organizational errors. To maintain consistency in various information transfers, check digit schemes based on number theory are used to dectect when errors occur. This paper will examine the value of check digit schemes in light of their application and mathematics.
To begin with, a basic understanding of check digit schemes reveals the value of this...
643 words - 3 pages
Qualitative research is "the investigation of phenomena, typically in an in-depth and holistic fashion, through the collection of rich narrative materials using a flexible research design" (Polit, Beck, and Hungler, 2001, p 469). Qualitative researchers focus on the descriptions and deeper meaning associated with the data collected. Another way to define qualitative research is to describe it as a type of research that involves interpreting non-numerical data. "A qualitative researcher, therefore, believes that the world cannot be pinned down objective meanings, but that all variables must be taken into account when conducting research, including the past experiences and personalities of...
3597 words - 14 pages
To make learning very effective it is not only necessary to utilize the factors and techniques that facilitate learning, the teacher are to create certain conditions in the class-room that may improve learning.These conditions are providing teaching aids, creating rivalry and co-operation, giving the knowledge of progress and success, praising or reprimanding and guiding learning.Visual AidsVisual aids make learning concrete and meaningful. You may describe the physical features of the Indo- Gangetic plain, but motion pictures, filmstrips, maps, charts, diagrams; pictures would make your verbal description concrete.An additional meaning is attached to verbal...
1392 words - 6 pages
The question of how different building features can affect the building users has occupied the attention of many researchers and building industry professionals the last decades. In addition, many are concerned as well about how to use effectively all this knowledge in that way to influence the decisions about the design of the building. According to Vischer (2009) the research on the building performance and use can be characterized as intelligence gaining. The measures taken for assessing building performance include users' experience of environmental comfort and satisfaction, as well as subjective data and measurements related to different building systems. But these data are not strong...
2141 words - 9 pages
With homelessness levels rapidly increasing in the UK (Fitzpatrick et al., 2012), the necessity for a study analysing the spatial needs of homeless individuals who suffer from drug abuse and are housed in hostels/night shelters was paramount.
The task of the critical appraisal is to firstly, summarise the research article A Qualitative Exploration of the Spatial Needs of Homeless Drug Users Living in Hostels and Night Shelters (2013), discuss the methodology presented throughout it and further examine if whether it was appropriate for the topic. Towards the end, the research findings will be discussed and an assessment of whether the article is beneficial for the housing sector or not, will...
1235 words - 5 pages
Sometimes the research question of inquirers require benefits more from a qualitative data collection approach than a quantitative approach as they explore groups of people, in such cases ethnographic designs are best suited for their needs. Ethnographic research is designed for the collection of qualitative data because it goal is to write about groups of people in a cultural context such as “language, rituals, economic and political structures, life stages, interactions and communication styles” (Creswell, 2008, p.473). A design such as ethnographic research that requires researchers to observe and interact with the focus group or individuals opens new doors to understanding the cultural...
1222 words - 5 pages
Informative AnalysisThe purpose of an informative briefing is to enhance the audience's knowledge about a specific topic in which the speaker is an expert. The goal of the presenter is to present clear-cut information in an interesting yet enlightening manner. The purpose of my speech was to enhance the audience's awareness of what marijuana is, as well as to dispel many myths that exist around it that emanate from the fact that it is an illegal substance, causing often untrue information to be spread. The ultimate goal of my presentation was to leave the audience with a better understanding of what the plant actually is and how it may be of use to society.Introducing a...
1035 words - 4 pages
In a previous class, we learned about a theory on group dynamics called the Tuckman stages. This theory states that in order for a team to effectively produce at its highest potential, there are four phases that are indispensable and unavoidable. Without giving attention to these phases, Tuckman believed that most teams would concentrate almost solely on content and virtually ignore the process, explaining why outwardly strong teams produce underwhelming results. Summarizing these four phases, Tuckman named them forming, storming, norming and performing. While reflecting on the dynamic for my most recent group collaboration project for this class, it is helpful to consider...
1190 words - 5 pages
Global Marketing Research Case Study Analysis
When deciding if a company should expand business into a global market, it is important to conduct market research. Global market research gathers and collects data and information and identifies possible issues that an organization may face. Conducting market research is a positive step to begin a globalized marketing strategy.
Sperry/MacLennan Architects and Planners
David Aaker, V Kumar, and George Day (2007) present a case study about an architectural organization that concentrates in recreational facilities, Sperry/MacLennan Architects and Planners (S/M). The company was founded in 1972, and grew quickly with the enlarging economy. ...
1592 words - 6 pages
Enron and Arthur Anderson were both giants in their own industry. Enron, a Texas based company in the energy trading business, was expanding rapidly in both domestic and global markets. Arthur Anderson, LLC. (Anderson), based out of Chicago, was well established as one of the big five accounting firms. But the means by which they achieved this status became questionable and eventually contributed to their demise. Enron used what if often referred to as “creative” accounting methods, this resulted in them posting record breaking earnings. Anderson, who earned substantial audit and consultation fees from Enron, failed to comply with the auditing standards required in their line of work....
734 words - 3 pages
establishment, 'Hooters,' is an eating establishment/bar venue that promotes its venue as a family restaurant. This establishment can hold about 100 people. The geographical area that this restaurant is situated in is also the downtown area.Literature Review Many authors using participant observations report that a social setting such as a restaurant/bar/club allow people to put on personas by dressing out of character and freely interacting with one another to get away from the pressures of the 'real world' (Caceres and Cortinas, 1996; Hutchinson, 1999; Loe, 1996; McCall et al., 1991). According to research done by Cortinas and Caceres (1996; 245), aside from the fact that the bar...