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Molonglo valley housing 18,000 people, the planning has been started for the third section of the Molonglo Valley area this last section hopes accommodate 28,000. This document also states how the Molonglo Valley helps Canberra’s ability to maintain cultural and ecological values. This source helps people to understand the future urbanisation of Canberra and gives detail on each aspect of the project. This document however does not say the types of accommodation, e.g. flats, town houses and houses. This source appears credible due to the fact that what it says is actually happening, and because it is a government site.
Population growth and demographic change
Environment and Sustainable
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Urbanisation Example in JapanJapanese Business & CultureAn investigation Japanese corporate culture, its trends and changes.1.0 IntroductionThis report is based around the following quote: 'Japan's corporate culture is the product of uniquely Japanese social and historical influences, so deeply rooted as to easily repel outside influences. Bur Japanese corporations need to change their basic goals....'This report will discuss nature of corporate culture in Japan, and why change is needed.The maximum length is 2,000 words2.0 ProcedureThe report was produced using library based research because of the time scale and cost. The sources used include text books, journals and newspapers.. The
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Urbanisation is one of the most influential, irrevocable and evident anthropogenic forces in the world. It is specified by the World Health Organisation (2014) as the “demographic transition from rural to urban and is associated with shifts from an agriculture-based economy to mass industry, technology, and service.” In the United Nations World Urbanization Prospects report (2006, p.3), it is anticipated that 4.9 billion people on Earth are expected to become urban residents by 2030, in comparison to the current data of 1.92 billion.
This widespread phenomenon has prominently shaped cities into thriving economic and industrial hotspots all over the world. As a result, there is a rising
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Topic Page no.
How climate change and urbanisation relate
Global perspective 4
Learning Outcome 6
Association between Climate Change and Urbanisation
Urbanisation refers to the physical progression of
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The most drastic influences of human modifications result from urbanisation, a progression characterised by human disturbance, buildings and other artificial infrastructure (Hahs and McDonnell 2006). Such modifications have significant effects on biodiversity, often with little thought being given to the long term effects and ways of mitigating them.
In most cases, human alteration of the environment has reduced biological diversity by replacing the native flora with new ecological spaces. However, urbanization, especially in suburbia, can introduce many new resources (McDonnell and Pickett 1990; Pickett et al. 2001) which coexist with the natural biota and increases
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“What gave rise to urbanisation in the Mediterranean region?”
What is urbanisation? To ‘urbanise’ is to ‘make (a rural area) more industrialized and urban’ , urban meaning ‘of or living in a city or town’ . Marja C.V. Vink argues that “The word urbanization was used for the first time in Spain a little more than one hundred years ago” to show the “quantitative and qualitative growth if cities” . The degree of urbanisation is quite different when comparing towns or cities of antiquity to the modern understanding of an urban centre; however, essentially it is the same process.
When talking about the rise of urbanisation in the Mediterranean region 3 main civilisations spring to mind
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In recent years large-scale conversions of land use have been taking place worldwide to sustain the ever-growing population. As a result, parameters such as vegetation type, air temperature, relative humidity, soil moisture, and movement of the wind have been markedly affected. Many studies have examined the impact of urbanisation on temperature or relative humidity, but few have explored whether or not potential evapotranspiration (PET) is influenced by changes in population density and urbanisation. In this context, in the present study we attempted to find answers to three key questions. Is there a relationship between PET and urbanisation? If so, which parameter, able to change the
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Today, this briefing note is put to you the 'National Taskforce on Environmental Science and Sustainable Development' in response to Urbanisation and its effects on Australias’ waterways. This is fast becoming a critical environmental issue affecting Australia.
It has long been known that plants act as a natural filter of water, removing all the properties that would harm the creatures that ingest it. A key issue facing developers today is an expanding population. With expanding urban sprawl vastly affecting the green space urban development, strategies continue to focus on removing the encroachment of land as a development strategy and going ‘up’. This essay will focus on the
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Travelling places to places in a short period of time is no longer an empty talk nowadays. With the rapid development of transportation, people are difficult to get rid of transports as they derive us speed and convenience. Meyer, Kain and Wohl pointed out World War2 almost completely halted the construction of urban facilities of both private and public vehicles. It led to an all-time high in the use of transit. (J.R. Meyer, J.F. Kain, M. Wohl, 1965) they also cited that as demand for transit keep on increasing, the United States started to promote the highway facility. Out of their expectation, the demand for highway service increase rapidly which even cover the passengers who take cars
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My static image is on the poem ‘Flower-Fed Buffaloes’ written by Vachel Lindsay. Urbanisation is one of the dominant and important themes, which is supported by the idea of nature and man. Therefore, my static image is based on this theme. Urbanisation is the process associated with the development of civilisation and technology in a rural area, in which is shown in this poem. ‘Flower-Fed Buffaloes’ is about the rapid extinction and disappearance of not only the buffaloes in America, but also Native American tribes, as a result of urbanisation (shown in the poem through objects like locomotives).
The verbal techniques used to portray this theme are the quote and the engraving on the last
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URBAN POVERTY AROUND THE WORLD FROM MY VIEW
Urbanisation and Poverty are two economic patterns that hold ongoing trends that some individuals may find disturbing. Urbanisation refers to the rising number of people who occupy in urban areas. It mainly results in the physical expansion of urban areas. The United Nations estimated that half of the globe's population would settle in urban areas at the close of 2008. (International Herald Tribune)Thirty-five years from now it is expressed that 64.1% and 85.9% of the developing and developed world respectively are progressing to be urbanised. (The Economist. Urban Life: Open-air computers) Poverty is the condition of being without
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Sustainable Urbanisation Achieving Agenda 21
This paper is a joint venture between UN-HABITAT and the UK Government Department for International Development (DFID). It was prepared by Carole Rakodi and Fiona Nunan of the International Development Department, School of Public Policy, University of Birmingham, UK and Douglas McCallum, from McCallum Consultancy, Scotland. The project was co-ordinated by Jochen Eigen of UN- HABITAT and Susan Loughhead of the Infrastructure and Urban Development Department, DFID, with inputs from other staff members of UN-HABITAT and DFID. The paper was prepared with financial support from DFID, but the views expressed do not necessarily reflect
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Laurie Ann Campbell History A Learning Outcome 1 Cause and Consequences of Urbanisation
This essay will explore relevant cause and consequences of urbanisation in Scotland from 1700-1860. A dictionary-defined term would be "the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban."(1. 30/08/2005). Scotland went through huge political and economical changes from the 1700's onwards. The country went from being a rural, agricultural society with an estimated population of 1.2 million in 1755, to being urbanised, with the population rising to over 2.6 million in 1841(Lenman, p281, 2001). This figure is what makes the urbanisation of Scotland so interesting. What were the main
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One of the major problems that presents itself to us today is the impact of urbanisation on nature and the ecosystem. Urbanisation first occurred in MEDCs during the industrial revolution, people were attracted to urban areas from rural areas to work in factories. They were also pushed as developments in technology led to mechanisation on farms leading to a lack of jobs. As LEDCs are developing more people are migrating to urban areas, this trend has caught in Bangalore as people from surrounding villages such as Hosur and Devanahalli have migrated to Bangalore city. The phenomena of urbanisation in Bangalore have changed land use in Bangalore
The levels of pollution are
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Urbanisation and Poverty are two economic patterns that hold ongoing trends that some individuals may find disturbing. Urbanisation refers to the rising number of people who occupy in urban areas. It mainly results in the physical expansion of urban areas. The United Nations estimated that half of the globe's population would settle in urban areas at the close of 2008. (International Herald Tribune)Thirty-five years from now it is expressed that 64.1% and 85.9% of the developing and developed world respectively are going to beurbanised. (The Economist. Urban Life: Open-air computers) Poverty is the condition of being without, often associated with need, grief, and meagerness of
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the data collection structure could be valuable for ensuring that “productive” current spending while writing the annual fiscal budget.
Consistent with what was assumed, urbanisation in Brazil was negatively related to growth. All three regressions show consistent negative relationships with a magnitude of its coefficient 1.885 on average. This is consistent with Bloom et al (2008) in which urbanisation was found to be a negative and insignificant determinant of growth.
Trade Openness shared a negative relationship with GDP growth. The Trade coefficient remained consistently negative with a magnitude of -0.383 in regression 4. One assumption why trade openness expressed negative
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specifically the quality of education provided which is necessary for the evolving labour market of Brazil. Additionally, due to limited amount of data for each collected variables, only a maximum of lags of 1 or 2 years could be taken into account.
Time series data often display exponential trends. Normally, to control these trends the natural logarithm should be used. However, this study has been lucky enough to find most of its data as a percentage of GDP excluding urbanisation, which can only be found as a percentage of population. Nevertheless, as portrayed in the time series plot below, most variables do not show severe exponential trends, and fluctuate
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corruption factors (Ghosh and Gregoriou 2006). As for Urbanisation would be the best coefficient (2.83) and Trading with the lowest coefficient of (-0.289), these unexpected results are perhaps due to a lack of lags. A valid argument of using GCE, Trade Openness and Urbanisation may require longer lags to be observed rather than what has been incorporated.
“The two-tailed T-test examines the significance of the results. The T-test is made to determine the absolute t-value. If this value lies in between the lower tail and upper tail of the critical value of t, then the null hypothesis that the variables are insignificant is accepted” (Hill, Griffiths, Lim). Table 4.1 shows that all
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Urbanisation and Poverty are two economic patterns that hold ongoing trends that some individuals may find troubling. Urbanisation refers to the rising number of people who occupy in urban areas. It mainly results in the physical expansion of urban areas. The United Nations estimated that half of the globe's population would settle in urban areas at the close of 2008. (International Herald Tribune)Thirty-five years from now it is expressed that 64.1% and 85.9% of the developing and developed world respectively are going to be urbanised. (The Economist. Urban Life: Open-air computers) Poverty is the condition of being without, often associated with need, grief, and meagerness of
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What were the key features in changes and developments in Britain's town and cities c1780-1880?During the period of 1780-1880 British towns and cities went through changes and developments. Some of the changes that occurred with these towns and cities throughout Scotland England and Wales were due to the geographical location that allowed industries to grow which gave these areas a better work force. The railway system in Britain which was the fastest means of transport during 1780-1880 was a big revolution as it meant Britain had a fast and efficient way of commuting and transporting around the country. Britain also experienced urbanisation which led to a major decline in standard of
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Winton challenges culturally informed beliefs and values by exposing inequities within an emerging Australian identity. In the cyclical novel Cloudstreet published in 1991, acclaimed Perth-born author Tim Winton narrates a capturing and heartfelt story. Two rural families are inadvertently brought together through two separate catastrophes to inhabit equally, a large house in the suburb of Perth known as ‘Cloudstreet’. Winton draws on a number of real historical events and situations in communicating the social and cultural dangers faced in 1950’s Australia. The shift towards Urbanisation is crucial in illustrating the change of values in Perth and how identities in society were threatened
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Social factors affecting pregnancy and childbirth
The purpose of this essay is to focus how locality can impact on pregnancy and childbirth.
Locality is one of the important social factors that can greatly influences the pregnancy and childbirth. Basically, locality is related to several social aspects such as the living environment, the accessibility to health facilities and cultural, which directly reflecting the life quality of an individual. According to Figure 1 [POPULATION DISTRIBUTION AND BASIC DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTIC REPORT 2010], the level of urbanisation of Malaysia is increased progressively in the last two decades. This progression indicates that
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father's was like a happy dream; "One field, a flock, and what the neighbouring flood / Supplied, to him were more than mines of gold / Light was my sleep, my days in transport rolled,' (3-5) until the capitalists came; "Then rose a mansion proud our woods among / And cottage after cottage owned its sway,' (39-40) and "All, all was seized, and weeping side by side / We sought a home where we uninjured might abide / Can I forget the miserable hour'" (53-55). Here Wordsworth portrays urbanisation as ruinous of rural life; rural families were relocated from their homes, sometimes forcefully, by the wealthy class who wanted to build their mansions on the rural folks' beautiful land.At least the
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increasing demand for labour they were plucked from their existing homes and cultures , transported around the world in appalling conditions, and put to work all in the name of capitalism and profit .We should not underestimate the impact on today's global culture and population structure .What would have happened if there had never been a slavery market and trade? The most obvious difference is that the millions of "African - Americans" wouldn't exist , they would still be Africans. The United States as we know it today would be a very different place .Sociologists down the years have been very interested in another modern phenomenon, it is the process of urbanisation, the movement of
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manufactured goods due to the population expansion and urbanisation. This shows that number of people living in towns and cities grew faster than the percentage of people living outside of the main areas of production. (Merriman, 1996, p.669). However other historians are of the opinion that industrial production started to take place in the countryside before the recognised beginning of the Industrial Revolution. (Houston, 2001, p.154). Developments in transportation meant that it was easier for raw materials to be moved from one area of a country to a different place to be made useful. This meant there was an increase in markets. There were lots of new inventions, which harnessed 'the power of
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goods. These situations created
many jobs, and farm workers flocked from rural areas to new industrial
towns, which grew rapidly, this was urbanisation. As industries grew
and grew, Britain's trade flourished and many imports were brought
into Britain. But after the war with France there was less demand for
goods and this caused economic recession.
Though many people found employment in cities they were still very
poor, the industrial revolution and the subsequent urbanisation
created slum conditions and greater differences between the rich and
the poor. In the cities there was also a huge population increase
which caused many problems, such as lack of
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As shown on the map, we can see a heavy level of poverty in the North and North West. This is further affirmed by one of the poorest provinces in India, Bihar, being situated on the boarder of Nepal in the north. 81.4% of the population in this province is critically poor.
However, we are also seeing a strong middle class of educated workers. In fact, the middle class of India is of equal size to the whole population of the United States (250 million by 2015). But how can this be so, with so many of their population living under the poverty line?
A mixture of speedy urbanisation and a growing work force may provide answers to the rapidly growing economy and middle class
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One of the mainly electrifying essentials of contemporary period is the urbanisation of the globe. For sociological reasons a city is a comparatively great, crowded and lastingly community of diverse individuals. In metropolitan areas urban sociology is the sociological research of life, human interaction and their role in the growth of society. Modern urban sociology creates from the work of sociologists such as Max Weber and Georg Simmel who put forward the economic, social and intellectual development of urbanisation and its consequences. The aim of this essay is to explain what life is like in the ‘big metropolis’ both objectively and subjectively. It will discuss
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. Rapid urbanisation creates unstable
populations in urban areas, forcing people to live on marginal land
illegally. Also the danger and therefore the risk of natural hazards
are always changing due to climatic change and deforestation (both
caused by human interference to a degree) and perhaps this means that
land use plans are not up to date. Finally the resources or benefits
of living in hazardous areas outweigh the risks. For example,
California where 30 million people live and benefit from the high
standards of living in the state, although it is a high risk
Disasters from Natural Hazards occur in all countries. Natural hazards
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exploited.Lojkine argues that '...accelerating congestion and pollution stem(s) from the rapid, unplanned and anarchic pattern of development which... is an inherent feature of capitalist urbanisation' (Berry 1984:30). Walker also believes that the urbanisation of capitalism has produced social decay, resulting in the creation of slums (Berry 1984:30). No such plans for urbanisation exist in communist ideology. Mao Tse Tung, influenced by the ideals of communism, initiated a campaign in China as part of the Cultural Revolution to de-urbanise the centres of production, resulting in rural communities rather than sprawling cities that produce pollution and slums. Romantic visions of socialism see small
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argues that «it is a feature of the whole modern period that social elites become detached from, even hostile to much of popular culture, and attempt to make it over» (440). Therefore, one of the reasons for the secularisation of our age is the reform from the elites who despise popular practices. However, the previous religion is not necessarily replaced which produces a void that needs to be filled. Moreover, reform was often followed by attempts to reestablish Christendom. Yet, these attempts were often opposed with radical thought as the Church was associated with the preservation of the status quo. Furthermore, confrontation with the Church was exacerbated by urbanisation and
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corresponding amounts of interception and run-off.
* Time of Year – each season has a different influence on the water
* Land Use – When concerning crops, different impacts on
interception can be found.
These are all natural factors which affect the Interception store, but
human factors can largely influence it as well. One example of this is
Urbanisation. This means that large area’s of land which were once
lush and green will become covered in impermeable surfaces such as
tarmac; any precipitation landing here will therefore not be
intercepted as there is no vegetation to do so. Another factor is
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The main causes for river flooding are:
S Heavy rainfall - causes soil to become saturated and not allow
S Rapidly melting snow
S Dam bursts
S Soil saturation - this may cause a river to flood as the water would
not be able to infiltrate the soil and so will encourage overland
S Deforestation - this may cause flooding as there are no trees to
intercept the rain and so the soil will become saturated.
S Ploughing - this may cause flooding as it creates gullies which
water can flow down towards the river
S Urbanisation (extending built up areas) - this may cause a river to
flood as the concrete and
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normal year (Waterman, 2012). This example shows how human activities affecting the biodiversity by rerouting river and stream. Urbanisation also reduces the chance of sustainable water for global use since urbanisation includes clearing of forest to open a new land which reduces naturally existing water catchment areas. In other words, we need to use little water source that we have wisely or else we as a nation will have to bear the burden of lacking the essential things in live and it is hard to live in an overcrowded population with very little resources.
According to research, we need 3.5 planets Earth in order to sustain the needs of water used if the global population water usage pattern
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The fourteenth century in Europe was a time of great social change. Social opportunities were increasing for groups that had previously been excluded from much of society, especially peasants and women. Class barriers were also beginning to become less stringent that they had previously been, as well as urbanisation and commercialisation becoming more prominent. On the other side of the spectrum, increasing resistance to the established order can be found in this period, such as the Peasants’ Revolt in England in 1381, and Ciompi rebellion in Florence in 1378. This vast array of social changes must be understood against the significant events that took place in fourteenth century Europe
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, and as such we are left with a far more pessimistic and dull view of the world. The imagery here is also very different to that of the Romantics. The Industrial Revolution and the growth of an urbanised, technological society in which nature is non-existent is also evident here. An example of this is in the quote "lighting of the lamps" which suggests a drifting away from nature and into industrialisation and urbanisation.In stanza two, Eliot continues his use of imagery to describe the urbanisation of the environment. Throughout the poem, Eliot gradually descends down on the world through his language descriptions. That is, he starts off with a description of the evening in the first stanza
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fastest population decline. In 1933, 37.4% of the population lived in the rural areas but recently in 1976 it is shown that only 13.9% do. Urbanisation constantly happens because of things like better employment opportunities, or because there are not many job offers available in the country. Some people are not suited for quiet town life, find it boring, and want to be where all the action is. Many students come for better education available in the city. Urbanisation, however, has created many problems for the environment. As the city population becomes larger the outer suburbs slowly start to grow outwards and bigger to accommodate the increasing number of people. The natural environment is
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looking at the ecology and conservation of certain areas.
Changes in land-use
Changes in land-use have been an increasing concern in most of Europe with the natural landscape and ecosystems often overlooked and neglected due to urbanisation and infrastructure. The Algarve environment has been directly affected by changing land-use with the loss of fragile ecosystems and agricultural land and coastal vulnerability. The main cause of this can be linked to the rapid increase in tourism in the mid- 1960’s which led to urban growth and the creation of supporting infrastructure (Vaz et al.,2012). On the one side this generated high revenues and economic growth but on the other side these highly
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residential apartments, industry or green space. This movement of factories and workplaces results in unemployment impacting on the population of the area causing it to decrease therefore introducing decentralisation, urban sprawl and urban decay.A number of geographical processes take place in urbanisation and counter-urbanisation, whether they are the effects taking place due to urban growth and decline or the actions being done to countermeasure the effects. Some processes include urban decay, urban renewal, urban sprawl and urban consolidation.The decentralisation process, where people living in inner-city areas move to the outer suburbs due to the re-locating of factories, shops and
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led regeneration strategies is through the implementation of innovative social and economic strategies through private-public partnerships. The level of cooperation between the private and public sector depends on the needs of a particular city and its community (Davis, 1986). Gratz et al. (1998) blame flawed regeneration strategies as the leading cause of social exclusion and applaud the successes achieved through a collective effort between the private and public sectors and the local citizens in general.Why Urbanisation?Majumdar (2004) defines urbanisation as a set of complex processes that ultimately converge to produce modern advanced urban areas. He further points to the link between
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this can be evident in the way that their
car factories, investment banks and government ministries are ran.
This clan-like-behaviour has the effect of making decision making painfully slow,
with compromises having to be met in all directions, but this is starting to
change, as the people of Japan are starting to change and have different
priorities. These changes can be put down to several factors that are changing
in Japanese society as a whole.
3.1 Changing social culture. The increasing and speeding up of urbanisation is
one way in which corporate culture is being changed. Because of this
urbanisation there is less commitment to groups as people become more individual
and have their own
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evident in the way that their car factories, investment banks and government ministries are ran.This clan-like-behaviour has the effect of making decision making painfully slow, with compromises having to be met in all directions, but this is starting to change, as the people of Japan are starting to change and have different priorities. These changes can be put down to several factors that are changing in Japanese society as a whole.3.1 Changing social culture.The increasing and speeding up of urbanisation is one way in which corporate culture is being changed. Because of this urbanisation there is less commitment to groups as people become more individual and have their own priority in life
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I am an independent planning advisor commissioned by the Sevenoaks District Council to provide recommendations for the future development of Halstead. This report will take into account not only the local issues but also the wider context of housing and development in the UK.
Halstead is located 14 miles from London within its Green Belt. It has good communications, both rail and road, and is 28 minutes away from Gatwick Airport.
Due to the current shortage of housing in the UK, there is a lot of pressure on the south east of England, especially places around London, to build housing as well as industry.
There are some factors prompting counter-urbanisation, the first example are
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Urbanisation. And this has becoming a challenge to the municipal corporations due to the legal interventions, rising public awareness on cleanliness and newer technologies adopted by other countries to dispose the waste in a scientific manner.
Since the waste generated is likely to grow in the years to come as Indian goes through the phase of rapid urbanisation and Industrial development. The raising cost for domestic waste collection has tremendously increased over these years and no investment planning has been done to dispose waste scientifically. It sets an opportunity to build sustainable social business model. This is again emphasized by many leading magazine research reports such as
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for employment and the planning regulations enforced were some of the key reasons behind the urbanisation. "Urbanisation led to the evolution of different lifestyles" (Durie, 1997, p7) and being separated from the tribes and way of life they knew before, Maori adapted by adopting the majority language. Durie goes on to explain that the need to fit in with the new life and a combination of government policies led to some Maori cutting ties with whanau and adopting the new customs and cultures of their new community.Maori, as a written language was a development from the missionaries in 1841 (www.korero.maori.nz). The website goes on to explain that prior to this the handing down of culture
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- 'shanty towns' - and slums arose. Socially with such a large mix of people, these urban cities can weaken traditional rural beliefs and customs, this is present in countries such as Dubai with the influx of inhabitants from other geographical locations to this strongly Islamic country, the traditional rural beliefs and custom are being less valued.Urban areas have a huge responsibility when it comes to looking at urbanisation from a environmental perspective - air, water and noise pollution become rife in these cities, the constant traffic exhausts and small congest space creates air pollution, the booming traffic and pedestrians emit noise pollution and the rubbish and insufficient sewage
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Prehistoric era1.1 Stone Age1.2 Bronze Age2 Vedic period (1500 BCE)2.1 Vedic society2.2 Sanskritization3 "Second urbanisation " (800-200 BCE)3.1 Mahajanapadas (600-300 BCE)3.2 Upanishads and Shramana movements3.3 Magadha Empire3.4 Persian and Greek conquests3.5 Maurya Empire (322-185 BCE)4 Epic and Early Puranic Period - Early Classical Period & Golden Age (ca. 200 BCE-700 CE)4.1 Southern India4.2 Sunga Empire4.3 Northwestern hybrid cultures4.4 Satavahana Dynasty4.5 Kushan Empire4.6 Roman trade with India4.7 Gupta rule - Golden Age4.8 Vakataka Dynasty4.9 Empire of Harsha4.10 Chalukya Dynasty5 Medieval and Late Puranic Period - Late-Classical Age (500-1500 CE)5.1 Northern India5.2
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pollution is a huge issue around the world, poor air quality directly affects many aspects of human life whether it be our life expectancy, rates of cancer and even the quality of our foods, often with urbanisation deforestation occurs which leads to species death and in extreme cases extinction, another consequence for deforestation is that there is a reduction of pollen which leads to less plants being pollinated which results in less food for animals higher up on the food chain. It can be assumed that with our globalised society and the value placed on economic growth and consumption, we can expect higher rates of pollution which is one of the major problems that globalisation leads to
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Like Egypt the development of the Indus Valley city-states cannot be
defined as independent from those of the Mesopotamian city-states. The
Indus Valley was a civilization thriving along the lower Indus River
and the Ghaggar-Hakra River in what is now Pakistan and western India,
which developed around 2700bc. The state grew as a result of the rapid
growth of cities, the largest was Mohenjo-daro which had a population
of around 40,000. The state shows evidence of a highly organised
literate bureaucracy this is again an example of urbanisation, which
shows the increased intricacy that the state, must develop in order to
maintain populations of such
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the human race. But
it has only been in recent years that man has looked to address the
problems he has caused and many of them are irreversible. Ever since
man learnt to hunt with weapons, species have been hunted to
extinction, and as the brain capacity of man increased so did his
expectation of living standards. This has meant an even greater effect
on the planet and has resulted in urbanisation, growth in agriculture,
and the inevitable rise in deforestation.
Deforestation is proceeding at about 17 million hectares per year.
Between 1980 and 1990 the 1.2 per cent in Asia, 0.8 per cent in Latin
America and 0.7 per cent in Africa. Although the most